The Iron Curtain Over America 

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  1. The Iron Curtain Over America By John Beaty First Printing, December, 1951 Eleventh Printing April 1954 To the mighty company of American soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines whose graves are marked by white crosses far from home this book is dedicated with the solemn pledge that the Christian civilization of which they were the finest flower shall not die. Preface The Iron Curtain Over America Lt. Gen, George E. Stratemeyer, USAF (ret.), says: “I congratulate you on your book and the service you have performed for our country. If my health would permit it I would go on a continuous lecture tour gratis and preach your book and recommendations. My “Iron Curtain Over America” will be on loan continuously and I intend to recommend its reading in every letter I write. Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond, USA. (ret.), says: “It is an inspiration to me to find an author with the courage and energy to research and to secure the publication of such information as you have assembled in order that the poorly informed average American may know wherein the real threats to our Country lurk. Your book is a magnificent contribution to those who would preserve our American ideals.” “I think it ought to be compulsory reading in every public school in America.” Senator William A. Langer, former Chairman, Judiciary Committee. Vice Admiral T. G. W. Settle, U.S.N. (ret.), says: “The Iron Curtain Over America” is a most pertinent and excellently presented treatise on the cancer on our national set-up. “I hope this book has had, and will have, the widest possible dissemination, particularly to our leaders-in Washington, and in industry and the press, — and that our leaders who are “uncontaminated” will have their serious attention engaged by it.” Lt, General P. A. Del Valle, USMC (ret), says: ” I am impelled to write to you to express my admiration of your great service to the Nation in writing this truly magnificent book. No American who has taken the oath of allegiance can afford to miss it, and I heartily recommend it as an honest and courageous dispeller of the fog of propaganda in which most minds seem to dwell.” John Beaty The author of The Iron Curtain Over America has written, or collaborated on, a dozen books. His texts have been used in more than seven hundred colleges and universities, and his historical novel, Swords in the Dawn, published originally in New York, had London and Australian editions, and was adopted for state-wide use in the public schools of Texas. His education (M.A., University of Virginia; Ph.D., Columbia University; post-graduate study, University of Montpellier, France), his travel in Europe and Asia, and his five years with the Military Intelligence Service in World War II rounded out the background for the reading and research (1946-1951) which resulted in The Iron Curtain Over America. CONTENTS To the Reader…………………………………. 4 I. The Teutonic Knights and Germany………………… 7 II. Russia and the Khazars…………………………..….. 16 III. The Khazars Join the Democratic Party……………. 35 IV. “The Unnecessary War”………………………………. 46 V. The Black Hood of Censorship…………………………. 60 VI. The Foreign Policy of the Truman Administration..… 80 VII. Does the National Democratic Party Want War….….. 112 VIII. Cleaning the Augean Stables……………………….….. 122 IX. America Can Still Be Free……………………………. 136 Acknowledgements…………………………………… 164 Added by Gnostic Liberation Front: List of Americans in the Venona papers Proven Spies for the Soviets To The Reader Many authors of books on the current world scene have been White House confidants, commanders of armies, and others whose authority is indicated by their official or military titles. Such authors need no introduction to the public. A Prospective reader is entitled, however, to know something of the background and experience of an unknown or little-known writer who is offering a comprehensive volume on a great and important subject. In the spring of 1926, the author was selected by the Albert Kahn Foundation to investigate and report on world affairs. Introduced by preliminary correspondence and provided with numerous letters of introduction to persons prominent in government, politics, and education, he gained something more than a tourist’s reaction to the culture and institutions, the movements and the pressures in the twenty-nine countries which he visited. In several countries, including great powers, he found conditions and attitudes significantly different from the conception of them which prevailed in the United States. Though previously successful in deposing of his writings, he was unable, however, to get his observations on the world situation published, except as the Annual Report of the Foundation and in his friendly home special foreign correspondent, and in the Southwest Review, in whose files his “Race and Population, Their Relation to World Peace” can still be seen as a virtual prognosis of the oncoming war. After his return to America in the autumn of 1927, the author kept abreast of world attitudes by correspondence with many of the friends he had made in his travels and by rereading French, German, and Italian news periodicals, as well as certain English language periodicals emanating from Asia. World trends continued to run counter to what the American people were allowed to know, and a form of virtual censorship blacked out efforts at imparting information. For instance, though the author’s textbooks continued to sell well and though his novel Swords in the Dawn (1937) was favorably received, his book Image of Life (Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1940 ), which attempted to show Americans the grave world-wide significance of the degradation of their cultural standards, was granted, as far as he knows, not a single comment in a book review or a book column in New York. Indeed, the book review periodical with the best reputation for full coverage failed to list Image of Life even under “Books Received”. In 1940 – as our President was feverishly and secretly preparing to enter World War II and publicly denying any such purpose – the author, a reserve captain, was “alerted,” and in 1941 was called to active duty in the Military Intelligence Service of the War Department General Staff. His first assignment was to write, or help write, short pamphlets on military subjects, studies of several campaigns including those in Western Europe and Norway, and three bulletins on the frustration of an enemy’s attempts at sabotage and subversion. In 1942, the author became a major and Chief of the Historical Section (not the later Historical Branch of the War Department Special Staff). In his new capacity, he supervised a group of experts who prepared a current history of events in the various strategically important areas of the world. Also, he was one of the two editors of the daily secret “G-2 Report,” which was issued each noon to give persons in high places, including the White House, the world picture as it existed four hours earlier. While Chief of the Historical Section, the author wrote three widely circulated studies of certain phases of the German – Russian campaign. In 1943 – during which year he was also detailed to the General Staff Corps and promoted to lieutenant colonel the author was made Chief of the Interview Section. In the next three years he interviewed more than two thousand persons, most of whom were returning from some high mission, some delicate assignment, or some deed of valor – often in a little-known region of the world. Those interviewed included military personnel in rank from private first class to four stars, diplomatic officials from vice-consuls to ambassadors and special representatives of the President, senators and congressmen returning from overseas investigations, missionaries, explorers, businessmen, refugees, and journalists – among the latter, Raymond Clapper and Ernie Pyle, who were interviewed between their next to the last and their last and fatal voyages. These significant people were presented sometimes individually but usually to assembled groups of officers and other experts from the various branches of G-2, from other General Staff divisions, from each of the technical services, and from other components interested in vital information which could be had by interview perhaps six weeks before being received in channeled reports. In some cases the author increased his knowledge of a given area or topic by consulting documents suggested during an interview. Thus, from those he interviewed, from those specialists for whom he arranged the interviews, and from study in which he had expert guidance, he had a unique opportunity for learning the history, resources, ideologies, capabilities, and intentions of the great foreign powers. In its most essential aspects, the picture was terrifyingly different from the picture presented by our government to the American people! After the active phase of the war was over, the author was offered three separate opportunities of further service with the army – all of them interesting, all of them flattering. He wished, however, to return to his home and his university and to prepare himself for trying again to give the American people the world story as he had come to know it; consequently, after being advanced to the rank of colonel, he reverted to inactive status, upon his own request, in December, 1946. Twice thereafter he was recalled for a summer of active duty: in 1947 he wrote a short history of the Military Intelligence Service, and in 1949 he prepared for the Army Field Forces an annotated reading list for officers in the Military Intelligence Reserve. From 1946 to 1951 the author devoted himself to extending his knowledge of the apparently diverse but actually interrelated events in the various strategic areas of the present-day world. The goal he set for himself was not merely to uncover the facts but to present them with such a body of documented proof that their validity could not be questioned. Sustaining quotations for significant truths have thus been taken from standard works of reference; from accepted historical writings; from government documents; from periodicals of wide public acceptance or of known accuracy in fields related to America’s foreign policy; and from contemporary writers and speakers of unquestioned standing. The final product of a long period of travel, army service, and study is The Iron Curtain Over America. The book is neither memoirs nor apology, but an objective presentation of “things as they are.” It differs from many other pro-American books principally in that it not only exhibits the external and internal dangers which threaten the survival of our country, but shows how they developed and why they continue to plague us. The roads we “travel so briskly lead out of dim antiquity” said General James G. Harbord, and we must study the past “because of its bearing on the living present” and because it is our only guide for the future. The author has thus turned on the light in certain darkened or dimmed out year tremendously significant phases of the history of medieval and modern Europe. Since much compression was obligatory, and since many of the facts will to most readers be wholly new and disturbing, Chapters I and II may be described as “hard reading.” Even a rapid perusal of them, however, will prepare the reader for understanding better the problems of our country as they are revealed in succeeding chapters. In The Iron Curtain Over America authorities are cited not in a bibliography or in notes but along with the text to which they are pertinent. The documentary matter is enclosed by parentheses, and many readers will pass over it. it is there, however, for those who wish its assurance of validity, for those who wish to locate and examine the context of quoted material, and especially for those who wish to use this book as a springboard for further study. In assembling and documenting his material, the author followed Shakespearean injunction, “nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice.” Writing with no goal except to serve his country by telling the truth, fully substantiated, he has humbly and reverently taken as his motto, or text, a promise of Christ the Saviour as recorded in the Gospel According to Saint John (VIII, 32): And Ye Shall Know The Truth And The Truth Shall Make You Free. Only an informed American people can save America – and they can save it only if all those, to whom it is given to know, will share their knowledge with others. Chapter I The Teutonic Knights and Germany For more than a thousand years a fundamental problem of Europe, the source, seat, and historic guardian of Western civilization, has been to save itself and its ideals from destruction by some temporary master of the men and resources of Asia. This statement implies no criticism of the peoples of Asia, for Europe and America have likewise produced leaders whose armies have invaded other continents. Since the fall of the Roman Empire of the West in 476 A.D., a principal weakness of Western Europe has been a continuing lack of unity. Charlemagne (742-814) – who was crowned Emperor of the West in Rome in 800 – gave the post-Roman European world a generation of unity, and exerted influence even as far as Jerusalem, where he secured the protection of Christian pilgrims to the shrines associated with the birth, the ministry, and the crucifixion of Christ. Unfortunately, Charlemagne’s empire was divided shortly after his death into three parts (Treaty of Verdun, 843). From two of these France and Germany derived historic boundaries – and a millennium of wars fought largely to change them! After Charlemagne’s time, the first significant power efforts with a continent-wide common purpose were the Crusades (1096-1291). In medieval Europe the Church of Rome, the only existing international organization, had some of the characteristics of a league of nations, and it sponsored these mass movements of Western Europeans toward the East. In fact, it was Pope Urban II, whose great speech at Clermont, France, on November 26, 1095, initiated the surge of feeling which inspired the people of France, and of Europe in general, for the amazing adventure. The late medieval setting of the epochal speech is re-created with brilliant detail by Harold Lamb in his book, The Crusades: Iron Men and Saints (Doubleday, Doran & Co., inc., Garden City, New York, 1930, Chapters VI and VII ). The Pope crossed the Alps from schism-torn Italy and, Frenchman himself, stirred the people of France as he rode among them. In the chapel at Clermont, he first swayed the men of the church who had answered his summons to the meeting; then, surrounded by cardinals and mail-clad knights on a golden-canopied platform in a field by the church, he addressed the multitude: You are girded knights, but you are arrogant with pride. You turn upon your brothers with fury, cutting down one the other. Is this the service of Christ? Come forward to the defense of Christ. The great Pope gave his eager audience some pertinent and inspiring texts from the recorded words of Jesus Christ: For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them (The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter XVIII, Verse 20). And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name’s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life (Saint Matthew, Chapter XIX, Verse 29). To the words of the Saviour, the Pope added his own specific promise: Set forth then upon the way to the Holy Sepulcher. . . and fear not. Your possessions here will be safeguarded, and you will despoil the enemy of greater treasures. Do not fear death, where Christ laid down His life for you. If any should lose their lives, even on the way thither, by sea or land, or in where Christ laid down His life for you. If any should lose their lives, even on the way thither, by sea or land, or in strife with the pagans, their sins will be requited them. I grant this to all who go, by the power vested in me by God (Harold Lamb, op.cit., P.42). Through the long winter, men scanned their supplies, hammered out weapons and armor, and dreamed dreams of their holy mission. In the summer that followed, they “started out on what they called the voyage of God” ( Harold Lamb, op. cit., p. VII) As they faced East they shouted on plains and in mountain valleys, “God wills it.” Back of the Crusades there was a “mixture of motives” (Encyclopedia Britannica, Fourteenth Edition, Vol. VI, p. 722). The immediate goal of those who made the journey was the rescue of the tomb of Christ from the non-Christian power which then dominated Palestine. Each knight wore a cross on his outer garment and they called themselves by a Latin name Cruciati (from crux, cross), or soldiers of the cross, which is translated into English as Crusaders. A probable ecclesiastical objectives were the containment of Mohammedan power and the protection of pilgrims to the Holy Land (Encyc. Brit., Vol. VI, p.722 Inspired by the promise of an eternal home in heaven, alike for those who might perish on the way and those who might reach the Holy Sepulcher, the Crusaders could not fail. Some of them survived the multiple perils of the journey and reached Palestine, where they captured the Holy City and founded the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099). In this land, which they popularly called Outremer or Beyond The Sea, they established the means of livelihood, built churches, and saw children and grandchildren born. The Latin Kingdom’s weaknesses, vicissitudes, and final destruction by the warriors of Islam, who had been driven back but not destroyed, constitute a vivid chapter of history – alien, however, to the subject matter of The Iron Curtain Over America. Many of the Crusaders became members of three military religious orders. Unlike the Latin Kingdom, these orders have survived, in one form or another, the epoch of the great adventure, and are of significant interest in the middle of the twentieth century. The Knights Hospitalers – or by their longer title, the Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem were “instituted” upon an older charitable foundation by Pope Paschal II in 1113 (Encyc. Brit. Vol. XIX, pp. 836-838). The fraternity of the Knights Templars (Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon) was founded not as a Hospital but directly as a military order about 1119, and was installed by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, in a building known as the “Temple of Solomon” – hence the name Templars (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XXI, pp. 920-924). Both Hospitalers and Templars are fairly well known to those who have read such historical novels as The Talisman by Sir Walter Scott. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem maintained its rule for nearly a hundred years, 1099-1187 (see Lamb, op. cit., and The Crusade: The World’s Debate, by Hilaire Belloc, Cassell and Company, Ltd., London, 1937). Still longer the Crusaders held Acre on the coast of Palestine. When their position on the mainland became untenable, the Templars moved to the island of Cyprus, which was the seat of its Grand Master at the time of its dissolution (1306-1312) as an international military brotherhood. The Hospitalers move to the island of Rhodes, where their headquarters buildings – visited and studied by the author still stand in superb preservation facing the waters of the Inland Sea. From Rhodes, the Knights of the Hospital moved to Malta hence their later name, Knights of Malta – and held sovereignty on that famous island until 1798. The two principal Mediterranean orders and their history, including the assumption of some of their defense functions by Venice and then by Britain, do not further concern us. It is interesting to note, however, as we take leave of the Templars and the Hospitalers, that the three Chivalric Orders of Crusaders are in some cases the direct ancestors and in other cases have afforded the inspiration, including the terminology of knighthood, for many of the important present-day social, fraternal, and philanthropic orders of Europe and America. Among these are the Knights Templar, which is “claimed to be a lineal descendant” of the Crusade order of similar name; the Knights of Pythias, founded in 1864; and the Knights of Columbus, founded in 1882 (quotation and dates from Webster’s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, 1934, p. 1370). The third body of medieval military-religious Crusaders was the Knighthood of the Teutonic Order. This organization was founded as a hospital in the winter of 1190-91 – according to tradition, on a small ship which had been pulled ashore near Acre. Its services came to be so highly regarded that in March, 1198, “the great men of the army and the [Latin] Kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St. Mary to the rank of an Order of Knights” (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XXI, pp. 983-984). Soon, however, the Order found that “its true work lay on the Eastern frontiers of Germany” (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XXI, p. 894). Invited by a Christian Polish Prince (1226) to help against the still unconverted Prussians, a body of knights sailed down the Vistula establishing blockhouses and pushed eastward to found Koenigsburg in 1255. In 1274, a castle was established at Marienburg and in 1309 the headquarters of the Grand Master was transferred (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XIV, p. 886) from Venice to this remote border city on the Nojat River, an eastern outlet of the Vistula (The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia to 1786, by Sidney Bradshaw Fay, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1937) It was to the Teutonic Order that the Knight of Chaucer, famous Canterbury Tales belonged (Sections from Chaucer, edited by Clarence Griffin Child, D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1912, p. 150). Chaucer’s lines (prologue to the Canterbury Tales, II., 52-53): Ful ofte tyme he hadde the bord bigonne Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce tell us that this Knight occupied the seat of Grand Master, presumably at the capital, Marienburg, and presided over Knights from the various nations assembled in “Puce” (Prussia) to hold the pagan East at bay. In his military-religious capacity Chaucer’s Knight “fought for our faith” in fifteen battles, including those in Lithuania and in Russia (Prologue, II., 54-63). The Teutonic Knights soon drove eastward, or converted to Christianity, the sparsely settled native Prussian people, and assumed sovereignty over East Prussia. They encouraged the immigration of German families of farmers and artisans, and their domain on the south shore of the Baltic became a self-contained German state, outside the Holy Roman Empire. The boundaries varied, at one time reaching the Gulf of Finland (see Historical Atlas, by William R. Shepherd, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1911, maps 77, 79, 87, 99, 119). “The hundred years from 1309 to 1409 were the Golden Age of the Teutonic Knights, Young nobles from all over Europe found no greater honor than to come out and fight under their banner and be knighted by their Grand Master” (Fay, op. cit., pp. 32-33). As the years passed, the function of the Teutonic Knights as defenders, or potential defenders, of the Christian West remained unchanged. Those who founded the Teutonic Order on the hospital ship in Palestine spoke German and from the beginning most of the members were from the various small states into which in medieval times the German people were divided. As the Crusading spirit waned in Europe, fewer Knights were drawn from far-off lands and a correspondingly larger number were recruited from nearby German kingdoms, duchies, and other autonomies. Meanwhile, to Brandenburg, a neighbor state to the west of the Teutonic Order domain, the Emperor Sigismund sent as ruler Prederick of Hohenzollern and five years later made him hereditary elector. “A new era of prosperity, good government, and princely power began with the arrival of the Hohenzollerns in Brandenburg in the summer of 1412” (Fay, op. cit., pp. 7-9). After its Golden Age, the Teutonic Order suffered from a lack of religious motivation, since all nearby peoples including the Lithuanians had been converted. It suffered, too, from poor administration and from military reverses. To strengthen their position, especially against Poland, the Knights elected Albert of Hohenzollern, a cousin of the contemporary elector Joachim I (rule, 1499-1535), as Grand Master in 1511. Unlike Chaucer’s Knight, a lay member who was the father of a promising son, Albert was a clerical member of the Teutonic Order. He and his elector cousin were both great grandsons of Frederick. the first Hohenzollern elector (Fay, op. cit., Passim). In most German states in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, “things were not right,” “there was discontent deep in men’s hearts,” and “existing powers,” ecclesiastical as well as lay, “Abused their trust.” The quoted phrases are from an essay, “Luther and the Modern Mind” (The Catholic World, October 1946) by Dr. Thomas P. Neill, who continues: This was the stage on which Luther appeared when he nailed his ninety-five theses to the church door at Wittenberg on Halloween of 1517. The Catholic Church had come on sorry days, and had there been no Luther there would likely have been a successful revolt anyway. But there was a Luther. The posting of the famous “ninety-five theses” by Martin Luther foreshadowed his break, complete and final by the spring of 1522, with the Church of Rome. Since the church in Germany was temporarily at a low ebb, as shown by Dr. Neill, Luther’s controversy with its authorities won him “the sympathy and support of a large proportion of his countrymen” (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XIV, p. 944). The outcome was a new form of Christianity, known later as Protestantism, which made quick headway among North Germans and East Germans. Its adherents included many Teutonic Knights, and their German chief was interested. Still nominally a follower of the Church of Rome, Albert visited Luther at Wittenberg in 1523. “Luther advised: ‘Give up your vow as a monk; take a wife; abolish the order; and make yourself hereditary Duke of Prussia’”. (Fay, op. cit., p. 38). The advice was taken. Thus since a large proportion of its members and its chief had embraced Protestantism, the Knighthood severed its slender tie with the Church of Rome. In the words of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. I, p. 522), “Albert of Hohenzollern, last Grand Master of the Teutonic Order” became “first Duke of Prussia.” In this manner the honorable and historic heritage of extending Christianity in the lands south of the Baltic passed from a military-religious order to a Germany duchy. Prussia and not the Teutonic Order now governed the strategically vital shore land of the southeast Baltic, between the Niemen and Vital shore land of the southeast Baltic, between the Niemen and Vistula rivers. Proud of their origin as a charitable organization and proud of being a bulwark of Christianity, first Catholic and then Protestant, the people of Prussia, many of them descended from the lay knights, developed a “strong sense of duty and loyalty.” From them came also” many of the generals and statesmen who helped to make Prussia great…” (Fay, op.cit., p. 2) This duchy of Prussia was united with Brandenburg in 1618 by the marriage of Anna, daughter and heiress of the second Duke of Prussia, to the elector, John Sigismund (Hohenzollern). Under the latter’s grandson, Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (reign, 1640-1688), Brandenburg-Prussia became second only to Austria among the member states of the Holy Roman Empire some of its territory, acquired from the Teutonic Order, extending even beyond the loose confederation and it was “regarded as the head of German Protestantism.” (Encyc. Brit., Vol. IV, p. 33 and passim). By an edict of the Holy Roman Emperor, the state of Brandenburg-Prussia became the kingdom of Prussia in 1701; the royal capital was Berlin, which was in the heart of the old province of Brandenburg. Under Frederick the Great (reign, 1740-1768), Prussia became one of the most highly developed nations of Europe. A century later, it was the principal component of the German Empire which the Minister-President of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck, caused to be proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles (January 18, 1871). Prussia’s historic function, inherited from the Teutonic Order of standing as a bastion on the Baltic approach to Europe, was never fully forgotten by the west. The Hohenzollern monarchy was the strongest Protestant power on the continent and its relations with the governments of both England and America were intimate and friendly. The royal family of England several times married into the Prussian dynasty. Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, later to be Frederick, first King of Prussia (see preceding paragraph) helped William of England of Orange, the archenemy of Louis XIV of France, to land in England, where he became (1688) co-soverign with his wife, Mary Stuart, and a friend and helper of the American colonies. It was a Prussian Baron, Frederick William von Steuben, whom General George Washington made Inspector General (May, 1778), responsible 1815 Prussian troops under Field Marshal von Bluecher helped save Wellington’s England from Napoleon. In 1902 Prince Henry of Prussia, brother of the German Emperor, paid a state visit to the United States and received at West Point, Annapolis, Washington, and elsewhere, as royal a welcome as was ever accorded to a foreign visitor by the government of the United States. The statue of Frederick the Great, presented in appreciation, stood in front of the main building of the Army War College in Washington during two wars between the countrymen of Frederick of Hohenzollen and the countrymen George Washington, an evidence in bronze of the old Western view that fundamental relationships between peoples should survive the temporary disturbances occasioned by wars. The friendly relationships between the United States and Germany existed not only on the governmental level but were cemented by close racial kinship. Not only is the basic blood stream of persons of English descent very nearly identical with that of Germans; in addition, nearly a fourth of the Americans of the early twentieth century were actually of German descent (Chapter IV, below). Thus, in the early years of the twentieth century the American people admired Germany. It was a strong nation, closely akin; and it was a Christian land, part Protestant and part Catholic, as America had been part Catholic since the Cavaliers leave to Virginia and the Puritans to New England. Moreover, the old land of the Teutonic Knights led the world in music, in medicine, and in scholarship. The terms Prussia and Prussian, Germany and German had a most favorable connotation. Then came World War I (1914), in which Britain and France and their allies were opposed to Germany and her allies. Since the citizens of the United States admired all three nations they were stunned at the calamity of such a conflict and were slow in taking sides. Finally (1917), and to some extent because of the pressure of American Zionists (Chapter III, below), we joined the Entente group, which included Britain and France. The burden of a great war was accepted by the people, even with some enthusiasm on the Atlantic seaboard, for according to our propagandists it was a war to end all wars. It was pointed out, too, that Britain among the world’s great nations was closest to us in language and culture, and that France had been traditionally a friend since the Marquis of Lafayette and the Count of Rochambeau aided General Washington. With a courage fanned by the newly perfected science of propaganda, the American people threw themselves heart and soul into defeating Germany in the great “war to end all wars.” The blood-spilling the greatest in all history and between men of kindred race was ended by an armistice on November 11, 1918, and the American people entertained high hopes for lasting peace. Their hopes, however, were soon to fade away. With differing viewpoints, national and personal, and with the shackles of suddenly revealed secret agreement between co-belligerents. President Woodrow Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy had much difficulty in agreeing on the terms of peace treaties (1919), The merits or shortcomings of which cannot in consequence be fully chalked up to any one of them. It remains indisputable, however, that in what they agreed to in the treaty made with Germany at Versailles (June 28, 1919) and in the treaty made with Austria at St. Germain (September10, 1919) the four American delegates, dominated by President Wilson, departed at least to some extent from our tradition of humane treatment of a defeated enemy. The heavily populated German nation was deprived of much territory, including vital mineral areas and a “Polish Corridor” which, under the terms of the treaty, separated the original duchy of Prussia from the rest of the country. Germany was deprived also of its merchant fleet and was saddled with an impossible load of separations. As a consequence, the defeated country was left in a precarious position which soon produced an economic collapse. The Austro Hungarian Empire, ancient outpost of the Teutonic peoples and of Western Christian civilization on the Danube Valley invasion route from Asia, was destroyed at St. Germain. The result was the serious general economic dislocation to be expected from the collapse of an imperial government, and the inevitable dire distress to the people, especially in the capital city of Vienna (population over 2,000,000), which was left with little sustaining territory, except scenic and historic mountains. Moreover, although Austro-Hungary was broken up under the theory that its people should be put into small pigeon-hole nations on racial and linguistic considerations, the new Czechoslovakia state was given 3,500,000 persons of German blood and speech. In this treatment of Germany and Austria our leaders not merely set up conditions conducive to the extreme distress of millions of people; they also by those same conditions flouted the recognized principles of sound military and national policy, for the strategic use of victory demands that the late enemy be drawn into the victor’s orbit as friend and ally. As one example of the strategic use of victory, our War of 1812, with Britain, was followed by an earnest bilateral effort at the solution of mutual problems by the Monroe Doctrine (1823) in the field of international relations, and by the crumbling of unused forts on the U.S. Canadian border. As a second example, Britain’s war with South Africa, which ended in 1902, was followed by such humanity and fairness that a defeated people, different in speech and culture, became an ally instead of an enemy in the great war which began only twelve years later in 1914. The crash in Germany came in 1923, when German money lost its value. There was terrible suffering among the people everywhere and especially in the cities and industrial areas. As the mark’s purchasing power approached zero, a widow would realize from her husband’s life insurance “just enough to buy a meal” (“Inflation Concerns Everyone,” by Samuel B. Pettengill, Reader’s Digest, October, 1951). “Berlin in 1923 was a city of despair. People waited in the alley behind the Hotel Adlon ready to pounce on garbage cans immediately they were placed outside the hotels kitchen.” A cup of coffee “cost one million marks one day, a million and a half the next and two million the day following” (Drew Pearson, March 22, 1951). In hunger and desperation, many Germans blamed their troubles on Jews, whom they identified with Communism. “The fact that certain Jews, such as Kurt Eisner, Toller, and Levine, had been leaders of Communist Movements [1918, 1919]. . .gave the conservatives the opportunity of proclaiming that the Jews were responsible for the national misfortunes and disorders” (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. I, pp. 366,367). The German attitude was intensified by the new power German Jews acquired in the terrible year 1923 from using funds derived from rich race-conscious Jews in other countries and by an inrush of Jews from the destroyed Austro-Hungarian Empire and from the East. “Some of those Eastern European Jews took an active part in the speculation which was rampant in Germany because of the unstable currency and the shortage of commodities” (America’s Second Crusade, by William Henry Chamberlin, Henry Regnery Company, 1950, pp. 30, 31). The influx from the East had also the effect of reviving the viewpoint of certain earlier Germans that Jews were not assimilable but were really invaders. “In 1880 the learned but fanatical Professor Treitschke’s phrase, ‘Die Juden sind unser Unglueck’ [The Jews are our misfortune], gained currency all through the German empire” (H. Graetz, Popular History of the Jews, Vol. VI, by Max Raisin, The Jordan Publishing Co., New York, 1935, p. 162). Also, “according to Grattenauer’s Wider die Juden (1803), the Jews of Germany were, as early as that period, regarded as ‘Asiatic Immigrants’ ” (Univ. Jew. Encyc., Vol. I, p 341). This fateful German-Jewish tension was destined to have a major role in the history of the United States, and will be dealt with further in subsequent chapters. The Immediate result of the events of 1923 was an increase of Jewish power in the Reich. “Bled white” in World War I, like Britain and France, Germany bent to its economic tragedy without significant resistance, but the resentment of the people at being starved and humiliated (as they believed) by a minority of less than one percent smoldered like live coals awaiting almost any fanning into flame. Our usual helping hand so generously extended in the Japanese earthquake tragedy of 1923 and in other calamities — was withheld, while this small group increased its control (for some idea of the extent of the control by Jews in the city of Berlin five years after Hitler assumed power, see the Reader’s Digest for May, 1938, p. 126). After 1919, anti-German propaganda in the United States did not cease, as was strategically desirable, but was continued unremittingly in the press and by the new opinion-controlling medium, the radio. Americans were taught to hate Germany and Germans and to loathe Prussia and Prussians, not any longer as a war-time “psychological” attack, but as a permanent attitude. The task of the propagandists was made easier by the appearance on the world’s stage (1933) of the demagogue Adolph Hitler, whose assumption of the combined offices of Chancellor and President of Germany (Chapter IV, below), under the alien and repugnant title of “Fuehrer,” shocked the sensibilities of the American people who were accustomed to a Republican form of government with the still effective checks and balances of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches. In 1936, Britain was making efforts to establish workable arrangements with Germany. Symbolically, and with much publicity, a thousand German war veterans were entertained in England by a thousand British war veterans. A naval ratio, most favorable to Britain, had been agreed upon. The President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had in his first year of office (1933) recognized the Communist Government of Russia (Chapter III, Below), but was otherwise “isolationist” in his general attitude toward Europe. Then on October 5, 1937, in Chicago, he made an about-face (Chapter IV, below), in his famous “Quarantine” speech against Germany. Though his sudden “fears” had no foundation in facts–as known then or as discovered later–our policy was charted, and England, forced to a decision, became a partner in our anti-German action. With no enthusiasm, such as was generated in 1919, the American people soon found themselves (December, 1941) involved in a second and even more frightful World War against two of our former allies, Japan and Italy, and against our World War I opponent, Germany (see Chapters IV and V, below). The propagandists against Germany and the German people did not cease, however, with Hitler’s defeat and death (1945) and the resultant effacement of his government and his policies. After Hitler, as before Hitler, these propagandists did not allow the American public to realize the strategic fact that a country like an individual needs friends and that a permanent destructive attitude toward a nation because of a former ruler is as stupid, for instance, as a hatred for the people of an American state because of an unpopular ex-governor. Thus, instead of correcting our error of 1919 and making certain at the end of World War II to draw a properly safeguarded but humanely treated Germany definitely into our orbit, we adopted in 1945 an intensified policy of hate, denied the Germans a peace treaty more than six years after the suspension of active warfare, and took additional steps (Chapters IV, VI, and VIII, below) which could have had no other purpose — concealed of course, even from some of those who furthered it — than the final destruction of Germany. Woodrow Wilson, despite the terrible and still largely undocumented pressures upon him, had at least preserved Prussia at the close of World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, however, tossed it from his failing hands to the minority (see Chapter II) who, with converts to their Marxist concept of statism, had succeeded the Romanov Czars as masters of Russia. With Malta lost in 1798 and Prussia destroyed in 1945, the temporal state-structures of the Crusaders and their successors ceased to exist. Under the preaching of Urban II, most of the Western World had developed a frenzy of unity; under Roosevelt II, or rather under those who manipulated him, it did so again. The goal this time, however, was not the defense of Europe or the rescue of the tomb of Christ; the goal, on the contrary, was a monstrous surrender of the Western heritage of Christian civilization. Yes, it was actually the United States of America which was mainly responsible for destroying the successor state to the Teutonic Knights and for delivering the ruins, with the hegemony of Europe, to the Soviet Union, The new Communist power of our creation. The facts outlined in this chapter have – as will be shown in following chapters – a significant bearing on the present mid century- world struggle between Communism and Western Christian civilizations. Chapter II Russia And The Khazars Having traced the Knighthood of the Teutonic Order from its origin to its dissolution as a military-religious brotherhood, and having noted the development of successor sovereignties down to the obliteration of Prussia in 1945, we must turn back more than a thousand years, to examine another thread — a scarlet one — in the tangled skein of European history. In the later years of the dimly recorded first millennium of the Christian era, Slavic people of several kindred tribes occupied the land which became known later as the north central portion of European Russia. South of them between the Don and Volga rivers and north of the lofty Caucasus Mountains lived a people known to history as Khazars (Ancient Russia, by George Vernadsky, Yale University Press, 1943, p. 214). These people had been driven westward from Central Asia and entered Europe by the corridor between the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea. They found a land occupied by primitive pastoral people of a score or more of tribes, a land which lay beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent under Trajan (ruled, 98-117 A.D.), and also beyond the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire (395-1453). By slow stages the Khazars extended their territory eventually to the Sea of Azov and the adjacent littoral of the Black Sea. The Khazars were apparently a people of mixed stock with Mongol and Turkic affinities. “Around the year 600, a Belligerent tribe of half-Mongolian people, similar to the modern Turks, conquered the territory of what is now Southern Russia. Before long the kingdom [khanate] of the Khazars, as this tribe was known, stretched from the Caspian to the Black Sea. Its capital, Ityl, was at the mouth of the Volga River” (A History of the Jews, by Solomon Grayzel, Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947). In the eighth or ninth century of our era, a khakan (or chagan, roughly equivalent to tribal chief or primitive king) of the Khazars wanted a religion for his pagan people. Partly, perhaps, because of incipient tension between Christians and the adherents of the new Mohammedan faith (Mohammed died in 632,) and partly because of fear of becoming subject to the power of the Byzantine emperor or the Islamic caliph (Ancient Russia, p.291), he adopted a form of the Jewish religion at a date generally placed at c. 741 A.D., but believed by Vernadsky to be as late as 865. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. VI, pp. 375-377), this chieftain, probable Bulan, “called upon the representatives of Judaism, Christianity and Mohammedanism to expound their doctrines before him. This discussion convinced him that the Jewish faith was the most preferable, and he decided to embrace it. Thereupon he and about 4,000 Khazars were circumcised; it was only by degrees that the Jewish teachings gained a foothold among the population.” In his History of the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Vol. III, 1894, pp.140-141), Professor H. Graetz gives further details: A successor of Bulan, who bore the Hebrew name of Obadiah, was the first to make serious efforts to further the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish sages to settle in his dominions, rewarded them royally, founded synagogues and schools . . .caused instruction to be given to himself and his people in the Bible and the Talmud, and introduced a divine service modeled on the ancient communities. After Obadiah came a long series of Jewish chagans, for according to a fundamental law of the state only Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne. The significance of the term “ancient communities” cannot be here explained. For a suggestion of the “incorrect exposition” and the “tasteless misrepresentations” with which the Bible, i.e., the Old Testament, was presented through the Talmud, see below in this chapter, the extensive quotation from Professor Graetz. Also in the Middle Ages, Viking warriors, according to Russian tradition by invitation, pushed from the Baltic area into the low hills west of Moscow. Archaeological discoveries show that at one time or another these Northmen penetrated almost all areas south of Lake Ladoga and West of the Kama and Lower Volga rivers. Their earliest, and permanent, settlements were north and east of the West Dwina River, in the Lake Ilmen area. and between the Upper Volga and Oka rivers, at whose junction they soon held the famous trading post of Nizhni-Novgorod (Ancient Russia, p. 267). These immigrants from the North and West were principally “the ‘Russ’ — a Varangian tribe in ancient annals considered as related to the Swedes, Angles, and Northmen” (Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XIX, p. 712). From the local Slavic tribes, they organized (c. 862) a state, known subsequently from their name as Russia, which embraced the territory of the upper Volga and Dnieper rivers and reached down the latter river to the Black Sea (An Introduction to Old Norse, by E. V. Gordon, Oxford University Press, 1927, map between pp. xxiv-xxv) and to the Crimea. Russ and Slav were of related stock and their languages, though quite different, had common Indo-Germanic origin. They accepted Christianity as their religion. “Greek Orthodox missionaries, sent to Russ [i.e. “Russia”] in the 860’s baptized so many people that shortly after this a special bishop was sent to care for their needs” (A History of the Ukraine, by Michael Hrushevsky, Yale University Press, 1941, p. 65). The “Rus” (or “Russ”) were absorbed into the Slav population which they organized into statehood. The people of the new state devoted themselves energetically to consolidating their territory and extending its boundaries. From the Khazars, who had extended their power up the Dnieper Valley, they took Kiev, which “was an important trading center even before becoming, in the 10th cent., the capital of a large recently Christianized state” (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. VI, p. 381). Many Varangians (Rus) had settled among the Slavs in this area (the Ukraine), and Christian Kiev became the seat of an enlightened Westward-looking dynasty, whose members married into several European royal houses, including that of France. The Slavs, especially those in the area now known as the Ukraine, were engaged in almost constant warfare with the Khazars and finally, by 1016 A.D., destroyed the Khazar government and took a large portion of Khazar territory. For the gradual shrinking of the Khazar territory and the development of Poland, Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other Slavic states, see the pertinent maps in Historical Atlas, by William R. Shepherd (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1911). Some of the subjugated Khazars remained in the Slav-held lands their khakans had long ruled, and others “migrated to Kiev and other parts of Russia” (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. VI, p. 377), probably to a considerable extent because of the dislocations wrought by the Mongols under Genghis Khan (1162-1227), who founded in and beyond the old Khazar khanate the short-lived khanate of the Golden Horde. The Judaized Khazars underwent further dispersion both northwestward into Lithuanian and Polish areas and also within Russia proper and the Ukraine. In 1240 in Kiev “the Jewish community was uprooted, its surviving members finding refuge in towns further west” (Univ. Jew. Encyc., Vol.VI,p. 382) along with the fleeing Russians, when the capital fell to the Mongol soldiers of Batu, the nephew of Genghis Khan. A short time later many of these expelled Jews returned to Kiev. Migrating thus, as some local power impelled them, the Khazar Jews became widely distributed in Western Russia. Into the Khazar khanate there had been a few Jewish immigrants — rabbis, traders, refugees — but the people of the Kievan Russian state did not facilitate the entry of additional Jews into their territory. The rulers of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also sought to exclude Jews from areas under its control. “From its earliest times the policy of the Russian government was that of complete exclusion of the Jews from its territories” (Univ. Jew. Encyc. Vol. I, p. 384). For instance, “Ivan IV [reign,1533-1584] refused to allow Jewish merchants to travel in Russia” (op. cit., Vol. I, p.384). Relations between Slavs and the Judaized Khazars in their midst were never happy. The reasons were not racial — for the Slavs had absorbed many minorities — but were ideological. The rabbis sent for by Khakan Obadiah were educated in and were zealots for the Babylonian Talmud, which after long labors by many hands had been completed on December 2, 499. In the thousands of synagogues which were built in the Khazar khanate, the imported rabbis and their successors were in complete control of the political, social, and religious thought of their people. So significant was the Babylonian Talmud as the principal cause of Khazar resistance to Russian efforts to end their political and religious separatism, and so significant also are the modern sequels, including those in the United States, that an extensive quotation on the subject from the great History of the Jews, by Professor H. Graetz (Vol. II, 1893, pp. 631 ff.) is here presented: The Talmud must not be regarded as an ordinary work, composed of twelve volumes; it possesses absolutely no similarity to any other literary production, but forms, without any figure of speech, a works of its own, which must be judged by its peculiar laws. . The Talmud contains much that is frivolous of which it treats with great gravity and seriousness; it further reflects the various superstitious practices and views of its Persian birthplace which presume the efficacy of demoniacal medicines, of magic, incantations, miraculous cures, and interpretations of dreams. . . It also contains isolated instances of uncharitable judgments and decrees against the members of other nations and religions, and finally it favors an incorrect exposition of the scriptures, accepting, as it does, tasteless misrepresentations. More than six centuries lie petrified in the Talmud. . . Small wonder then, that. . .the sublime and the common, the great and the small, the grave and the ridiculous, the altar and the ashes, the Jewish and the heathenish, be discovered side by side. . . The Babylonian Talmud is especially distinguished from the Jerusalem or Palestine Talmud by the flights of thought, the penetration of mind, the flashes of genius, which rise and vanish again. . .It was for this reason that the Babylonian rather than the Jerusalem Talmud became the fundamental possession of the Jewish race, its life breath, its very soul. . . nature and mankind, powers and events, were for the Jewish nation insignificant, non-essential, a mere phantom; the only true reality was the Talmud. Not merely educated by the Talmud but actually living the life of its Babylonian background, which they may have regarded with increased devotion because most of the Jews of Mesopotamia had embraced Islam, the rabbi-governed Khazars had no intention whatever of losing their identity by becoming Russianized or Christian. The intransigent attitude of the rabbis was increased by their realization that their power would be lost if their people accepted controls other than Talmudic. These controls by rabbis were responsible not only for basic mores, but for such externals as the peculiarities of dress and hair. It has been frequently stated by writers on the subject that the “ghetto” was the work not of Russians or other Slavs but of rabbis. As time passed, it came about that these Khazar people of mixed non-Russian stock, who hated the Russians and lived under Babylonian Talmudic law, became known in the western world, from their place of residence and their legal-religious code, as Russian Jews. In Russian lands after the fall of Kiev in 1240, there was a period of dissension and disunity. The struggle with the Mongols and other Asiatic khanates continued and from them the Russians learned much about effective military organization. Also, as the Mongols had not overrun Northern and Western Russia (Shepherd, op.cit., Map 77), there was a background for the resistance and counter-offensive which gradually eliminated the invaders. The capital of reorganized Russia was no longer Kiev But Moscow (hence the terms Moscovy and Muscovite). In 1613 the Russian nobles (boyars), desired a more stable government than they had had, and elected as their czar a boy named Michael Romanov, whose veins carried the blood of the grand dukes of Kiev and the grand dukes of Moscow. Under the Romanovs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was no change in attitude toward the Judaized Khazars, who scorned Russian civilization and stubbornly refused to enter the fold of Christianity. “Peter the Great [reign, 1682-1725] spoke of the Jews as ‘rogues and cheats’ ” (Popular History of the Jews, by H. Graetz, New York, The Jordan Publishing Co., 1919, 1935, Vol. VI by Max Raisin, p. 89). “Elizabeth [reign, 1741-1762] expressed her attitude in the sentence: ‘From the enemies of Christ, I desire neither gain nor profit’ ” (Univ. Jew. Encyc., Vol. I, p. 384). Under the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917) many members of the Russian upper classes were educated in Germany, and the Russian nobility, already partly Scandinavian by blood, frequently married Germans or other Western Europeans. Likewise many of the Romanovs, themselves – in fact all of them who ruled in the later years of the dynasty – married into Western families. Prior to the nineteenth century the two occupants of the Russian throne best known in world history were Peter I, the Great, and Catherine II, the Great. The former – who in 1703 gave Russia its “West window,” St. Petersburg, later known as Petrograd and recently as Leningrad – chose as his consort and successor on the throne as Catherine I, [reign, 1725-1727]a captured Marienburg (Germany) servant girl whose mother and father were respectively a Lithuanian peasant woman and a Swedish dragoon. Catherine II, the Great, was a German princess who was proclaimed reigning Empress of Russia after her husband, the ineffective Czar Peter III, “subnormal in mind and physique” (Encyc. Brit., Vol. V, p. 37), left St. Petersburg. During her thirty-four years as Empress, Catherine, by studying such works as Blackstone’s Commentaries, and by correspondence with such illustrious persons as Voltaire, F. M. Grimm Frederick the Great, Dederot, and Maria-Theresa of Austria, kept herself in contact with the West (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XIX, p. 718 and passim). She chose for her son, weak like his father and later the “madman” Czar Paul I [reign, 1796-1801], a German wife. The nineteenth century czars were Catherine the Great’s grandson, Alexander I [reign, 1801-1825 — German wife]; his brother, Nicholas I [reign, 1825-1855 — German wife, a Hoenzollern]; his son Alexander II [reign 1855-1881- German wife]; and his son Alexander III [reign, 1881-1894- Danish wife]; his son, Nicholas II [reign, 1894-1917 — German wife], who was murdered with his family (1918) after the Communists seized power (1917) in Russia. Though many of the Romanovs, including Peter I and Catherine II, had far from admirable characters — a fact well advertised in American books on the subject — and though some of them including Nicholas II were not able rulers, a general purpose of the dynasty was to give their land certain of the advantages of Western Europe. In the West they characteristically sought alliances with one country or another, rather than ideological penetration. Like, their Slavic overlords, the Judaized Khazars of Russia had various relationships with Germany. Their numbers from time to time, as during the Crusades, received accretions from the Jewish communities in Germany – principally into Poland and other areas not yet Russian; many of the ancestors of these people, however, had previously entered Germany from Slavic lands. More interesting than these migrations was the importation from Germany of an idea conceived by a prominent Jew of solving century-old tension between native majority population and the Jews in their midst. In Germany, while Catherine the Great was Empress of Russia, a Jewish scholar and philosopher named Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) attracted wide and favor able attention among non-Jews and a certain following among Jews. His conception of the barrier between Jew and non-Jew, as analyzed by Grayzel (op. cit., p. 543), was that the “Jews had erected about themselves a mental ghetto to balance the physical ghetto around them.” Mendelssohn’s objective was to lead the Jews “out of this mental ghetto into the wide world of general culture – without, however, doing harm to their specifically Jewish culture.” The movement received the name Haskalah, which may be rendered as “enlightenment.” Among other things, Mendelssohn wished Jews in Germany to learn the German language. The Jews of Eastern Europe had from early days used corrupted versions of local vernaculars, written in the Hebrew alphabet (see “How Yiddish Came to be,” Grayzel, op. cit., p. 456), just as the various vernaculars of Western Europe were written in the Latin alphabet, and to further his purpose Mendelssohn translated the Pentateuch — Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy — into standard German, using however, the accepted Hebrew alphabet (Grayzel, op. cit., p. 543). Thus in one stroke he led his readers a step toward Westernization by the use of the German Language and by offering them, instead of the Babylonian Talmud, a portion of scripture recognized by both Jew and Christian. The Mendelssohn views were developed in Russia in the nineteenth century, notably by Isaac Baer Levinsohn (1788-1860), the “Russian Mendelssohn.” Levinsohn was a scholar who, with Abraham Harkavy, delved into a field of Jewish history little known in the West, namely “the settlement of Jewish history little known in the West, namely “the settlement of Jews in Russia and their vicissitudes furring the dark ages. . . Levinsohn was the first to express the opinion that the Russian Jews hailed not from Germany, as is commonly supposed, but from the banks of the Volga. This hypothesis, corroborated by tradition, Harkavy established as a fact” (The Haskalah Movement on Russia, by Jacob S. Raisin, Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1913, 1914, p. 17). The reigns of the nineteenth century Czars showed a fluctuation of attitudes toward the Jewish “state within a state” (The Haskalah Movement, p. 43). In general, Nicholas I had been less lenient than Alexander I toward his intractable non-Christian minority, but he took an immediate interest in the movement endorsed by the highly respected Levinsohn, for he saw in “Haskalah” an opportunity for possibly breaking down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars. He put in charge of the project of opening hundreds of Jewish schools a brilliant young Jew, Dr. Max Lilienthal. From its beginning, however, the Haskalah movement had had bitter opposition among Jews in Germany – many of whom, including the famous Moses Hess (Graetz-Raisin, op.cit., Vol. VI,. PP. 371 ff.), became ardent Jewish nationalists – and in Russia the opposition was fanatical. “The great mass of Russian Jewry was devoid of all secular learning, steeped in fanaticism, and given to superstitious practices” (Graetz-Raisin, op. cit., Vol. VI, P. 112), and their leaders, for the most part, had no notion of tolerating a project which would lessen or destroy their control. These leaders believed correctly that the new education was designed to lessen the authority of the Talmud, which was the cause, as the Russians saw it, “of the fanaticism and corrupt morals of the Jews.” The leaders of the Jews also saw that the new schools were a way “to bring the Jews closer to the Russian people and the Creek church” (Graetz-Raisin, op. cit., Vol. VI, p. II6). According to Raisin, “the millions of Russian Jews were averse to having the government interfere with their inner and spiritual life” by “foisting upon them its educational measures. The soul of Russian Jewry sensed the danger lurking in the imperial scheme” (op. cit., p. 117). Lilienthal was in their eyes “a traitor and informer,” and in 1845, to recover a modicum of prestige with his people, he “shook the dust of bloody Russia from his feet” (Graetz-Raisin, op.cit., Vol. VI, p. 117). Thus the Haskalah movement failed in Russia to break down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars. When Nicholas I died, his son Alexander II [reign, 1855-1881] decided to try a new way of winning the Khazar minority to willing citizenship in Russia. He granted his people, including the Khazars, so many liberties that he was called the “Czar Liberator.” By irony, or nemesis, however, his “liberal regime” contributed substantially to the downfall of Christian Russia. Despite the ill-success of his Uncle Alexander’s “measures to effect the ‘betterment’ of the ‘obnoxious’ Jewish element” (Univ. Jew. Encyc., Vol. I, p. 384), he ordered a wholesale relaxation of oppressive and restraining regulations (Graetz-Raisin, op. cit., p. 124) and Jews were free to attend all schools and universities and to travel without restrictions. The new freedom led, however, to results the “Liberator” had not anticipated. Educated, and free at last to organize nationally, the Judaized Khazars in Russia became not merely an indigestible mass in the body politic, the characteristic “state within a state, ” but a formidable anti-government force. With non-Jews of nihilistic or other radic

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