30.000 jews in Mocba

HARVARD COLLEGE  LIBRARY     VEriRI      GIFT OF THE   GOVERNMENT  OF THE UNITED STATES     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION     ■-) /     HEARINGS     BEFORE THE     COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES  HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES   NINETIETH CONGKESS     SECOND SESSION     JUNE 19, 1968  (INCLUDING INDEX)     Printed for the use of the  Committee on Internal Security   HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY.   DEPOSITED BY THE  nwTED STATES GOVERNMENT   JUu 9 1939      U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE  27-407 WASHINGTON : 1969     For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfHce  Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 20 cents     #^ i     COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERIOAN ACTIVITIES   United States House of Representatives  (90th Congress, 2d Session)   EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman  WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio   JOE R POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California   RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana   JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina   Francis J. McNamara, Director  Chester D. Smith, General Counsel  Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel     COMMITTEE ON INTERNAL SECURITY •   United States House of Reteesentatives  (91st Congress, 1st Session)   RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri, Chairman   CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio   EDWIN W. EDWARDS, Louisiana RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana   RICHARDSON PREYER, North Carolina ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina   LOUIS STOKES, Ohio WILLIAM J. SCHERLB, Iowa   Donald G. Sanders, Chief Counsel   Glenn Davis, Editorial Director   Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel        CONTENTS     Page   Synopsis 2197   June 19, 1968 :   Statement of Meir Kahane 2202   Testimony of Harry Bronstein 2206   Statement of Meir Kahane (resumed) 2220   Index i   III     The House Committee on ITn- American Activities is a standing  committee of the House of Representatives, constituted as such by the  rules of the House, adopted pursuant to Article I. section 5, of the  Constitution of the United States which authorizes the House to deter-  mine the rules of its proceedings.   RULES ADOPTED BY THE 9(>TH CONGRESS   House Resolution 7. January 10. 1967. as amended April 3. 196S. by House   Resolution 1099   RESOLUTION   Sesolred. That the Rules of the House />f Representatives of the Eighty-ninth  Congress, together with all applicable provisions; of the Legislative Reorganiza-  tion Act of 1946. as amended, be. and they are hereby, adopted as the Rules of  the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Congress * * *   ****** m   RrxE X   STA^DrSG COMMITTEES   1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress.  *******   (s) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members.   *******   RtXE XI   POWERS A>TI DITTIES OF COMMITTEES  *******   19. Committee on Un-American Activities.   (a) Un-Americ-an activities.   (b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee,  is authorized to make from time to time investigatons of (1) the extent, charac-  ter, and ot)jec-ts of un-American propaganda activities in the United States,  (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa-  ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks  the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and  1 3 1 all other qu,estions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any  necessary remedial legislation.   The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the  Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such invessti-  gation. together vrith such recommendations as it deems advisable.   For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American  Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times  and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has  recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of  such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to  take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the  signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any mem-  ber designated by any such chairman, and may be .served by any person desig-  nated by any such chairman or member.   *******   28. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in  developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary,  each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of  the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject  matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee : and. for that pur-  pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the  agencies in the executive branch of the Government.     SYNOPSIS   A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities held  public hearings in Washington. D.C.. on June 19. 196S. to receive the  testimony of Eabbis Meir Kahane and Harry Bronstein.   The hearings were held pursuant to a committee resolution which  authorized hearings relating to —   the extent and character of Commimist propaganda and c-onsptratorial techniques  employed within the United States to promote the objectiTes of the Commtmist  Party in the United States and to advance the purposes of the world Commtmist  movement by the dissemination of false and misleading information c-onceming  Communist doctrine and practic-es in regard to religion and ethnic and minority  groups * * *.   Eabbi Kahane, the first witness, identified himself as a writer and  editor for the Jewish Press, which he described as 'Tihe large-st Anglo-  Jewish newspaper in the country." The rabbi said he is one of the  founders of "a group called the Jewish Defense League, which is cur-  rently being organized to defend Jewish people against anti-Semitism  and to defend this country against various extremist groups such as  the Communists and the black nationalists, functioning at the present  time."   Eabbi Kahane testified that for a period of about 15 years he had  made a study of communism and Soviet anti-Semitism. The rabbi  stated that, prior to 1917, Eussia was the "heartland of the Jewish  faith — seminaries, synagogues. This was what one could truly say was  the flower of the Jewish people." "^\Tien the Soviets took over." he  said, "there began an immediate campaign to do away with this." State-  controlled institutions for Jews were established to replace the truly  Jewish institutions. The rabbi said these institutions —   were created for the very purix)se of doing away with the idea of Judaism. * * *  Xo .Jewish child was allowed to study his faith, either in the government s<iiooL  the public school, or in the privacy of his own home.   *******  At the same time, he is exposed to compulsory atheistic education in the schools.  It is quite obvious that this is an unequal battle, an unfair battle, and this is a  destruction of the Jewish soul.   According to Eabbi Kahane. "The Communists did a very, very  thorough job. "Within a decade, the greatness that had been Eussian  Judaism had been destroyed." iETe continued:   Jewish ritual is banned : synagogues have been dosed. One seminary, one sm all  token which Khrushchev opened up again as jiart of this great myth, is ciosed.  The youngest student at any time was 40 years old, and at no point were there  more than 13 students.   At this ]X)int Eabbi Kahane's testimony was interrupted so that  Eabbi Bronstein might be heard by the committee. Eabbi Bronstein  furnished the following information : He was bom in "Wyszkow. Po-  land, in May 1911. At the end of 1933 he left Poland and emigrated  to Canada. In 1940 he came to the United Stat^ and subsequently   2197     2198 ANTI-SEMITISM EST THE SOVIET UNION   acquired citizenship. He is vice president of the Rabbinical Alliance  of America and is president of Al Tidom, an organization whose pur-  pose is "to aid Soviet Jews in their que-st for re gious, cultural, and  informative material." He said he has made nine trips to the Soviet  Union and to Poland, Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugo-  slovia. The first trip was in 1958, the last in 1967. The purpose of his  travels was to train young men in the Jewish ritual of circumcision — a  ritual of great significance to the Jews, but forbidden in the Soviet  Union — and to strengthen the faith of his people.   Rabbi Bronstein stated Jews in the Soviet Union were being per-  secuted and oppressed. He asserted that "If the Soviet Union would  open its doors today for an exodus, I can assure you a quarter of a  million Jews would leave on foot * * *." He said students could not  go to the synagogue because they were in school, and the working men  could not go because of the 6-day work week. This is the reason, ac-  cording to Rabbi Bronstein, that tourists in the Soviet Union see only  old people in the synagogue. Nevertheless, "Despite all the propaganda  and brainwashing, Jewish children today are seeking religion," and,  he continued, "religion is a tremendous weapon against communism."  As evidence of the persistence of Judaism, he cited the example of  30,000 young men and women gathering in front of the central syna-  gogue on a Jewish holiday to dance, sing, and pray.   The witness urged that communication media such as the Voice of  America or Radio Liberty be utilized to disseminate religious infor-  mation which the Jews in Russia and satellite countries have been  denied, as well as information on religious freedom in the United  States.   He said recent propaganda which declares communism compatible  with religion is "the greatest lie." He cited examples to show the  Soviets are becoming "more aggressive" against religion. "The Soviet  Union today is one great prison, and they [Jews] are prisoners in that  prison." The Jewish people have been denied the ritual of circum-  cision, a cemetery in Moscow, the Hebrew alphabet, prayer books, Jew-  ish calendars in order to recognize the holidays, the talis, and mat-  zoth. They have also been denied their own Yiddish-language news-  papers and theaters.   On his latest trip to the Soviet Union, Rabbi Bronstein twice en-  countered the KGB.^ On the first occasion he was detained and in-  terrogated for 214 hours. He was told his visa was not good for travel  to a city he had visited and he was fined 50 rubles. The second incident  occurred as he was preparing to depart from Kiev airport. He was  picked up by three KGB agents, taken to a room, and interrogated.  The KGB had a dossier on him "which weighed over a kilo, with pic-  tures and statements and letters from Russian citizens," stating his  purpose in the Soviet Union was not just as a mere tourist, but that  he had come to organize an illegal exodus of Russian Jews. They also  accused him of "taking illegal pictures from concentration camps and  prisons, which was not true." The KGB confronted R^ibbi Bronstem  with a list of the names of persons he had met during his nine visits  to the Soviet Union. According to the rabbi, the fact most of the people '   ^ Komitet Oosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti — Committee for State Security (Soviet secret,  police) . I     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2199   he had met during his visits had actually managed to leave the Soviet  Union constituted proof to the KGB that he had come to organize an  illegal exodus. According to the witness, the Soviets knew every-  thing about him, not only his activity in the Soviet Union, but in the  United States as well. He stated the Soviets "must have good sources  of information in the United States."   Tlie rabbi testified, "Tens of thousands of Jews have applied for  exit permits to leave the Soviet Union, although the Soviet Union does  deny this, but we know better." He said that the people he had talked  with were anxious to leave the Soviet Union — he did not persuade  them to go.   Rabbi Bronstein informed the committee he has been declared  persona non grata by the Soviet Union.   Rabbi Kahane, resuming his testimony, furnished details about 50  years of Jewish persecution at the hands of the Communists in the  Soviet Union. He also pointed out specific situations wherein the  Communist Party, U.S.A., has, as he put it, "hewed faithfully" to the  Soviet line on the Jewish question. In the 1930's Soviet persecution  of the Jewish people was largely ignored by the Conununists in the  United States. During the Hitler-Stalin Pact, the Communists ap-  pealed to the Jews in this country to stay neutral, even though they  knew that adoption of that policy meant death to many Jews. During  the war years Soviet anti-Semitism decreased but, resuming in 1948,  it reached a peak in 1953. Throughout this period the CPUSA, includ-  ing its Jewish section, declared the reports of the purges and persecu-  tions were a lie — "a lie created by the Americans, by the imperialists,  by the Zionists * * *." After Khrushchev admitted the reports were  true, Rabbi Kahane stated, the "Communists didn't bat an eyelash."  Today in the Soviet Union, anti-Semitism continues, and American  Communists continue to reject or rationalize any report of such a  policy.   Rabbi Kahane advised that the average age of a Russian rabbi is 70  years. In a country which once boasted tens of thousands of syna-  gogues, the Soviet Union had only 450 synagogues in 1956, and 7 years  later there were only 96. Today there are only 64 synagogues remain-  ing in a country with 3 million Jews. And, Rabbi Kahane said :   Each of the remaining lonely synagogues stands alone, for Jewish congrega-  tions are forbidden to maintain a central organization or a nationwide federation  which would coordinate needs and standards and bolster religious beliefs. Need-  less to say, no communication with foreign religious bodies is countenanced.   And so the synagogues remain dying centers of a once-thriving religion, where  old people sit beneath the eye of the inevitable synagogue informer, where the  rabbi and the remaining devout sit motionless, fearful, watching their faith —  and themselves — die.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION     WEDNESDAY, JUNE 19, 1968   United States House of Representatives,   Subcommittee of the  Committee on Un-American Activities,   Washington^ D.G.   PUBLIC HEARINGS   A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met,  pursuant to call, in Room 311, Cannon House Office Building, Wash-  ington, D.C, at 10 a.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the full  committee) presiding.   (Subcommittee members : Representatives William M. Tuck, of Vir-  ginia, chairman ; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, chairman of the full  committee ; and Albert W. Watson, of South Carolina.)   Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis and Watson.   Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Chester D.  Smith, general counsel; and Herbert Romerstein, investigator.   The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order.   This subcommittee is convened this morning pursuant to a resolu-  tion of the full committee dated March 8, 1967, which reads as follows :   BE IT RESOLVED, That hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi-  ties or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at such other  place or places as the chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the  chairman may designate, relating to the extent and character of Communist  propaganda and conspiratorial techniques employed within the United States  to promote the objectives of the Communist Party in the United States and to  advance the purposes of the world Communist movement by the dissemination  of false and misleading information concerning Communist doctrine and practices  in regard to religion and ethnic and minority groups, the legislative purpose be-  ing to provide factual information to aid the Congress in the enactment of any  necessary remedial legislation pursuant to the mandate to the Committee by  House Resolution 7 of January 10, 1967, and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress.   (The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows:)   June 18, 1968.  To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara,  Director, Committee on Vn-Am,erican Activities.   Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I  hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities,  consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck, as Chairman, and myself, and Honor-  able Albert W. Watson as associate members, to conduct hearings in Washing-  ton, D.C, on Wednesday, June 19, 1968, as contemplated by the resolution  adopted by the Committee on the 8th day of March, 1967, authorizing hearings  concerning the extent and character of Communist propaganda and conspira-  torial techniques employed within the United States to promote the objectives  of the Communist Party and world Communism by the dissemination of false  and misleading information concerning Communist doctrine and practices in  regard to religion, and other matters under investigation by the Committee.   Please make this action a matter of Committee record.   2201   27-407 O — 69 2     2202 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me.  Given under my hand this 18th day of June, 1968.   /s/ Edwin E. Willis  Edwin E. Willis,  Chairman, Committee on Vn-American Activities.   STATEMENT OF RABBI MEIR KAHANE   Mr, Smith. Identify yourself for the record, stating your full  name, address, and date and place of birth.   Rabbi Kahane. Meir Kahane, 233-20 139th Avenue, Rosedale, New  York. I was bom on August 1, 1932, in Brooklyn, New York.   Mr. Smith. How long have you been a rabbi ?   Rabbi Kahane. Since 1956.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, please give the committee a brief resume of your  activities over the years beyond those of a purely religious nature.   Rabbi Kahane. I have been a writer and editor for the Jewish Press,  which is the largest Anglo- Jewish newspaper in the country.   During that time, I have specialized in a series of articles on "Com-  munism V. Judaism." I have also authored a book entitled The  Jewish /Stake in Vietnam, which defends the position of this country  in that Southeast Asian country.   I am also one of the founders of a group called the Jewish Defense  League, which is currently being organized to defend Jewish people  against anti-Semitism and to defend this country against various  extremist groups such as the Communists and the black nationalists,  functioning at the present time.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, for a period of time, have you made a study of  Soviet Communist policy and practice in regard to religion, partic-  ularly as it has affected Jews in the Soviet Union and any other East  European nation?   Rabbi Kahane. Yes, I have, for a period of approximately 15 years.   Mr. Smith. Have you, in addition, also made a study of the position  taken by the Communist Party, U.S.A., and other Communist organi-  zations in the United States on the subject of Communist persecution  of Jews and Soviet anti-Semitism?   Rabbi Kahane. Yes, I have.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, please give the committee an outline of your find-  ings and those of others who can speak with authority about Soviet  policies and practices regarding the Jewish religion.   "We would then like to have you discuss propaganda on that subject  distributed in the United States by Communist groups for the purpose  of advancing world communism by misleading the American people,  trying to keep them from learning the truth about Soviet anti-Semi-  tism and persecution of the Jews.   Rabbi Kahane. I would like at this point very, very briefly to give  an outline of the history of the Jews of Russia in the last 50 years  since the Communist regime took power.   In general, I can state that in these 50 years the Jews of the Soviet  Union have suffered a determmed governmental policy to wipe out  Judaism as a faith and the Jewish people as a definite entity.   Beginning with the early years of Communist rule in the Soviet  Union, the Communists were faced with a very definite body of  Jews, a very large body of Jews who were tied to their faith.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2203   Russia, prior to 1917, was the heartland of the Jewish faith — sem-  inaries, synagogues. This was what one could truly say was the flower  of the Jewish people.   When the Soviets took over, there began an immediate campaign  to do away with this. What was done at first was to establish a Jewish  Communist section, whose purpose was to establish media in Yiddish,  which at that time was the basic language of Russian Jews, for the  dual purpose of having the Jews feel grateful to the new regime for  its recognition and aid as well as using these media for the purpose  of propaganda and indoctrination in communism. Thus, Yiddish lan-  guage newspapers, theaters, book publishing firms, and secular schools  were created.   To the gullible, the Soviets appeared determined to preserve the  Jewish identity. After all, when, in the entire history of exile, had  any government done so much to back and set up Jewish institutions ?   But, of course, these were not Jewish institutions.   These were institutions for Jews, and the distinction between the two  is quite critical. These Jewish institutions were created for the very  purpose of doing away with the idea of Judaism. Yiddish was to be  used to do away with the Yid.   Within a brief period of years, all of the previously existing truly  Jewish institutions, Yeshivas, the institutions of Jewish learning had  been abolished. No Jewish child was allowed to study his faith, either  in the government school, the public school, or in the privacy of his  own home.   The Communists did a very, very thorough job. Within a decade, the  greatness that had been Russian Judaism had been destroyed.   I would like to supply for the record at this point a very, very brief  letter written in 1929 by the leading rabbi of his time. Rabbi Yesroel  Meir Hacohen. He was undoubtedly the leading rabbi of his time who  wrote of the tragedy that was happening to Russian Jews. (See  page 2222.)   At this point, I would just like to pause and comment on this last  paragraph. The crying out to public opinion is one of the functions  that this committee is serving at this moment.   I would like to give my own personal thanks and the thanks of  Jews of this country to this committee for offering an opportunity to  bring to the public the plight of the Soviet Jewry, the immense myth  that the Soviets are trying to propagate that this is not true and to show  the American people, both Jew and non-Jew, how the representatives  of the various Communist powers, whether it is Soviet Russia or China,  follow this line.   All that I have said occurred in the early years of communism. In  the later years, things went from bad to worse.   The Soviet Union was not content to do away with Jewish culture.  Blatant anti-Semitism and physical destruction of Jews took place.   From 1936 to 1939, the Jewish communal institutions which had  been established by the Communists to indoctrinate Jews were deemed  to be unnecessary any longer. Even these were done away with. In that  period of time and immediately preceding the Hitler-Stalin Pact,  Jewish intellectuals and Jewish leaders were murdered. There was, at  this point, no Jewish communal institution within the Soviet Union.   In 1939 Stalin concluded his infamous pact with Hitler. Because     2204 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   of this pact, Communists throughout the world began a massive cam-  paign against war. They attempted to use all possible means to keep  the Western Allies and especially this country from joining the battle  against nazism and fascism.   Because of this, there is no doubt that countless Jews died — count-  less Jews who might have been saved, died. Needless to say, by June  22, 1941, when Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, there was a radical,  overnight change of policy.   During the war, for obvious reasons, the Soviets played down anti-  Semitism and they created a puppet Jewish anti-Fascist committee in  order to consolidate Jewish opinion for the backing of the Soviet  Union against Hitler.   After the war, this committee was completely liquidated. Every  person on it was killed. Soviet anti-Semitism reached its peak in  1953 with a blatantly anti-Semitic plot against doctors.   At this point, let me make it clear that communism and fascism  have ceased to be meaningful differences. Communism and fascism  both use the same methods.   The Chairman. May I suggest this question to you : For years  the Communists in Moscow took the position that religion was an  opium.   Now, as you have indicated, I think you called it a myth that in the  last 2 years or so they are now saying that commmiism is compatible  with religion. You dispute that. In other words, the policy is incon-  sistent with the practice ; is that not true ?   Rabbi Kahane. Definitely so, and this particular policy within  the past 2 years is not a meaningful policy, not in any manner or  means. Any serious student of commmiism knows that communism  moves forward, moves backward, zigs and zags, but never changes its  basic policy.   There is an incompatibility between Judaism or any other faith  and communism.   The Soviet attacks upon Jews have continued to this present day.  Within the Soviet Union at this present moment, Judaism is gasping  for breath. There are no schools to teach Judaism. No Jewish child  under 16 is allowed to be taught privately in his own home anything  of the Jewish faith.   At the same time, he is exposed to compulsory atheistic education  in the schools. It is quite obvious that this is an unequal battle, an un-  fair battle, and this is a destruction of the Jewish soul.   Jewish ritual is banned; synagogues have been closed. One semi-  nary, one small token which Khrushchev opened up again as part  of this great myth, is closed. The youngest student at any time was  40 years old, and at no point were there more than 13 students.   Finally, I would like to say one thing: There are those who say  that communism persecutes all faiths. This is quite true. Certainly,  we join with other faiths in condemning the persecution, the blatant  persecution of Baptists, the Witnesses, and various other groups.   However, let me add this final point in this particular session : The  Jewish people not only suffer a discrimination of their faith, but they  suffer more than others.   Wliereas other faiths are allowed token seminaries, the training of  priests and ministers, the Jews are allowed none.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2205   Where other faiths have a federation which allows priests and  ministers to have contact with each other in different cities, the Jews  have none.   Whereas other faiths have had bibles printed, the Jews have had  none.   Whereas other faiths have had permission to send representatives  of their faith to world conferences, Jews have not had that oppor-  tunity. And at this point let me just make one cormnent about what I  consider the imfortunate propaganda which the Communists will  make use of in the visits at this moment of the Chief Rabbi of Moscow.   Chief Rabbi Levin is a wonderful Jew, a Jew who bears upon his  shoulders the yoke of 3 million Soviet Jews.   What he says here he must say, but in no way if he says anything  to indicate that the stories that we have heard of persecution of Jews  is not true — in no way is this correct.   His visit will be used for propaganda purposes. I sympathize with  Rabbi Levin, but I want you to know that the Jews of America realize  why he was sent. It is a tragedy. In no way — in no way does this mean  any lessening of the persecution of the Soviet Jew.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, could you address yourself to the type of propa-  ganda being put out within the United States to advance world com-  munism, as to its meaning and what it really is?   Rabbi Kahane. I think one of the most blatant examples of this  deals with a very, very recent problem and that is that of the sudden  and intense blatant rise in anti-Semitism in Poland, a Soviet satellite.   The evidence is indisputable that the purge of Jews is an anti-  Semitic purge. The leader of this purge. Interior Minister Morcza,  is an anti-Semite with roots going far, far back to the early forties,  when, as a partisan, he fought together with Jewish partisans against  the Nazis. The evidence is indisputable.   Nevertheless, on May 12 [1968], Ths Worker published an article  which was entitled "Slander Against Poland," in which the author,  Harry Yaris, said:   I am firmly convinced that the present leadership of the Polish United  Workers Party [the Communist Party] and of the government are not anti-  Semitic. There is too much of the contrary in their personal and collective  history to permit such a notion.   Aside from the obvious garbage of this particular fact, the fact is  here was an article which was dictated from Moscow, which is printed  in The Worker here, by, unfortunately, someone who is Jewish.   Mr. Smith. That is Ths Worker of the Communist Party of the  United States?   Rabbi IOlhane. Yes, in New York City, It attempts to once again  put the lie to an obvious truth. There is much, much more that I would  say, and hope to say later, about the general Conmiunist support of  every zig and every zag of Moscow, and in recent years with the rise  of the pro- Peking Communist groups of a similar line on their part,  when it comes to Chinese policy.   Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I would like to temporarily  discontinue Rabbi Kahane's testimony in order to hear the testimony  of Rabbi Bronstein.   Rabbi Kahane will be recalled a little later to complete his  testimony.     2206 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   The Chairman. Rabbi Bronstein, do you solemnly affirm to tell the  truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?  Rabbi Bronstein. I so affirm.   TESTIMONY OF RABBI HARRY BRONSTEIN   Mr. Smith. What is your date and place of birth, Rabbi Bronstein?   Rabbi Bronstein. I was born in Poland, in the city of Wyszkow, in  the month of May 1911.   Mr. Smith. Wlien did you leave Poland ?   Rabbi Bronstein. At the end of 1933.   Mr. Smith. Where did you go ?   Rabbi Bronstein. I went to live in Canada. I lived there for 7 years.  In 1940 1 emigi-ated to the United States.   Mr. Smith. Are you now a United States citizen ?   Rabbi Bronstein. I am.   Mr. Smith. Did you serve the United States during World War II ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes, I served as a civilian chaplain in the United  States Army and Marine Corps during World War II at Camp David  and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.   Mr. Smith. How long have you been a rabbi ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Since 1933.   Mr. Smith. With what organization are you affiliated ?   Rabbi Bronstein. I am the vice president of the Rabbinical Alliance  of America, the official organization of orthodox rabbis.   Mr. Smith. Is this a Zionist organization ?   Rabbi Bronstein. No, this is not a Zionist organization.   Mr. Smith. Are there others ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes ; I am president of Al Tidom, which means  in English "dare not be silent." The purpose of this organization is to  aid Soviet Jews in their quest for religious, cultural, and informative  material.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, have you been to the Soviet Union and other  countries behind the Iron Curtain ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes ; I have made nine visits to the Soviet Union,  also to Poland, Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia  on nine different occasions.   Mr. Smith. In your travels to the Soviet Union, have you gone for  a specific purpose and have you been able to accomplish your purpose?   Rabbi Bronstein. My first visit to western Poland was in 1958. At  that time, Mr. Michael D. Tress, the executive vice president of Agu-  dath Israel in America returned from a short visit in Poland. He  found out there that 20,000 former Polish citizens who had been re-  patriated from the Soviet Union back to Poland on their way to  Israel, not to remain in Poland, had begged him to see to it that a rabbi  should come to Poland to circumcise the adult boys who had no oppor-  tunity to be circumcised in Russia since the Soviet Union prohibits  ritual circumcision. Since I am in the United States and one of the top  rabbis in this field who trains young men and also doctors in the field of  circumcision — I happen to be an expert in this field — I was asked by  my organization to go to Poland to perform this act; also, to train  several so they should be able to continue this work after I left.   On February 11, 1958, I arrived in Poland and I found hundreds  upon hundreds of young men, not children, clamoring for circumcision.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2207   When I asked them why, they told me that psycholo^cally they feel  like non-Jews because they were not circumcised. This is an historic  fact, that these young men between the ages of 8 and 28 begged for  circumcision. They refused even local anesthesia. They just clenched  their fists and said, "It hurts," but they went through this ritual.   I think that this is the greatest challenge to communism. We must  remember that these young men had been trained and indoctrinated in  communism, as the honorable chairman just said, that religion is the  opium of the masses and the first slogan that a child upon entering the  nursery in the Soviet Union is taught — that religion is the opium of the  ma^'s??.   Still, when they came to Poland and Poland did not prevent them  from going through with this ritual, they demanded circumcision. I  have circumcised hundreds of them and I have trained three young  men in this field and they, after I had left, continued and still con-  tinue to do this work.   Mr. Smith. Has the Soviet Government accused you of helping  Jews leave the Soviet Union ?   Kabbi Bronstein. Well, they did. They accused me of organizing  an exodus of Russian Jews and they have had so-called witnesses and  have obtained statements from Jewish informers that I came to them  and I told them to leave the Soviet Union and that they should go to  Israel and America instead, because conditions are better outside the  Soviet Union than inside.   Mr. Smith. Did you have any experience with the Soviet secret  police during your last visit and when was your last visit, by the way ?   Rabbi Bronstein. My last visit to the Soviet Union, I believe I  arrived in Kiev on May 30.   Mr. Smith. What year ?   Rabbi Bronstein. 1967. I traveled from Kiev to Zhitomir and  Berdichev and a few other small towns. The reason I went there was  that I wanted to visit old cemeteries where lay buried the greatest  geniuses, the greatest heads of the Jewish people, especially in the  city of Berdichev.   I was entitled to a car for 6 hours because the day before I did not  use my car. I am entitled to 3 hours every day. So I engaged an In-  tourist chauffeur, and he drove me to Berdichev.   On the way back, on the outskirts of Berdichev I was arrested, and  they interrogated me for 2i/^ hours. They told me that I had no spe-  cial visa to ^o to Berdichev. My visa was only to Moscow, Kiev, and a  few other cities.   I told them I did not sleep over in Berdichev, but I went for a ride  with an Intourist chauffeur.   The chauffeur was also interrogated, and his license was taken away  from him. And upon returning to Kiev, I was made to pay a penalty  of 50 rubles, which is about $55, for overriding the time of my car  which I was entitled to.   Mr. Smith. What date were you arrested ?   Rabbi Bronstein. This was not an arrest; it was an interrogation.  It was on Sunday. I spent this weekend in Kiev, and on Sunday morn-  ing I was on my way to the city of Lvov, at the airport, and three  KGB agents came over to me and said, "Rabbi Bronstein, you are  under arrest and please follow us."     2208 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   I didn't know why. I first thought that this was the result of my  so-called illegal trip to Berdichev, but I soon found out it was not so.   I was taken to a room. I didn't know where I was. Three KGB agents  began to interrogate me. They didn't give me a chance to answ^er one  question, when there came another question.   They attempted to confuse me, but with God's help I stood my  ground. And they had a dossier, a file on me which weighed over a kilo,  with pictures and statements and letters from Russian citizens that my  purpose in the Soviet Union was not just as a mere tourist, but, as I  said before, that I came to organize an illegal exodus of Russian Jews.  They also accused me of taking illegal pictures from concentration  camps and prisons, which was not true.   They also had a letter from a certain man in Chernovtsy, who gave  them the names of individuals with whom I had met. And the head  of this interrogation group read off to me a list of various names with  whom I had met in the Soviet Union during my nine visits there, and  most of them did manage to leave the Soviet Union. They asked me  how come most of the people I had met with had left the Soviet Union.  In other words, this was proof that I came to organize this illegal  exodus.   Tens of thousands of Jews have applied for exit permits to leave  the Soviet Union although the Soviet Union does deny this, but we  know better. These people I have met with I did not persuade to go.  They were anxious to leave the Soviet Union. I did not assist them  in it, but since Mr. Kosygin made a statement on December 4, 1966,  in Paris that any Soviet citizen that wishes to leave may do so, espe-  cially to be reunited with his relatives, a few people dared— I say a  few — out of the tens of thousands only a few dared to apply for an  exit permit. Most of them were refused. The reason why they were  refused is because the Russian Government does not want to see such  a mass exodus. They are afraid maybe 50 million or 75 million Russians  will follow their example.   This was what they accused me of. They accused me of spying, work-  ing for the State Department and other organizations, and also ac-  cused me of working for the Joint Distribution Committee.   The truth is, I never worked for the Joint Distribution Committee.  I have never worked for them. I want to help Jews. My purpose in  going to the Soviet Union was to strengthen the religious faith of my  people who, as my colleague Rabbi Kahane has just said, are gasping  for air, for religious freedom.   I think it is incumbent upon any rabbi or any religious person, Jew  or Gentile, to extend a helping hand to these unfortunate people who  are being denied the God-given right to be what they are. I am proud  of it and, if I could do it again, I would do it again.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, please explain to us the significance of the cir-  cumcision ceremony and in what way this is of particular importance  to Soviet Jews.   Rabbi Bronstein. I was instrumental in training 18 rabbis and men  in the Soviet Union in the performance of ritual circumcision and 19  rabbis and laymen in the other satellite countries like Poland, Ru-  mania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Why? As I told you before, a  Jew feels like it is a psychological block. If he is not circumcised, he  does not feel like a Jew.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2209   Today in the Soviet Union we have tens of thousands of young men  and women, particularly of college age, who are terribly disillusioned  with communism and they are seeking God ; they are seeking religion  because communism after 50 years of existence has not fulfilled its  promises to its people.   Just like one buys a ticket to go to Los Angeles with say 10 coupons  in it. The 10 coupons are removed, and only the stop is left.   The reason why the Soviet Union is fighting religion is because they  have nothing else to fight. They have lost all of their arguments and  so they still cling to this fight against religion, and therefore we are  the biggest victims because the Jewish people essentially are very  religious people. They have given religion to mankind.   By training these men and by doing it myself, and I wish to describe  to the committee under what conditions these young men are circum-  cised today in the Soviet Union, I think you would all cry.   They are hiding in cemeteries.   I had to go with them to places where I would never dream or dare  to go, and they have not only demanded but begged me, "Rabbi, make  me for a Jew."   i^.fter I have completed this ritual act on them, they embraced me  and kissed me, saying, "Thank you. Rabbi, for making me a Jew."   If you people read that 30,000 young men and women gathered in  the front of the central synagogue — Simchas Torah, the holiday, the  final day of the holiday in the fall — and danced and sang Hebrew  songs, I want you to know this is the result of a little bit of our work.  There were many circumcised boys there who were circumcised by our  people in the front of that synagogue. You must also remember that  among the 30,000 young men and women who dared to come to  the front of the synagogue, at least 10 percent were informers who  came to inform on those who did come. Still they came because they  wanted to identify themselves with their people, with their religion,  with the synagogue, and to show the Soviet Union that these young  men and women still believe in a God and still want to be Jews.   I think it is incumbent upon us to help them, and this is what I am  doing.   Mr. Smith. Has the Soviet Government hindered Jewish life as  such ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Not only did, but does. The Soviet Government  does everything in its power not only to hinder, but to erase, eradicate  the Jewish life and therefore the reaction.   I am not a bit pessimistic about Jewish life in the Soviet Union.  Others may be, but I am not. It is just like the violinist who places  his finger on the string and it produces a nice tone.   This is it. Because the Jews are being persecuted and oppressed,  there is a tremendous revival among Jews in the Soviet Union today.   If the Soviet Union would open its doors today for an exodus, I  can assure you a quarter of a million Jews would leave on foot from  the Soviet Union.   So, my job in the training of these young men in the performance  of circumcision was not to impose upon the Soviet citizens something  they did not want, but because there was a demand for it, a desire  for it, that is the reason I did it.   27-407 O— 69 3     2210 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   Mr. Smith. Could you describe the Jewish schools and the home life  of the Jewish families as to whether or not there is this persecutioii  of these two elements of Jewish life ?   Kabbi Bronstein. There are no schools in the Soviet Union which  are Jewish or Hebrew. You cannot see a young man or a young  woman in the synagogue, not because neither wants to go there, but  because we must remember that the Soviet Union, being that it is  the paradise, so they say, people work their 6-day weeks and no  Jewish child or young man or woman would dare to go to a synagogue,  and therefore none can go to the synagogue.   At night when this celebration took place at the synagogue, they  came at night. In the daytime they couldn't come because they went  to school, and therefore you can't see any working man or woman in  a synagogue because each is at work. So, they cannot come ; they want  to come, but they cannot come. They would not dare be absent from  work and go to a synagogue. Therefore, they are not there, and I am  surprised that some tourists go to the Soviet Union, take a camera on  their shoulders and say, "I did find some worshipers in the synagogue,  but most of them were old people." That is just not true. They would  love to be there, but they cannot.   Now, as far as Jewish life is concerned, there are parents who do  train their children, so-called underground in the Jewish religion. I  know of a family whose children refused to go to school on the Sab-  bath. When this boy or girl came on Monday to school and was asked  why did you miss school, he said, "My father told me to go. In fact, he  beat me. He told me to go, but I know on the Sabbath you are not  allowed to go to school. Therefore, I didn't go."   They are trained to do so.   I believe there is a spiritual genocide being committed against the  Jews in the Soviet Union.   Mr. Smith. What is the significance of the denial of matzoth during  the Jewish Passover?   Rabbi Bronstein. To us, to eat matzoth during the Passover is a  commandment, one of the Jewish laws. We must not eat leavened  bread during the 8 days of the Passover holiday.   But I want to make you understand, gentlemen, that the reason why  the Soviet Union is hindering baking of the matzoth is not because  they say there is a shortage of flour — and we have to buy flour from  capitalistic comitries such as America, Australia, and so on — and they  ask, "Wliy should we spend it on your ceremony ?"   To us, matzoth is more than a diet bread. To us, matzoth signifies  liberty, because matzoth is associated with the exodus of the people  of Israel from the bondage of Egypt.   I always like to enlighten my statement with an episode and I have  plenty of them.   My chauffeur in Moscow 8 years ago, around February this was,  happened to be a Jewish person. After speaking to him for a few min-  utes, I found out he was Jewish. I asked him, "Will you have matzoth  at Passover?"   He said, "No," and tears were in his eyes. I then said, "Why not?"  He replied, "Well, we can't get it."     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2211   I asked him if he was a religious person. He said, "No, my parents  couldn't train me in religion. I would eat my matzoth with vodka and  kielbasi."   I said, "How can you have matzoth when it is against the law?"   He says, "It means svoboda. It means liberty. That is what matzoth  means to me," and that is why they are denying the Jewish people the  baking of matzoth because it is associated with liberty, with freedom,  and this they could not take.   Mr. Smith. Have Jews been imprisoned for the practice of their  religion ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Thousands of them are languishing in prisons  today in the Soviet Union because they have observed their religion  and because they have attempted to circumcise a child, because they  have attempted to train a child in the Jewish religion. They have lost  their jobs. I have been to homes where the children had swollen  bellies with rickets because the father couldn't hold a job because he  was a so-called political prisoner.   I know of many Jewish babies who died in the Soviet Union be-  cause the grandparents attempted to circumcise them themselves.  They were not trained for it, and the baby died because of hemorrhage  and infection. They didn't have the money to bring in someone from  the outside, and I know of some rabbis who are in prison because they  were caught in performing this ritual.   A lot of parents refused to do it, not because they don't want it,  but because every child after the mother delivers the baby, 30 days  later, the child is admitted to the yasna, a so-called nursery, and  the mother is afraid the nurses or doctors will see the child is circum-  cised and they will be interrogated where and who did it, and therefore  they are afraid to do it.   Mind you, in the United States, in the city of New York, for ex-  ample, 92 percent of all male born children, Jews and non- Jews alike,  are circumcised, whether it is for health reasons or ritual. Science has  discovered that carcinoma of the penis is nonexistent among males  who have been circumcised, nor are there incidents of carcinoma of  the uterus among females whose husbands have been circumcised.   Wliy don't they permit them to do it for health reasons if not for  ritual reasons ? Why don't they permit that ?   Mr. Smith. We have had testimony in the past about Communist  secret police infiltrating the Russian Orthodox churches as well as  other churches in the Soviet Union.   Have they done the same thing with regard to the Jewish syna-  gogues ?   Rabbi Bronstein. As far as the Russian secret police are con-  cerned — and I would like to explain why so many synagogues have  been closed in recent years in the Soviet Union — ^there are only 64  synagogues functioning today in the Soviet Union.   This is because they have been successful in getting the presidotels  [presidents] to inform on the congregants, to inform on the wor-  shipers.   Unfortunately, every fourth citizen in the Soviet Union is an in-  former. But the reason why they are closing synagogues is because  they were not so successful in penetrating the worshipers. They were  successful in getting the officials to inform on other people, but the     2212 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   congregants themselves have not cooperated and refused to give in-  formation to the KGB.   You must remember that we have already today a cadre of hun-  dreds of thousands of Jews who have passed the working age, and  before they couldn't go to the synagogue because, as I told you be-  fore, they were working, but now they are at liberty to sit in the  synagogues, and therefore these synagogues are so crowded with wor-  shipers, with the so-called pensioned Jews.   This grandfather takes a Hebrew alphabet which is not available  in the Soviet Union today because no prayer books are being printed.  They did print 5,000 in 1957, but it was only for foreign consumption,  but not for domestic consumption.   Rabbi Le"vin just made a statement that they printed again a quan-  tity of prayer books, but I can assure you 3 years ago they also printed  the first Jewish calendar in the Soviet Union, but the Russian Jews  would not be able to get one.   That is the reason they are closing the synagogues because the grand-  father rents an alphabet. He rents it from the prayer book. The first  page is an alphabet. It is placed in plastic covers. He pays 25 cents,  and he is training his grandson in the reading of the alphabet.   Some of the informants know about it, but I want to make a dis-  tinction between the non-Jewish church and the Jewish synagogue.  In the non-Jewish church they have been successful because they so-  called neutralized the Russian church to a great extent.   Nikolai Nikodin was here and spoke nicely about everything being  fine and dandy in Russia, but they were not successful in neutralizing  the Jewish synagogue because we are a practicing religion.   In order to allow the synagogue to survive, we have to have a talis,  a religious shawl, which you cannot get in the Soviet Union. Not one  was ever manufactured in the Soviet Union for the whole 55 years of  their existence.   The Chairman. You have said that the education of young Jews in  Russia through Jewish schools is forbidden, proscribed. Are there  yomig Jews exposed to Russian schools? Do they attend Russian  schools ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Jewish children have to attend Russian schools.  Every child has to attend school.   The Chairman. This is a terrific influence on the younger generation.   Rabbi Bronstein. Of course. But, Mr, Chairman, I want to make  this clear to you, with all of this propaganda in the schools   The Chair^ian. Despite the propaganda ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Despite all the propaganda and brainwashing,  Jewish children today are seeking religion, and it is our aim, it is our  purpose to extend to them a helping hand. And I believe not only my  committee, not only organizations that are trying to help them— but I  believe it is incumbent upon the American people to do something in  this field.   I am convinced, and many others are, that religion is a tremendous  weapon against communism. We are spending millions and millions  of dollars on Voice of America and other means of communication,  but I think Voice of America and Radio Free Europe should have as  part, of their programs religious programs, because this is what the  people want.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2213   You don't have to ask the doctor. Ask the patient what the patient  wants, and I know what the patient wants. I have been there nine  times. I struggled with them and I know that is what they want. They  want an alphabet and a religious shawl. I gave an elderly gentleman  a talis in Kiev, and he began to dance with tears in his eyes.   I said, "Why are you so happy ? " He said, "Now we have something  to die with because they bury a Jew in a talis."  Is this our problem ?   Our problem is the hundreds of thousands of Jews who do not want  to have the talis to be buried with, but to live with and worship with,  but they can't get it. You can go to a synagogue and see tens of thou-  sands of people and only 10 might have one.   Wliy hasn't the Jewish calendar been printed for 48 years ? There are  Jews in the Soviet Union who don't know when to observe Rosh  Hashana because they don't have a calendar.   I say we are singled out for discrimination, and this is what we are  talking about. We are worse off than any other denomination in the  Soviet Union. As far as the Jewish children are concerned, if they  would be given the opportunity, they would want to be good Jews.   Mr. Smith. You spoke a moment ago of 64 synagogues throughout  Eussia to serve how many Jews ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Three million Jews.   Mr. Smith. Could you give any indication of how many of these  synagogues are located in Moscow ?   Rabbi Bronstein. In Moscow there is only one great synagogue,  and there are two small ones on the outskirts of Moscow.   Mr. Smith. What is the reaction of Soviet Jews to these informers  you spoke of a moment ago ?   Rabbi Bronstein. They hate them.  Mr. Smith. Do they take any measures against them ?  Rabbi Bronstein. I would also like to enlighten again with another  episode.   There was a certain presidotel in Kiev, a gentleman by the name of  Mr. Yonah Gendelman, who for many years terrorized the Jewish  community of Kiev. He was an informer, and everybody knew about  it. Last year before I went to Kiev, I arrived there in May, 2 months  before the people refused to worship. They made a stop, they didn't  go to make the minyan. And they refused to worship unless this Mr.  Gendelman would step off the so-called pulpit.   The people stood there until about 10 o'clock in the evening, reading  the book of Esther. When he saw there was no use, he left the syna-  gogue, and that was the beginning of their service. This took place for  4 weeks, 4 Friday nights the people refused to worship with him until  he gave up his presidency.   Another gentleman took over with whom they were also dissatisfied  because he was a former vice president, and he was attacked by the  Jewish community in Kiev, physically attacked.   What I am trying to bring out here, gentlemen, is that the Jewish  people, as such, are not cooperating with these informers and the KGB  people who are coming and trying to infiltrate the synagogues. They  were not successful,   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, it is well known that the Soviet Union regime  is an antireligious regime and, of course, has been persecuting religi-     2214 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   ous groups since the founding of the Soviet state. Is there any addi-  tional factor of significance in regard to the persecution of the Jewish  religion ?   Rabbi Bronstein. As I said before, we are singled out for persecu-  tion because we don't want to give in. They could not neutralize us.  And if after 50 years of communism 30,000 young men and women still  gather in front of the synagogue to sing Hebrew songs and recite Jew-  ish prayers, I think this is the best proof that they have not been  successful.   I want to reiterate that it is up to us, men and women of the world,  to extend them a helping hand in their struggle for religious liberty.  If not, we are committing the biggest crime in history.   Mr. Smith. Is Jewish cultural life suppressed, such as theaters, and  so forth ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes. There are no theaters. There is a so-called  wandering troupe of Jewish actors, sometimes going into a city and  playing an act, but take for instance in Poland where there is a Jewish  state theater functioning in Warsaw.   There is a Jewish daily paper, Folks-Shtimme^'^ but there is none in  Moscow. In Communist Poland there is a daily theater and daily pa-  per, but for 3 million Jews in the Soviet Union there is none.   Mr. Smith. Is there any Jewish-language newspaper in the Soviet  Union ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Only a Jewish magazine once a month, although  there is nothing Jewish about it ; it is of no Jewish significance what-  soever, just Jewish letters.   Mr. Smith. Do the Soviets suppress the Jewish language as such ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yiddish as a language?   Mr. Smith. Yes.   Rabbi Bronstmn. I have to go back again to figures.   In 1959, during the census in the Soviet Union, 487,000 Jews  answered one of the questions : "What is your mother tongue ?"   487,000 Jews dared — and I emphasize the word "dared" — ^to write  down the word "Yiddish" in answer to that question. If close to half  a million Jews said that Yiddish is their mother tongue, well, why  don't you furnish them with a Jewish paper, with a Jewish book ?   I am not talking about religious books now. If half a million citizens,  and by the constitution you are compelled, and you say yourself you  give every ethnic group — it is trying to develop its culture.   Well, why don't they give the same thing to the Jewish people?   Mr. Smith. Rabbi Bronstein, do you have any final statement that  you would like to make before closing your testimony ?   Rabbi Bronstein. The Jewish community of the Soviet Union is the  second largest Jewish community in the world after the United States.  These 3 million Jews are our best brethren. I say that without anj^  hesitation. I say that for this reason : After 50 yeare of communism,  oppression, they still want to be Jews; they are the best Jews in the  world and they are the best freedom-loving people in the world.   The Soviet Union today is one great prison, and they are prisoners  in that prison.   I am of the opinion that a lot could be done on tlieir behalf. I am not  in a position to spell out in public here all of the details for obvious   1 Yiddish Communist paper published in Warsaw.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2215   reasons, but I can assure you gentlemen that a lot is being done and  more could be done.   I would strongly urge the American Government to extend a helping  hand in this field. In fact, I am meeting today with the State Depart-  ment on Soviet affairs and I am going to give them a detailed program  of what could and should be done.   Let's not beguile ourselves with all this propaganda that they are  trying to sell us here in the United States that everything is khoro-  sho — that is, fine.   I can tell you of incidents where Jews risked their lives to perform  a religious act.   I want to quote one example. For half a million Jews in Moscow,  there is no Jewish cemetery. According to Jewish law, a certain piece  of land must be assigned especially for Jewish burial. Half a million  Jews in Moscow don't have a Jewish cemetery where they can bury  their dead. I know that people are selling their shirts to carry a de-  ceased person to a city where there is a Jewish cemetery where they can  bury their loved ones in a Jewish cemetery.   I would appeal to the United States Government to see to it that all  the media of communication, the Voice of America, Radio Free Eu-  rope, Radio Liberty, and other friendly coimtries which have similar  operations, make it their business to have a part of their prograrns  devoted to religious programs and to religious information. This  would be of tremendous help. After 10 o'clock in the evening there is  no more jamming because people go to sleep in the Soviet Union.   People listen with earphones on their ears to hear words of Radio  Liberty, Voice of America, and Voice of Israel, so they are risking  their lives. "When they want to hear, let's give them something worth-  while instead of politics. This would be of tremendous value to them  and this is what they are asking for.   Another thing I would like to say before the committee here is this :  The American people are also interested in this problem, Jews and  non-Jews alike.   This problem has come before the American Congress and the  American Senate, even before the United Nations. It is m the air. The  American people want to help. It is up to the American Government  to direct this help in the proper channels.   Wliat I have suffered myself does not mean anything. I would do it  again. They declared me persona non grata. This does not mean any-  thing else again. There are others like me who go there and do a fine  job, and I am sure the American people will know what to do.   Thank you.   Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, are there any questions?   The Chairman. Before we reach the questioning period, we will  take a recess for 5 minutes and then resume with the testimony of  Rabbi Kahane.   (Brief recess.)   The Chairman. Counsd, you may resume with the first witness.   Before you do that. Rabbi Bronstein, did you find out that the policy  of the Soviet Union vis-a-vis Judaism is practically the same as Ca-  tholicism and Protestantism? Generally speaking, is the same policy  of antireligion against all religions ?     2216 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   Eabbi Bronstein. The policy of the Soviet Union is to fight all  religions.   The Chairman. This recent propaganda that communism is com-  patible with religion is a myth?   Rabbi Bronstein. It is the greatest lie. It just is not so because to  say something on paper and to deny the Jew and the non- Jew his reli-  gious rights are definitely incompatible.   What is doing in churches today ?   How many religious church schools are functioning in the Soviet  Union?   The Chairman. Mr. Watson, do you have any questions?   Mr. Watson. Yes.   Thank you, Mr, Chairman.   Pursuing the line of questioning you started there ; in other words,  the general theme that they, the Communists today, are espousing,  about the compatibility or at least we have a dialogue betw^een com-  munism and Judaism or Catholicism or Protestantism, that is poppy-  cock and they do not practice it in the Soviet Union ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Certainly not.   Mr. Watson. Apparently, this line they are espousing now of hav-  ing some dialogue between the Communists and Christians is purely  for propaganda purposes?   Rabbi Bronstein. There is no question about it.   Mr. Watson. And it does not reflect a change on the part of the  Soviet Union?   Rabbi Bronstein. None whatsoever. I think they are becoming more  aggressive against religion now than before. I will show it to you  in deeds.   Whereas before, they closed down synagogues and churches. What  do they say ? Why are they closing them ?   There are illegal activities going on — drunkenness — the priests and  the rabbis are not behaving themselves, and so on and so forth.   Now they don't say that anymore. They say that the people don't  want it. The people don't want it. There is no need for a synagogue or  church. Why? Why is that? Because they cannot prove anything.  People are traveling now back and forth. Tourists are coming to the  Soviet Union and they see for themselves, and the people tell these  facts, so they know it is not so. Therefore, they just close them up say-  ing that the people don't want them.   Mr. Watson. I should think that, in view of your statement that  there are thousands of Jew^s in prison because they attempted to prac-  tice some of the tenets of their faith, it would be agreed that it would  be rather difficult for them to state objectively whether or not the  people really want the religion. If you have the threat of imprison-  ment, it is rather difficult for one to espouse his religious beliefs under  those circumstances. Is that basically about it?   Rabbi Bronstein. Definitely.   Mr. Watson. My twin brother, who is a minister, visited Russia  2 or 3 years ago and he likewise pointed out, as you have, the fact  that you have so few young people — I believe he said under 16 or 18 —  that are worshiping in the churches now. He was under the impression  perhaps it was prohibited, but I gained from your testimony that it     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2217   isn't actually prohibited for a young person, but he is not able to go  because he has to work.   Kabbi Bronstein, He has to go to school and he has to go to work.  But if they were to go to such a church or synagogue, they would be  thrown out of school or university. They would stand no chance of  continuing their education.   Mr. Watson. Your services are held the same time he is required to be  in school?   Rabbi Bronstein. That is right.   Mr. Watson. You stated when they arrested you in 1967 they had a  complete file or dossier on you. Was it only relative to your activities  in Russia or did they have any information concerning your activities  in the United States in that file?   Rabbi Bronstein. They knew everything about me here and there.   They must have good sources of information in the United States.   Mr. Watson. The reason I was asking if there was information   about your activities here, I was wondering if someone was supplying   them with information here.   Rabbi Bronstein. They do have agents in America that supply  them with plenty of information.   Mr. Watson. You concluded from your casual examination of the   file they had on you   Rabbi Bronstein. I did not examine the file, but the questions they  asked me told me right away they knew everything. They even had  my private telephone number, which very few people have, and they  knew the names of my grandchildren.   Mr. Watson. So there is no question about the fact that they have  confidential information about you?   Rabbi Bronstein. There is no question about that.  Mr. Watson. I think religion is the antithesis of communism, but  how can we teach religion with a government — you know, we have the   constitutional bar   Rabbi Bronstein. Separation of church and state.  Mr. Watson. I am afraid we might have a little trouble there.  Rabbi Bronstein. There should be no trouble at all.  For instance, let us say the Voice of America has a program start-  ing this afternoon at 4 o'clock and going on to 11 o'clock. Let's  examine the program. I am not here to criticize the Voice of America —  I am all for it. But I say if Voice of America would spend 1 hour on  religious matters, not teaching religion, but to tell the Russian Jew  that there are 400 Yeshivas in America, 400 religious schools in  America, things of that nature; if they were to tell them that some of  these boys and girls simultaneously with their Hebrew education are  receiving a good secular education and are winning the state medals  for English — in other words, that religious and secular knowledge are  compatible, this would be of tremendous value to the Russian boy and  girl.   Mr. Watson. I agree with you that it would, but I am afraid we   would have some of the people immediately rise up and demand   Rabbi Bronstein. This is information, these are facts. This has  nothing to do with propaganda, it gives facts.   Mr. Watson. I am not arguing with you. I am on your side.     2218 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   Rabbi Bronstein. I don't think anybody would question the legality  if this would be given in the form of information. For instance, if  Voice of America or Radio Liberty were to tell that Rosh Hashana  this year will be celebrated by the Jewish people the world over on  this particular date, is this religion or information ? I think it is pure  information.   Mr. Watson. I agree with you and would be inclined to interpret it  as information, but frankly I believe those who are interpreting the  various procedures and practices in this country now would interpret  it as giving religious instruction. Anyway, I hope you can work it out.  If you have an appointment with the State Department, more power  to you. Frankly, I think you are going up against a brick wall.   Rabbi Bronstein. I met last year with the leadership of the Voice  of America, Rabbi Teitz now, and we have discussed this matter. AVhat  we need is a little push from the legislative branch of our Govern-  ment,   Mr. Watson. I think this is a good idea, and you can rest assured  you will get a little push from the one speaking now. It will not  amount to much, I am afraid.   You are the president of Al Tidom ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes.   Mr. Watson. I think it is a most laudable organization and I should  think you would have no difficulty at all in getting financial help to  implement your programs. Are you experiencing any difficulty in that  field?   Rabbi Bronstein. We are experiencing difficulties not because the  people don't want to support it. There are people who do know what  Al Tidom stands for and want to support it, but our problem is we  cannot publicize in detail what we are doing behind the Iron Curtain.  That is our weak spot.   Mr. Watson. You don't have problems getting money ?   Rabbi Bronstein. We do have problems.   Mr. Watson. You do ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Yes.   Mr. Watson. You mean with such an objective to aid the Soviet Jews  in their quest for religious, cultural, and informative material, you  have difficulty getting support from your faith and people of other  faiths?   Rabbi Bronstein. If we could come out with a program in detail  telling what we are doing, there would be no problem of getting money,  but when you have a slogan, just like when you have a store, if you  can't show your merchandise you can advertise all you want, but the  person who comes into the store wants to see your merchandise.   I would like to show you merchandise. This is my merchandise here.  This is a slide in Russian Hebrew. This is a slide in Hebrew in writing  and in print. These slides are being smuggled in today to the Soviet  Union, and a group of 10, 50 young boys and girls sit and project this  on the wall and learn how to read Hebrew.   This is what is called counterrevolutionary material in the Soviet  Union. I am the biggest smuggler in the world. I have never smuggled  a diamond, but I have smuggled religious articles.   Mr. Watson. I notice your instructions here are in English. Do most  of them understand English ?     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2219   Rabbi Bronstein. The slide itself is not in English ; the contents are  not in English.   Mr. Watson. Do many of the Jewish people over there speak  English?   Rabbi Bronstein. If they work for a state company they would. It  is the second most spoken language in Russia today. This is a mezuza.  This is what every Jewish family has on its doors.   Let me add this statement here : I was never asked by any Jew or  Jewess in the Soviet Union for a tie, for clothes, for a pair of shoes,  or for a dollar. But whenever I came and wherever I came, a Jew asked  me in the Soviet Union, "Rabbi, may we have a talis, may we have a  mezuza or film?"   This is what they want. As the prophet says, "Not hungry for  bread nor thirsty for water but for the word of God."   I want to assure you gentlemen that we have a marvelous oppor-  tunity now with Russian youth to give them what they want.   Mr. Watson. I agree with you.   Let me ask you this : How many of your fellow rabbis here in this  country are telling the American people of your faith the story you  have told this committee this morning ?   Rabbi Bronstein. I think that at least 75 percent of the rabbinate  today are telling the American Jews and even non- Jews about what  is going on in the Soviet Union, about persecution, about prejudice.  And it is quite known today among the American people what is  really going on in Russia, something that had been kept a secret until  10 years ago. I think now the American people are being told.   Mr. Watson. I hope you can increase your activity in this field.  We all need to do it, but as Rabbi Kahane said a moment ago when  he read from the Communist paper, The Worker^ unfortunately, they  were making us out to be the real liar.   Rabbi Bronstein. Wlienever I meet a Jewish Communist here in  America I say, "Look, I will pay your fare. Go to the Soviet Union  and live there for 1 year and then you will come back a cleansed Jew."   Mr. Watson. I agree with that proposition — all those who don't like  our system, the doors are open to leave.   The proof of the pudding is in the eating, but I know the question  I wanted to ask you now : Do you agree with Rabbi Kahane that  Baptists, Jews, and Catholics are all suffering?   Rabbi Bronstein. The Baptists in the Soviet Union are suffering  almost as much as we are.   Mr. Watson. But you agree with Rabbi Kahane that you are in a  virtually impossible position ?   The children over there, while they are not allowed to exercise the  tenets of their faith, at the same time they are being forced to learn,  or at least study or be exposed to, atheism.   Rabbi Bronstein. Exactly.   Mr. AVatson. They are forced to take a course of atheism in the  Russian school.   Rabbi Bronstein. It is not only the course ; it is the entire environ-  ment in the school. In the Komsomol, the political commissar does not  just read Pravda^ but all must listen to a so-called political orientation  talk. In other words, the Russian citizen today and for the past 50  years indeed has been surrounded with a massive propaganda and     2220 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   brainwashing on communism. They have no chance. You can buy  Pravda here if you want to, but you try to get a Times in Moscow —  you can't get it.   Mr. Watson. Perhaps you have an answer heire. It is difficult for us  to get across to some of those who are spewing the Communist line,  "Now economically speaking we have a better system."   Maybe we can get across to the American people that if they buy  this Communist line it will mean the ultimate destruction of their  religious liberty.   Rabbi Bronstein. Not only religious liberties, but liberty as such.   M^r. Watson. If the American people realize they no longer will  have an opportunity to worship as they please, that should be the  strongest faith of anyone and perhaps we can get something across to  some of these people now who are trying to destroy our system of  government.   I am talking about the people right here in this country. I am not  talking so much about those overseas. I am worried about those right  here in America who are trying to get us to buy this Communist line.   I appreciate your testimony very much, Rabbi.   The Chairman. You may resume with the first witness. Rabbi  Kahane.   STATEMENT OF RABBI MEIR KAHANE^Resumed   Mr. Smith. Rabbi Kahane, please tell us in detail and supply this  committee with the documents that you have gathered in your years  of study as Regards the history of Soviet anti-Semitism.   Rabbi Kahane. I can think of no better way to begin that than by  reading to you the story of an incident that happened in the Soviet  Union and which was printed in an English-language paper called  Russian Sketches published by the American Jewish Committee.   The author of this pamphlet is the foreign news editor of the Jewish-  language daily newspaper called the Forward'^ published in New  York City.   The editor went to the Soviet Union in 1966 and in the city of Kiev,  in the Ukraine, he was in a synagogue. He describes how he was sitting  in a pew when, from behind him, he heard the following :   But many of the older Jews cling to their faith with a strength that surpasses  all understanding. Once, in a synagogue in another Russian city, I heard a  tremulous voice behind me.   "i?e& Yid, don't turn around. Keep your eyes on your Siddur and pretend you  hear nothing. I have to talk to someone."   Out of the corner of my eye I saw an old man, his face covered by the prayer  shawl draped over his head. Leaning against his lectern, he spoke in a voice  choked with tears. He had lost his whole family — his wife, his children, his rela-  tives, all except one son, who now had a young son of his own, named Volodya.   Until he was five, Volodenka had accompanied his grandfather to synagogue.  When he started school, his teacher forbade the students to attend church  or synagogue, but the boy was so devoted to his grandfather that he went any-  way until, one day, a classmate reported him. The teacher pimished him, humili-  ated him in front of the class, and issued a stern warning. Since then, Volodenka  has not dared to go to synagogue.   The years passed. Six months ago, eight gentile boys attacked Volodenka and  beat him up, shouting "Zhid! Let's kill the dirty ZhidT Since then, the boy has     1 Jewish Daily Forward.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2221   been full of fears. He clings to his grandfather and begs the old man to explain  why he is Jewish, and why the others hate him for it. The old man would have  liked to teach his grandson Jewish history, Hebrew and the Bible, but the boy's  father would not permit it, afraid that if word got out, he might lose his job, or  worse.   Soon Volodenka will be 13 years old, and the grandfather is desperate.   "Volodenka, I said to him," the old man wept, "I'll give you anything you  want. Just come to shul with me. But Volodenka won't do it."   The lectern behind me shook with the old man's sobs. Suddenly he leaned  forward.   "I beg of you. dear friend," he whisi>ered. "When you go back to the free  world, don't hold your peace. Stir up the people, turn the world upside down  if you must, but help us! Help me so that my Volodenka will remain a Jew."   This story typifies the plight of Soviet Jewry at the moment.   As Mr. Watson asked, are there people who are trying to bring this  story out to the American public ?   The answer is "Yes."   Being with the Jewish Press, we are deeply disturbed at the im-  mense ignorance and lack of knowledge on the part of people in  America and especially the young people, both Jewish and non-Jew-  ish, who have no idea of the horrors that are in store for them if what  they want to happen would really happen.   Much of the materials which I am about to present appeared in a  series of articles, extending for more than 4 months, "Communism v.  Judaism."   I and our paper certainly intend to get across one message to the  American Jewish people, that communism is a deadly enemy of Juda-  ism and all free men.   As I began speaking before, when the Communist government took  over the So^aet Union in 1917, there began a massive campaign to do  away with Jewish communal institutions.   This was handed over to the Jewish section of the Communist Party,  which was known as the Yevesekzia.   Staffed by bitterly antireligious and anti-Zionist Commimists, the  Yevesekzia went about its job with gusto. All existing Jewish com-  munal and religious organizations were to be smashed and replaced  with a well-subsidized network of Communist-oriented Yiddish-lan-  guage institutions.   Religion was the special target of the vicious fury of the Yevesekzia.  Armed with instructions by the Conununist government to eliminate  religious "superstition," they hastened to sequester synagogues and  convert them to Komsomol (Communist youth) clubs.   Rabbis and teachers who broke the law by secretly teaching children  religion and Hebrew were caught and arrested. No minor child may  be taught religion in the Soviet Union.   The religious schools were shut, and the great Russian Judaism  began to dry up at its source — the child and his studies.   Within a decade the greatness that had been Russian Jewry was  withering on the vine. The word of God was no longer heard on the  lips of Jewish children, and what the Czars with all their tyranny  had never done, the Communists were now accomplishing.   The leader of his generation, the ffreat Rabbi Yesroel Meir Hacohen,  the Chofetz Chaim from Poland, knew the trials of his Russian  Jewish brethren and his heart ached for them.     2222 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   In the month of Av, that tragic month in Jewish history of the  year 1929, this great rabbi penned a letter to world Jewry. His sub-  ject was the tragedy of the Jews in the Soviet Union.   This is what he wrote :   Most bitter and fearful is the situation of our brethren in Russia and the  Ukraine, may God have mercy. Almost three million Jews find themselves in  great danger (aside from the fact that a great portion of them have no economic  status and are simply starving). One's hair stands on end hearing of the great  suffering of our brethren in Russia due to the overwhelming wickedness of those  who desire to uproot our Holy Torah.   They closed the Hebrew schools and yeshivas. Those Roshei Yeshivas and  teachers who continued to spread learning privately were sent to Siberia. The  rabbis are being held as hostages. The synagogues and study halls are being shut  down and turned into clubs (the scornful tyrants seek every excuse to close  synagogues and tear away kosher meat from Jewish mouths). Those whose  livelihood depends on the government are afraid to Judaize their children. They  are Marranos. Just as in the times of the Inquisition Jews were forced to cause  others to go astray, to profane the Sabbath and to openly eat leavened bread  on Passover, equally tragic is the present situation which leads to assimila-  tion and destruction, Heaven forbid.   Our sufl'ering and persecuted brethren over there are afraid to speak out a  word of protest.   It is therefore our responsibility to protest openly, to cry out and to awake  public opinion ... to pray . . . and just as our fathers did, so must we do.  We must declare a fast.   But the prayers of the great rabbi and others like him were not  sufficient to have Heaven intervene and the Yevesekzia went method-  ically about its job.   As the years went by the Yevesekzia grew even more vicious. Its  schools, lectures, forums, newspapers, and books mocked Jewish laws  and customs and distorted Jewish history.   "Wedges were deliberately driven between children and their parents  and grandparents. The new generation was being ripped from the  bosom of its heritage.   Not only religion but Zionism, too, was brutally hunted down.  Show trials of Zionists accused of imperialist conspiracy against the  state were held.   Hebrew, the language of "rabbinism" and "imperialist Zionism"  both, was strictly forbidden.   The disintegration of Soviet Jewry was rapid and there was, as I  have mentioned, no longer a need even for these Jewish institutions  whose purpose was to destroy Judaism.   By 1936 the final liquidation of Soviet Jewry began.   In 1936 a wave of arrest of writers and artists took place.   In 1937 the liquidation of Yiddish elementary, secondary, high  schools, the Communist ones — they arrested Communist teachers  Litvinov, Colback, Weinstein, Rofus, Bookbinder, Friedland, and  many others.   This continued through to 1939 when the Soviet Union concluded its  pact with Adolf Hitler.   From the time of that pact to June 21, 1941, the Soviet Union was  the greatest opponent of the free world coming to the defense of Great  Britain and France.   In December of 1939 Stalin in an interview with the editor of Pravda  said the f ollowinof :     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2223   "(a) It was not Germany that attacked France and England, but France and  England that attacked Germany, thereby assuming responsibility for the present  war;   "(b) After hostilities had broken out, Germany made overtures of peace to  France and England, and the Soviet Union openly supported Germany's peace  overtures, for it considered, and continues to consider, that the earliest possible  termination of the war would radically improve the position of all countries and  nations ;   "(c) The ruling circles of England and France rudely rejected both Germany's  peace overtures and the attempts of the Soviet Union to secure the earliest  possible termination of the war." ^   Because of this, countless Jews died — countless Jews that might  have been saved. Their deaths are laid directly at the feet of the Soviet  Union.   By 1941 Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, and suddenly things  changed. The Soviets were greatly in need of the aid of the same  United States which they had been pleading to stay out of the war.   Incidentally, as I will indicate later, the Communist apparatus in  this country swallowed this line — hook, line, and sinker, and it is the  measure of the obscenity of the Communists in this country and  throughout the world that there were Communist Jews who knew what  would happen to their fellow Jews if they espoused this line and they  espoused it anyway.   In 1941, as a result of the desperate need for American aid, a neutral  America, an organization by the name of the Jewish Anti-Fascist  Committee was formed.   In a passionate address, Ilya Ehrenburg, the famous Soviet writer  who was also Jewish, laid the main emphasis on the fact that he  appealed to the Jews in the United States, who mitil that moment had  been pleaded with to stay neutral, to turn to their Government to come  into the war on the side of the Soviet Union.   The war was over, and there was no longer a need for the Jewish  Anti-Fascist Committee. In 1948 a wholesale liquidation of every  member of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee began, and from 1948  to 1952 anti-Semitism on a physical scale raged inside Russia. Jews  were killed because they were Jews, just as in Nazi Germany. This  culminated in 1953 with the infamous doctors plot.   On January 13, 1953, the Soviet news agency Tass published a plot  by Jewish doctors on the life of Stalin. It was a fantastic thing that  would have done justice to Julius Streicher.   In each case, the Jewish origin of the doctor was made abundantly  clear. They were accused of having maintained relations with the  Joint Distribution Committee, which is an organization devoted to the  relief of Jewish refugees, which was called the international Jewish  bourgeois-nationalistic organization which was created by the Ameri-  can intelligence service.   These doctors were killed, and we have clear indication that Josef  Stalin intended to liquidate the entire population, the entire Jewish  population of the Soviet Union, if not for the fortunate fact that he  died.   His place was taken by Khrushchev, who at the 20th Congress  startled the world with the facts of Stalin's crimes. And despite the   1 This quotation appeared in English in an official Communist Party, U.S.A., publication  entitled "A History of Soviet Foreign Policy." which was published during the Soviet-Nazi  Pact by Worliers Library Publishers, Inc., 1940, pp. 44, 45.     2224 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   fact that Khrushchev had a leading hand in these crimes, the blame  was imputed to Stalin and others.   All during this era of murder of Jews in the Soviet Union, the Com-  munist Party in this country, including its Jewish section, went up to  the barricades, on the ramparts, and said it was a lie^ — it was a lie  created by the Americans, by the imperialists, by the Zionists, by every-  one.   Suddenly Khrushchev said it was all true. The ComLmunists didn't  bat an eyelash. They said it was true and the reason was simple : that  Stalin was in aberration, but Khrushchev had the courage to admit it  so this proves the integrity of communism.   Khrushchev began an immediate persecution of the Jews in the So-  viet Union. Under him, we saw the rise of the charge of economic  crimes. Economic crimes were suddenly imputed again to people, 80  percent of whom were Jews.   Every Jew had his name indicated clearly and if he had changed  his name, his original Jewish name was put m brackets.   Economic crimes were imputed to the Jewish synagogues. The great  synagogue in Lvov was accused of anti-Soviet activity, illicit cur-  rency dealings, and this excuse was used to close it down.   Today in the Soviet Union anti-Semitism continues.   In 1963 a vicious 48-page booklet published in Uzhgorod in the  Ukraine inadvertently shed light on the heroic secret resistance as it  stated :   It must be said that in our day, too, there are some people who are in the  captivity of Judaism and who are trying to inculcate children with religious  fanaticism.   In 1958, in Uzhgorod, there was an exposure of the dirty activities of Nander  Leibovich. He gave up his job and began teaching children the Torah. This  semi-literate idler made use of his own ways to lead the children unto the "path  of truth".   A similar breeding ground for religious obscurantism also existed in the  Seredneye Vodanoye village of the Tyachev district. Mayer Faig was misleading  the children. ... It is characteristic that after the public had exposed these  harmful and forbidden religious schools the rabbis began to go to the children's  homes and teach them individually — something that is also an infringement of  the Soviet regulations. . . .   Until 1957 there was literally not one school for religious studies in  the Soviet Union.   In 195Y, as in 1958, because of public pressure, Khrushchev created  a farce, a fiasco, one school for 13 students, the youngest of whom was  40 years old. That was the sum total of rabbis to service the religious  needs of 3 million Jews, and that school was closed down.   It is closed at the moment. At the moment, there are no schools for  the training of rabbis. The average age of the Russian rabbi is 70.  In Moscow, in the main synagogue, it has Chief Rabbi Levin who is  74, and one other small one, a rabbi who is 92.   Being deprived of their leadership, the Jew^s of Russia are subject  to another equally severe disability. Judaism is permitted no publica-  tions and no publications facilities; no Hebrew Bible nor one Russian  translation of the old Hebrew Bible has been published since 1917.  Not a single religious book has appeared in print since the early  1920's.   Until 1958 not one prayer book was printed, and in that year a ri-  diculous 3,000 copies were photocopied, none for the domestic use of  the Soviet Jewry.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2225   No Jewish calendars are available in the Soviet Union — and the Jew  depends on his religious holidays — he has no idea when the holidays  of Rosh Hashana or Yom Kippur occur.   This country once boasted tens of thousands of synagogues. There  were 450 synagogues in 1956 and 7 years later there were only 96, a de-  crease of 500 percent in a period of 7 years.   The process of attrition is not due merely to the fact, as Soviets main-  tain, that Jews don't want to go to synago^e. There have been physi-  cal closings of synagogues and administrative orders which have closed  them down under various pretexts.   At this moment, there are 64 synagogues left in the entire Soviet  Union. That includes the Russian empire, taking in the captive nations  of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, plus the various parts of other East  European countries that were annexed by the Soviet Union immedi-  ately after the war. Just 64 synagogues in this vast area.   In those regions where Soviet fiat has ordered synagogues closed,  stubbornly pious Jews have taken to organizing private services in  their homes.   Propaganda assaults on these meetings have been frequent, while  Soviet police have harassed, disrupted, and dispersed such gatherings  on hundreds of occasions, warning those who attended and occasionally  punishing them.   Articles list those who organize and attend the meetings.   The persecution of Jewish religious institutions has been systemati-  cally stepped up in recent years. In June and July of 1961, six lay  religious leaders in Moscow and Leningrad were secretly arrested and  synagogue presidents in six major provincial cities deposed.   The arrested leaders were held in prison until October of that year  and then secretly tried, convicted of alleged espionage, and sentenced  to lengtlliy prison terms.   Wlien a storm of protests arose, Trud^ the trade union paper, pub-  lished a vicious article accusing the religious leaders of being agents  for the Israeli secret service and tools of the American intelligence  system.   Each of the remaining lonely synagogues stands alone, for Jewish  congregations are forbidden to maintain a central organization or a  nationwide federation which would coordinate needs and standards and  bolster religious beliefs. Needless to say, no communication with for-  eign religious bodies is countenanced.   And so the synagogues remain dying centers of a once-thriving reli-  gion, where old people sit beneath the eye of ih& inevitaJble synagogue  informer, Wliere the rabbi and the remaining devout sit motionless,  fearful, wat<:^hing their faith — and themselves — die.   And, indeed, this is how a gifted young writer, Elie Wiesel, describes  his visit to the Moscow synagogue on the holiday of Simchas Torah.^   In each of the last. 3 yeairs, 30,000 young Jews — these are young  people who never had an opportunity to attend a Jewish sc)hool —  danced and sang Hebrew songs that they had heard over the Voice of  America, the Voice of Israel, and through other sources.   These were not religious Jews. This was a demonstration for free-  dom. These boys and girls were college students. They risked their   ^ The Jews of Silence, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1966.     2226 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   futures. They risked expulsion. They can never join the Communist  Party, but they did this.   Mr. Watson. May I interrupt you here ?   You say that they can never join the Communist Party ?   Rabbd Kahane. That is rigflit.   Mr. Watson. Is that because the Jewisih people are prolliibited, or  because of this activity ?   Rabbi Kahane. Because of this activity.   Incidentally, there is a very definite quota of Jews in the institutions  of higther learning, a very definite quota.   Judaism is not a faith limited to prayer, but acts, the observance of  the Sabbath, circumcision, bar mitzvah.   The bar mitzvah, which is the day when a Jewish youngster enters  upon the obligations of a Jew, was described by a Soviet propaganda  tract as a strong and disfiguring influence.   This article goes on to say :   ... In our day, too, the Bar-Mitzva is observed in some Jewish families, in  Whldh the fanatioaJ parents do not wish to give up this harmful tradition.   The rite of the Bar-Mitzva has a strong and disfiguring influence on young boys.   Long before the observance of the rite, the young lad is obHg^d to learn at  least the basic tenets of the Jewish faith.   This alone distracts him from his studies in school. It is difficult even to imag-  ine that in some families a young boy, before whom is opened the bright paths  into ithe interesting world of science, is forced, under the tutorship of his father, or  of la hired tutor, a "rebbe" to sweat over tlie dusty books of the ancient Bible.   It is therefore not surprisiinig thiaft the children often agree to this only under  the threat of a punishment. Sometdmes parents even beat up their children to  force them tx) isitudy for their Bar-Mitzva.   The regional pai)er, Sovietskoye Zakarpatye, wrote at one time thiat a 6th  grade pupil of the U2ihgorod High School No. 8, Lyudvig Leibovich, tearfully com-  plained to his teacher that his father was beating him for his unwillingness to  go to the synagogue and to study for his Bar-Mitzva.   Other parents bribe their children with promises of exiyensive gifts. Under  the influence of saich fanatic parents, our Soviet schoolboy, a pioneer, is forced to  compromise with his conscience and this cripples the child morally and causes  Mm a grave spiritual trauma.   Thirty thousand spiritually effected traumas danced outside the  synago^es of Moscow on Simchas Torah.   Rabbi Bronstein has helped to perpetuate circumcision.   I have in my files a front-page article from one of the Moslem Re-  publics of Russia, and the Moslems, of course, also practice these  rites.   There is a photo of it, a great holiday and in no way was there any  word of condemnation. I quote the words from the Uzhgorod book-  let:   . . . Judaism is just as cruel towards children. It demands the performing  of the rite of circmncision over an eight-day old baby boy.   The rabbis, insisting on the fulfilling of this rite, are still pursuing a reaction-  ary purpose in this : to isolate the Jewish workers from the workers of other  nationalities and to inculcate children, from an early age, with the deeply harm-  ful idea of their belonging to the "chosen people."   Reactionary individuals show special insistence on this here, too. A few years  ago in Chernovtsy, the son of a certain Gendel, a worker in the Re.staurants and  Dining Rooms Tni.st, almost died as a result of circimicision.   He lost so much blood that only a doctor, called for assistance, saved the infant  from imminent death. With anger and with pain, the child's father told about  this savage incident at an atheistic evening attended by more than one thou-  sand workers.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2227   Shekhter, the one who performed the rite, spoke aifter Mm. He said that he  wias ashamed to look i>eople in the eyes and called upon all believing Jews to  finish with this barbaric custom   This is the propaganda that the Soviet people and the Jews must  read. This is what the young Soviet Jewish child is taught in his school.   There is no way, no legal way, for him to hear the opposite view,  to hear the opposite facts.   I would just like to touch at this point on something which I men-  tioned before.   All faiths in the Soviet Union are persecuted. The Jewish press  has come out time and time again calling for the American Jew to  stand up in protest against the persecution of the Baptists in the  Soviet Union.   There have been meetings, joint meetings, held by organizations in  this country who are active on behalf of the Soviet Jewry, in conjunc-  tion with Baptist groups, to protest the persecution.   tin fortunately — and I say this with a heavy heart — when certain  Baptists appealed for sanctuary at the American Embassy in Moscow,  they were turned away. I think this is a terrible, terrible stain on  this country.   Mr. Watson. Spell that out a little better. They appealed for sanc-  tuary at the American Embassy, and the American Embassy did not  give them sanctuary?   Rabbi Kahane. Yes, sir; about 40 families suddenly appeared in  Moscow. They had come from the provinces. They appeared in Mos-  cow and they came into the United States Embassy and they listed a  long list of persecutions they had undergone and they asked for sanc-  tuary inside the Embassy and they were turned away.   They were kept there for a day, and instructions were asked of  Washington what to do about them.   Mr. Watson. How long ago was this. Rabbi?   Rabbi Bronstein. I was there. It was about 5 years ago. It was  publislied in all of the papers in the United States.   Rabbi Kahane. At the time the Jewish press wrote a very, very  strong editorial on this. It was one of the few moments when I who  am truly proud to be a citizen of this country — ^the finest country in the  world — felt a twinge of shame that we had done such a thing.   Mr. Watson. Were these people charged with any specific crimes?   Rabbi Kahane. No, none at all.   Mr. Smith. You indicated that the Embassy asked for instructions  from Washington as to what to do.   Rabbi Kahane. Yes.   Mr. Smith. I don't believe you stated what happened.   Rabbi Kahane. The next day they were ousted from the Embassy  so it is quite obvious what those instructions were.   Mr. Smith. Rabbi, has the plight of Jews been aggravated by the  attitude of the Soviet toward the situation in the Middle East?   Rabbi Kahane. Tliere is no doubt that the Soviet Union suffered  a severe blow; in fact, the world Communist movement suffered its  severest blow in more than a decade when the Israelis defeated the  Arabs last year. I cannot tell you how infuriated and how psycopathic  the Soviets became at that defeat. Not since the Soviets were forced     2228 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   to remove the missiles from Cuba have they literally suffered any  defeat in the world.   In Laos, Vietnam, throughout Africa, throughout America com-  munism was expanding. And here was their opportunity to literally  seize the Middle East, to destroy one of the few Western bastions aside  from a country like Turkey. There are really few Western bastions,  bastions of freedom and democracy, aside from Israel.   The Soviets campaigned for over a year to prepare the ground-  work to have the Arab states attack Israel. It was the Soviets who  began spreading the rumor that Israel was about to invade Syria in  early 1967.   It was they who encouraged Nasser to demand the withdrawal of  U.N. troops from Sinai and to block the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel  shipping, which they knew was an act of war, which they knew would  compel Israel to fight or die.   For months prior to the outbreak of the war, the Soviets, the press,  and radio laid the groundwork for public opinion against Israel and  against America.   Let me make this clear right now. During this entire period preced-  ing the war and during the war and after the war, Israel was called  by both the Soviet Union and China the lackey of American imperial-  ists, that Israel was being used to reestablish imperialism, colonialism,  ad nauseum, in the Middle East,   Moscow radio on April 8, 1967, broadcast this following gem :   New and very important details have emerged in the news concerning the 7  April Syrian-Israeli armed clash caused by Israel. For example it has become ap-  parent that American pilots participated alongside Israelis in the air raids  against Syria. Syrian authorities were told this by one of the American pilots  whose plane was shot down while the Syrians were repelling the Israeli attack.  The statements of the American pilot, who fell into the hands of the Syrian au-  thorities, indicate that a deal has been concluded between the United States and  Israel to import planes and other war equipment.   In compliance with Washington's request, Jordan granted Israel the right  to use its airspace without interference. These facts indicate once more that  Israeli aggressiveness is but a curtain behind which Washington pursues its  aggressive aims toward the independent Arab states. * * *   Unfortunately, very, very few people know or realize how closely  linked American foreign policy or the American security, the Ameri-  can future, is linked to that of freedom-loving nations such as Israel,  and I would like to make the comment right here that I believe my  newspaper believes, and the majority of American Jews believe, that  the war in Vietnam and the war in the Middle East were part of the  same war, same enemies.   Communism is an entity, a unity. The Israeli troops fought for  America. American troops in Vietnam fight for Israel. Both fight for  the free world, and I would like to make that very, very clear to you,  that no matter what you might read or think, American Jews are con-  vinced of this. And while many of us, many Americans, might differ  on certain aspects of the war, some calling for less escalation and some  calling for more, but the fact is that the knowledge is clear that Israel  and Vietnam and every other area in which communism fights the  free world is part of the same thing.   Mr. Smith. What are the so-called economic crimes in the Soviet  Union ?     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2229   Eabbi Kahane. As I had mentioned, the Soviet Union used the pre-  text of economic crimes as a cover for anti-Semitism. To begin with,  80 percent of all of the so-called economic criminals was Jewish, listed  as such, to ethnic charge ; to charge, their ethnic background was care-  fully listed and above all religious leaders were linked to these crimes.   Just as an aside, those same groups in this country which protest  against the death penalty for rapists and murderers did not protest  when 250 people were shot to death for black marketeering, just  as the same groups that protest against the bombing of Hanoi and the  accidental killing of civilians do not protest when, in Saigon, civilians  are purposefully, deliberately murdered.   The economic crimes, as I say, were used as a campaign against the  synagogue and against the Jew.   On November 5, 1962, the great synagogue of Lvov, the last remain-  ing Jewish prayer house in the Ukraine, was shut down. The closing  of the synagogue was the culmination of an intensive campaign of  the state police, the militia.   In a paper published in Kiev, 1962, a demand was made that the  Lvov synagogue, which is pictured as the center for illicit currency  dealings, be closed.   According to the article :   Jewish speculators from Lvov and foreign towns met and carried on their trade  and concluded their transactions. * » * The leading figure in the Synagogue and  in the ring speculators was * * * the ritual slaughterer Kontorovich, who  made religion and its rites the source of his i)ersonal income. In contravention  of the State wine monopoly he made religious wine, which he sold at exorbitant  prices, for the celebration of religious festivals.^   The article goes further and says this misdeed caused the death  sentence of this person and another member of the synagogue council.  They were both shot, and the synagogue was closed.   Mr. Smith. What has been the reaction of the groups that you  mentioned a while ago. Communist Party, Workers World Party,  Youth Against War and Fascism, Progressive Labor, and Socialist  Workers Party, toward the persecution of the Jews in the Soviet  Union ?   Eabbi Kahane. All of the Communist groups, whether Moscow-  oriented or Peking-oriented, follow the party line precisely and ex-  actly. There is no doubt that within the Soviet Union there is an  attempt to forcibly assimilate the Jew and do away with the congre-  gant Jew.   The facts were so obvious that several Jewish Communists who  have withstood the storms and the tides of swerving party lines fi-  nally had it just a little bit.   Several of them called for the Soviet Union to alleviate its line just  a little bit. The American Communist Party, the Communist Party  of the U.S., devoted three issues of its Political Affairs journal to this  question and various top Communist leaders as well.   Daniel Rubin, who at that time was the Communist Party's youth  director, wrote in the December 1966 issue of Political, Affairs —   we still should ask ourselves whether, if it is true that Jewish culture in the  USSR will be dead in 10 years, this in itself is bad? * * *     1 "Economic Crimes in the Soviet Union" (reprint). Journal of the International Com-  mission oj Jurists, summer 1964, vol. V, No. 1, p. 37.     2230 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   What Eubin was saying was that to be a Jew was no great or important  thing.   And this concept was taken up by Irving Potash, a long-time anti-  Jewish Semite and long-time party leader.   Potash writes :   This false concept is a throw-back to historic narrow nationalism reflected in  such expressions as "Jewishness" and "Jewish spirit" * * *.   This emphasis on the idea of the Jewish community, from the em-  phasis arises the fantastic demand that the Soviet Union allow its  Jewish community to establish contact with the Jewish community of  other countries.   Hyman Lumer, at that time the editor of Political Affairs [quoting  from Lenin] , states :   Marxism cannot be reconciled with nationalism, be it even of the "most  just," "purest," most refined and civilized brand.* * *   The Jews of the Soviet Union will disappear. This is precisely  what the Communist Party wants. This is one area in which the  Communist Party defends the present campaign to destroy the Jew  at this moment.   But this is only an end. Here is a long, long traditional precedent.   At the time that Stalin was opposed to intervention against Hitler  and at that moment when Jewry was being doomed, the Communist  Party of this country, through one of its Jewish traitors named Moses  Miller, published a booklet called A Jew Looks at the War,^ in which  Miller said the Jewish people of America are against this war.   The Jewish people do not want one single American young man  to lose his life over there. We have a war to carry on, but that war  is right here.   Incidentally, you could take these paragraphs and the Jewish Com-  munists are saying it right at this moment — things never, never  change.   At that moment he knew adaptation of that policy would doom  Jews to death, but he wrote it anyway.   Mr. Smith. Do you have any evidence of the deliberate creation  of anti-Semitism by any of these Communist groups?   Rabbi Kahane. I am not quite finished. I would first of all like  to mention several more areas in which the Communist Party of this  country has hewed faithfully to the line on the Jewish question,  since this is the basic line of this committee, and in addition to that  also cover several of the other Communist groups which are not led  by Moscow.   On the question of the establishment of a Jewish state, in 1937  when the specter of Hitler, who swore to wipe out the Jews of Europe,  was hovering over the world, at that moment when there was still  a hope that some of these Jews could be saved and somehow they  could be gotten to Palestine, the Soviet Union opposed any such  move and since the Soviet Union did, the Communist Party of this  country put out a booklet called Letter To A Zionist Friend.'^   At that moment, Arab mobs were carrying on terrorism against  Jews.     1 Booklet published by Jewish Peoples Committee, New York, N.Y., June 1940.   2 Booklet by Ben David, published by Jewish Pamphlet Library, New York, March 1937.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2231   My aunt was killed in 1937 by the Arabs in Palestine, and I am  happy to say that I am ready to testify to that scene at any time.   All through the horrors of Stalin, the Communists in this country  said that there was no truth to it, there was no truth to anti-Semitism,  there was no truth to the stories that Jewish writers and intellectuals  were being killed.   Suddenly, Khrushchev says it is true, it all happened. So, sud-  denly, Jewish life under the Communist order grows. "We are sorry,  we are sorry," they said, "we were wrong."   During the crisis last year between Israel and the Arabs when the  Soviet Union, of course, followed a completely viciously anti-Israel  line, the Communist Party of this country followed the exact line.   The Worker said in an editorial on May 28, 1967 :   GUILT for the present dangerous crisis in the Middle East rests solely upon  the Wall Street imperialists, the oil trusts and the Johnson Administration,  which is acting as their agent.   June 13, 1967, headline of The Worker was "LBJ Helps Israel In  Attempt to Hold Seized Arab Land."   In November 1967, an International Conference in Support of the  Arab Peoples, a Communist group, was held in New Delhi.   Herbert Aptheker wrote a speech in support of the Arab peoples  right down the line, though Aptheker knew that the Arab peoples, the  Arab armies, intended not just to conquer Israel, but to liquidate the  Jewish state and its inhabitants, to add 21/^ million Jews to the 6 mil-  lion that Hitler killed, but Herbert Aptheker went right down the line,  right down the line and he called in his declaration :   The method of warfare employed by Israel was in cynical violation of stand-  ards of human decency, now established by the judgments of the Nuremberg  Trials, the Charter of the U.N.O. and the Conventions of the International Red  Cross. The large-scale use of napalm — "Portable Crematoria" — against civilians,  the expulsion of civilian populations, the shooting of prisoners or turning them  loose in the desert to die — such actions can not fail to raise memories of the  policies of Hitler's Nazis.*   Not just the Communist Party of this country, but those parties  which follow the Peking line went right down the line with Peking.   Incidentally, I want to make it very, very clear to groups in this  country such as the SDS, which sees no evil in China, to such groups as  Youth Against War and Fascism, which sees no evil in China, as the  Progressive Labor Party would see no evil in China, I would like to  call attention to what the Chinese version is for the final solution to  Israel.   The Chinese are not talking about whether Israel should take in  Arab refugees, whether they should give up conquered lands.   In June of 1966 at a conference in Peking [the Afro-Asian Writ-  ers' Emergency Meeting, June 27-July 9, 1966], the following resolu-  tion on Palestine was passed, and paragraph 10 reads :   The Meeting demands that Israel, a colonialist entity completely dependent on  world imperialism, be completely liquidated.''   That was the Chinese version.   Nevertheless, those groups which owe allegiance to China, such  as the Progressive Labor Party, went down the line — July 1967 issue of   ^ Political Affairs, January 1968, p. 42.  a Peking Review, July 15, 1966, p. 47.     2232 ANTI-SEMITISM EST THE SOVIET UNION   Challenge, the newspaper of the PLP — "5 pages on MID EAST Facts,  Lessons'' — facts were facts, lessons were lessons.   "Israel Plotted Suez Grab With Imperialists, Minister Confirms"   "PALESTINE: WHOSE HOMELAND?"   "Israel's Birth: Zionists Coldly Planned Terror"  All through their leaflets and their publications was one theme —  Vietnam, the Middle East, are one war and in this particular case, I  agree with them. It is one war.   I would like to conclude with this following word :  I was in Israel last year, a year in which anti-Vietnam riots in  this country were going very, very well. If the Israeli people could  have a referendum on that war, I can assure you overwhelmingly they  would have pleaded with America to stay in Vietnam.   I want to read an article to you to conclude with this which was in  one of the leading Israeli papers:   In Vietnam, the United States bars the road of destructive military force  that is capable tomorrow of reaching India and the next day Asia Minor, if  only she is allowed to do so.   It is worthwhile for the sensitive souls who decry the dirty war to remember  this : It is time for them to remember bombs falling- on a bridge in Hanoi.   So long as America stands alone and does this work and spills the blood of  her sons in Vietnam, she is not worthy of being kicked and smeared but is  deserving of appreciation and support for then in the end she defends that  civilization, that way of life, those ideals common to her and to everyone who  sees himself belonging to the free world.'^   Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, since time will not permit Rabbi Kahane  to cover all of his material, I request permission for him to submit  various documents he has used here and additional ones which will  reveal the manner in which U.S. Communist groups have denied that  they tried to clear the Soviet Union of all charges of anti-Semitism  and persecution of the Jewish religion.   The Chairsiax. That permission is granted.   Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, because of its relevance to the testimony  received this morning from Rabbis Kahane and Bronstein and also  the testimony of Richard Wurmbrand received last August, it is re-  quested that an article entitled "the greatest beggar in the world"  be printed as a part of this hearing.   The article in question was published in the June 18, 1968, issue of  the National Review. It concerns Communist-bloc persecution of Ca-  tholicism and certain steps being taken by the Catholic Church to  preserve the practice of Catholicism behind the Iron Curtain.   The Chairman. That will be received and printed. (See appendix,  pages 2235 and 2236.)   Thank you very much. You have made a great contribution to this  committee and to the cause we are digging into.   Mr. Watson. Mr. Chairman, may I just make one statement and ask  Rabbi Kahane a question ?   The Chairman. Yes.   Mr. Watson. I notice in the Evening Star yesterday an article on  the second page of section A, where Rabbi Levin, who is the chief  rabbi of Moscow, received "a clamorous welcome" and the official wel-  coming party was headed by Richard Korn, president of the American  Council for Judaism.     1 Quoted from Yediot Aronot, an Israeli Hebrew-language newspaper.     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2233   Could either of you give us some information on this organization or  this individual ?   I am not trying to pick an argument here with any faith, but I was  just trying to get a reading on this thing as to whether or not your  people are fully apprised of what is going on in Russia and this man's  particular position.   Eabbi Kahane. Ordinarily, I hesitate to comment on other Jewish  organizations. However, in this case since you have asked me, I thank  you for asking me.   The ACJ is a very, very small group of individuals who are opposed  to the establishment of a Jewish national homeland. They fought the  creation of the State of Israel until 1948, when it was created, and  since that time they have j oined openly with Arabs.   Many of their members have traveled through Arab countries for  anti-Israel propaganda purposes. "Wlien all American Jewish organi-  zations have been protesting anti-Semitism within the Soviet Union,  this group alone said it was not true, not because they are Communists,  but for other reasons.   In any case, the Soviet Union, which is desperately anxious to call  all these charges a lie, thought of the idea of sending Rabbi Levin to  America. I can assure you that Rabbi Levin was not anxious to come in  any manner or form. He has no desire in any form to be a part of a  Soviet plot to disprove these true charges.   However, as Rahbi Bronstein said, the Soviet Union is one great  prison, and he is a prisoner. It is not just for his own life or safety he  fears, but for 3 million hostages back in the Soviet Union, 3 million  Jews.   He was forced to oome. The Soviet Union cleverly came up with the  one and only organization which would work with them m having  Rabbi Levin come here. It is an anti-Zionist and, in a sense, truly an  anti-Semitic group.   Therefore, this clamorous welcome was far from clamorous, inciden-  tally. I don't know if this story has a wire service heading or not.   Mr. Watson. New York AP byline.   Rabbi Kahane. The Neio York Times had the same lead paragraph,  and I have my own particular criticism of that paper. The fact is that  it was not a clamorous welcome. The fact of the matter is a second  group came there in an attempt to salvage something and to at least  rescue Rabbi Levin and have him come over with a legitimate British  group, and that is the group mentioned there led by Rabbi Teitz.   I want to say in no way should the visit of Rabbi Le\'in be con-  strued as any lessening of Soviet anti-Semitism. You can rest assured  that Pravda and all of the lackeys of Moscow here will play this up  to prove there is really no anti-Semitism. That is the sole purpose of  this visit.   Mr. Watsox. In other words, the group led by Rabbi Teitz?   Rabbi Kahane. It is a group of orthodox Jews who have held per-  sonal contact with him. I think on this particular point. Rabbi Bron-  stein could certainly add several things.   Rabbi Bronstein. I would like to clarify the purpose of bringing  Rabbi Levin to the United States — I am talking here about the true  purpose.   I know Rabbi Levin from my nine visits to the Soviet Union.   He is a loyal, learned rabbi. However, any official in the Soviet Union     2234 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION   just because of the fact of being an official must follow the Soviet line.   I know of many great rabbis and scholars who are collecting junk  and who are doing the most black work not to be a rabbi, just to avoid  being an official rabbi, because if they are official rabbis they must sub-  mit every sermon before it is preached to the minister of all religions,  and every news medium is controlled by this bureau.   Mr. Watson. In other words, Eabbi Levin is officially selected by the  state as the head or chief rabbi of the state ?   Rabbi Bronstein. Rabbi Levin was a rabbi in a small town and when  the Yeshiva was opened in 1950, he was called in to be one of the  Yeshiva's presidotels upon the passing of the present chief. Rabbi  Levin was selected as the chief rabbi of Moscow.   Mr. Watson. Selected by whom ?   Rabbi Bronstein. By the government.   In Russia there is such a thing as a Barzetska, which is a group of 20  members of the synagogue who are so-called in control of the religious  activities in the synagogue, but they are really informers for the Soviet  Union.   Mr. Watson. The main thing we wanted to get to is this man is an  official of the state and he is not over here speaking for the 3 million  Jews in Moscow.   Rabbi Bronstein. Certainly not. All of the rabbinical organizations,  including my own and other organizations, have always attempted to  invite Rabbi Levin to this country, but he could never get here.   When this Organization of Assimilations invited him and because  they followed the anti- Jewish line, they were successful in getting him.   Now, when Rabbi Teitz and myself went to greet Rabbi Levin, we  didn't go to greet him on behalf of the American Council for Judaism,  but rather as personal friends and hoped we would have every oppor-  tunity to show Rabbi Levin real Jewish life in America.   The Chairman. Tliank you for your great contribution.   The subcommittee will stand adjourned.   (Wliereupon, at 1 :50 p.m., Wednesday, June 19, 1968, the subcom-  mittee adjourned.)     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION     2235     APPENDIX     PIMPERNEL FOR THE CHURCH   THE GREATEST  BEGGAR IN THE WORLD   CHARLES FOLEY     Yot HAVE TO PUT ten lire in the  elevator to Inake it work.  Grumbling, it heaves you up six floors  to the lop of a nineteenth-century  palazzo on the Vatican side of the  Tiber. A door is opened by a smiling,  fresh-faced girl with a lot of fair hair,  who looks as if she should be selling  butter and eggs in Holland, and you  step, slightly startled, into a clean and  sparkling set of rooms that also seems  to have been imported from the North.  White curtains, blowing in the breeze,  white walls and paintwork, clinical  modern furniture, and behind a desk  buried in papers, a big man in abun-  dant, dazzling white robes.   The Re-CkriMiani:frs   Father Werenfried van Straaten  looks a bit like an ex -boxer: heavy  shoulders, a solid jaw, a little trouble  around the midriff, which he slap5.  heartily. "Nothing to be done! No  time for exercise!" He is a Dutchman  and the head of a remarkable or-  ganization which has been called "the  Vatican CIA" and is in fact the  Catholic Church's "Iron Curtain Re-  lief Service." Its immediate task is  to help the persecuted church of East-  em Europe, and iti ultimate aim is  nothing less than the re-Christian-  ization of the countries now under  Communist domination.   Father van Straaten admits to be-  ing a boxer in his youth; but as for  running a spy center — "my spies only  interest thenuelves in charity and re-  ligion."   "But it's true," he adds, "that in  Czechoslovakia, for example, where  the Church is dying and the 1,400  priests are prevented in so many ways  from carrying out their ministry, they  call us spies. Once I entered Czech-  oslovakia clandestinely with a tourist  party. In a Prague square I saw five  big photographs exhibited — the five  biggest religious enemies of the re-  gime. The Pope, Cardinal Mindszenty,  Cardinal Spellman, Cardinal Frings  — and me. Under my picture the cap-     tion read: "This is the man who calls  himself chief of the army of God. He  takes money and jewels from the  faithful to turn priests into spies."   Father van Straaten rummaged  among the papers on the desk and  found a document which he recently  took to Pope Paul VI at a private  audience: his annual budget. The to-  tal income — ^which equaled expendi-  ture — was more than $5 million.   There were items for aid to  churches and priests who work in  secret, for the families of priests in  prison, for food, clothes, books. I  queried "motorization."   "Those are our chapel trucks."  Father van Straaten explained: "We  have converted hundreds of lorrief.  You open the side and there's the  altar. Priests drive them around the  villages in areas which have no  churches."   Part of the money goes on prepara-  tions for the day when the Communist  regimes will crtimble. More than  twenty seminaries and monasteries  are training priests and close to a  thousand refugees have already be«n  ordained. The target is 3.000, and If.  by some means, all restrictions were  to be lifted on the Church in satellite  countries tomorrow. Father van  Straaten's priests would be ready to  cross the frontiers the same day in  chapel trucks, bearing supplies of  food and fuel. "We've even recorded  messages of hope and greeting to be  broadcast when the day of freedom  comes," he says.   To raise money, the head of Iron  Curtain Church Relief goes on speak-  ing tours. His dusty black Mercedes  clocked up 100.000 miles last year. He  sleeps in the back seat, to be woken  at frontiers and towns whsre people  are waiting to hear him preach. He  has made twelve speeches a day in  different towns and villages. When  we met in Rome he was just pre-  paring for another tour in East Ger-  many. He asks for money, or for  gifts. This means that ICCR's ware-     houses are crammed with 2,000 tons  of ofTerings, from socks to smoked  sausages, double beds and diamond  brooches. He bep addreases from  business organizations, and to these  he sends copies of his twice monthly  yiirroT periodical, which has a print-  ing of 50 million.   "I'm sorry I cannot teD you the  means we use to send aid behind  the Curtain," he said. "But one way  or another we keep the supplies go-  ing. Money, food parcels, typewriters,  cars. .   "Transport Is vital In one way or  another we've provided thousands of  motorcycles and cars for priests in  Communist lands and In refugee  areas."   Priests for Sale   Father van Straaten has traveled  often in Communist countries. He risks  his life but seems also to eBJvy it   "I adopt a false name and leave  my habit behind. I go as a farmer,  say, or tourist and I grow a  how-do-you-say. . .?" IQs fingers  twirled at the ends of an invisible  moustache. In Ibis way he has visHed  the bishops of the Catholic Church  in six Peoples' RepubUca, and per-  sonally spoken to scores of secret  priests — men who wear no robes and  who are. In outward appearance, or-  dinary factory ■ ugh e ia or farm lab-  orers. Ttiese men evade state con-  trol by being ordafeied in brief cere-  monies in some secret place. Some  are betrayed by iirforraers, but many  thouaands are at w«rJu baptizing,  hearing confessions, celebrating Mass  among Ibe 65 million Catholics of  Eastern Europe.   Many Communist nffirials turn a  blind eye to the work af aecret priests,  dther because tbey wish to insure  tbcmselves against a poasiUe col-  lapse at the regime; or bacause they  •re thcmsehret secretly Christians. It  la known that ssme very high-up  Soviet leaden are bettevera; they may  even, like Svatlans StaMn, be mem-  bers tl the Biisslaii Church.   Certain Caamunlst regimes aeO.  priests, along with Jews and other  "undesirables," to the West. The prac-  tice has provided uaeftjl support for  the Rumanian economy over the past  six years. But, perhaps bccauae Ca-  tholicism Is the most stringently per-  secuted of all Christian creeds. Father  van Straaten has been able to buy  only seven priests over this period.   Weren't things getting better for     Jom I(. IM* 609     2236     ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION     the Church in these days of "peaceful  coexistence"? I aaked.   Van Straaten looked at me with  quefitioninK grey eyes. "On the cen-  tral y, they are getting worse." he  said, and brought out a thick folder  stuffed with documents. "This ia my  radiograph of the persecuted Church,  country by country. They cannot  touch thousands of our bravest priesta,  because they are all e»dy dead. Some  three thousand, however, art- still in  prison and more than ten thousand  nuns have been driven from their  convents to work in labor camps. Of  the bishops, about two himdred have  been exiled, imprisoned, killed or  forced to renounce their ministry.  TTicre is a constant movement to re-  place a faithful priest with a 'state  candidate* — a man who will obey  whatever order the government may  give him, however contrary to his  faith.   Albanian Church Gone   •Take Poland. For 35 million Cath-  olics there, no new church has been  built since 1958. The authorities talk  about the separation of church and  state, but in fact the stale controls  every last detail. There'<; no religious  instruction in the schools, and the  few Catholic schools still open — five  — are kept on simply to show to tour-  ists from the West. All religious books  have disappeared. They burn them at  a farm in Jeziomo — people call it the  breviary-grinder.   "Albania is worse stjU. The Church  there has been annihilated, and the  five bishops have just vanished. In  Rumania there were ten bisho[», of  whom three have been killed, four  have died in prison and the others  are still confined. In Czechoslovakia  the number of pnests falls and falls.  The limit is twenty new priests a  year, against the sixty lost in the  same period. All the scminarit-s are  closed, and 764 convents are empty.  Do you know that they offer a prize  of 10,000 crowns to anyone who can  induce a nun to renounce her faith?"   What was the ICCR doing in So-  viet Russia? I asked.   "We have been there, even in Si-  beria; in the Ukraine there were five  million Catholics, but many have  been deported, the churches in the  villages are ruined or used as grain  stores, and of the eleven bishops, tin  are dead and the last. Cardinal Slipy,  has been allowed to come to the  West after eighteen years of forced     labor. It is forbidden to t««ch the  catpchL'^m and from the age of six,  children are taught to hate the idea  of God."   Father van Straaten, wh6 is fifty-  five, studied languages aa a young  man at Utrecht University, and today  he speaks seven. He founded the  ICCR movement in 1947 when some  twelve million German refugees were  flowing into the West. He told his  superior on Christmas morning that  he had decided to leave the abbey  where he worked to help the refugees  by speaking for them and collecting  aid on their behalf. He remembers  . his first sermon:   "The church was crowded, and I  knew everyone there had reaaons,  personal reasons, to hate the Ger-  mans. While I preached,' explaining  the sufferings of these refugees and  asking for help, the crowd just stared  at me coldly. It was the moat difficult  sermon of my life. At the end of  Mass I stood at the church door with  a hat in my hand; and one by one the  whole congregation went by and not  many of them looked at me, and not  one put anything in the hat.   "I went back into the church In  anguish and went down on my knees  and prayed. Then I felt a touch oe  my shoulder. It was an old iiiniail  'My two sons were killed by tha  Germans,' she said. 'But what you  said was just. Here are five francs  for those poor peopt*.' So I ataited  with five francs to feed twclva  million."   Later, touring factories, fttmt and  towns. Father van StraMaa found  that peopli- could learn !• care for  those whom they had so rocantiy  cursed. His work and lame grew. Ha  recalls a day in 1M9 when ha was  attempting to nc fs t iatc with a Rad     general in bahalf of nlugeas. " "We  Russians are the picked troops of  Satan!' he said, and laughad. 'Are you  the beat God can produce?' I thought:  we shall sec. I haven't looked back  from that day."   God Helps the Helpen   ICCR is now expanding its activi-  ties to help the Church in many other  countries where it is in danger or  difficulty: in Brazil, Chile and Col-  ombia; in the Congo and in India;  in Vietnam, wdier* over a million  Catholic rcfngea* have fled Hanoi to  the Sou&   "It is presuoopluous and unreason-  able to expect that God wUl free the  Church frsan Communism if we  haven't done all we can to make that  liberation productive and significant,"  said Father van Straaten. "We have  already lost 30,000 priests in th«  countries of the Soviet empire, l^y  died in prisons and eampa, they fled  or sinaply disappeared. We pray for  the peraacutad Church, and we pray  for the conversion ot all CDoununists,  the dupers and the duped, BrezImeT,  Gromyko, "nto, Uao— (or the perse-  cutes* see in greatar need, ^irltually,  thaa Ote peraaculad. But if we do  not dare la laake preparations, to  weik, *w prsyars wUl not have a  very persuasive Influence on God!"   Fatber van Straaten smiled. "You  ksK>w, I wasn't altogether at home  aa a monk. 1 sang In the abbey dioir,  but my eoice was loud and ahvays  slightly oA key."   T%mm Is a certainty in his voice  now that Is, in Hsetf, a s(da«t It Is  easy to mdaniaDd «Kir "Werenfaiad"  — bis monastic name, meaning  "OMmploB (or Peace"— has become  for minioos at psople in East and  West a symbol of (altk In the future.      AKaJL      BIO National Review     INDEX   INDIVIDUALS   A   Page  Aptheker, Herbert 2231   B   Bookbinder 2222   Brezhnev (Leonid I.) 2236   Bronstein, Harry 2197-2199, 2205, 2206-2220 (testimony), 2226, 2233   C  Colback 2222   D  David, Ben 2230   E  Ehrenburg, Ilya 2223   F   Faig, Mayer 2224   Foley, Charles 2235   Friedland 2222   Frings 2235   G   Gendel 2226   Gendelman, Yonah 2213   Gromyko (Andrei A.) 2236   H   Hocohen, Yesroel Meir 2203,2221   Hitler, Adolf 2199, 2203, 2204, 2222, 2223, 2230, 2231   J  Johnson (Lyndon Baines) 2231   K  Kahane, Meir 2197,   2199,2202-2205 (statement), 2218, 2220-2234 (statement resumed)   Khrushchev (Nikita Sergeevich) 2197, 2199, 2204, 2223, 2224, 2231   Kontorovich 2229   Korn, Richard 2232   Kosygin (Aleksei) 2208   i     ii INDEX   li Page   Leibovich, Lyudvig 2226   Leibovich, Nander 2224   Lenin (V. I.) 2230   Levin (Yehuda Leib) 2205, 2212, 2224, 2232, 2233   Litvinov 2222   Lumer, Hyman 2230   M   Mao (Tse-tung) 2236   Miller, Moses 2230   Mindszenty (Joseph) Cardinal 2235   Morcza 2205   N   Nasser (Gamal Abdel) 2225   Nikodin, Nikolai 2212   P   Pope Paul VI 2235   Potash, Irving 2230   R   Rofus 2222   Rubin, Daniel 2229, 2230   S   Shekhter 2227   Slipy 2236   Spellman (Francis) Cardinal 2235   Stalin, Josef 2199,2203,2222-2224,2230,2231   Stalin, Svetlana 2235   Streicher, Julius 2223   T   Teitz (Pinehas M.) 2218,2233   Tito (Joseph Broz) 2236   Tress, Michaeil D 2206   V  van Straaten, Werenfried 2235,2236   W   Weinstein 2222   Wiesel, Elie 2225   Y   Yaris, Harry 2205   ORGANIZATIONS   A   ACJ. (See American Council for Judaism. )   Afro-Asian Writers' Emergency Meeting, June 27-July 9, 1966, Peking,   China 2231   Agudath Israel 2206   Al Tidom 2199, 2206, 2218   American Council for Judaism (ACJ) 2232-2234   American Jewish Committee 2220     INDEX     C     CPUSA. ( See Communist Party of the United States of America. ) Paee   Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) 2197,   2199, 2202, 2223, 2229, 2230   Communist Party, Soviet Union 2222, 2224, 2226, 2230   Congresses :   Twentieth Congress, February 1956, Moscow 2223   I   ICCR. (See Iron Curtain Church Relief.)   International Conference in Support of the Arab Peoples 2231   Iron Curtain Church Relief (ICCR) 2235, 2236   J   Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee 2223   Jewish Defense League 2197, 2202   Jewish Pamphlet Library 2230   Jewish Peoples Committee 2230   Joint Distribution Committee 2208, 2223   K   KGB. ( See entry under Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of.   Secret Police. )  Komsomol. ( See Young Communist League, Soviet Union. )   O   Organization of Assimilations 2234     Polish United Workers' Party. (-See United Polish Workers' (Communist)   Party.)  Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) (or Party (PLP)) 2229,2231   R   Rabbinical Alliance of America 2198, 2206   Radio Free Europe 2212, 2215   Radio Liberty 2198, 2215, 2218   S   SDS. ( -S^ee Students for a Democratic Society. )   Socialist Workers Party (SWP) 2229   Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 2231   T   Tass (News Agency) 2223   U   Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of 2208, 2209, 2213, 2229   Secret Police (GB — Grosudarstvennaya Bezopasnost — state security) :  KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti — Committee for   State Security) 2198, 2199, 2208, 2211, 2213   United Polish Workers' (Oommunist) Party 2205   United States Government :  Embassies :   Moscow, Russia 2^7   United States Information Agency :   Voice of America 2198,2212,2215,2217,2218,2225     Voice of America. {See entry under United States Government, United   States Information Agency. )  Voice of Israel 2215, 2225     iv INDEX   W Page   Workers Library Publishers, Inc 2223   Workers World Party (WWP) 2229   Youth Against War and Fascism (YAWF) 2229,2231     Young Communist League, Soviet Union (Komsomol) 2219,2221   Youth Against War and Fascism. {See entry under Workers World Party  (WWP).)   PUBLICATIONS     Challenge (Progressive Labor Party newspaper) 2232   Communism v. Judaism (Meir Kahane) 2202,2221   F  Folks-Shtimme (newspaper) 2214   G  Greatest Beggar in the World, The (artiicle) (Charles Foley) 2232,2235   H  History of Soviet Foi'eign Policy, A (booklet) 2223   J   Jew Looks at the War, A (booklet) 2230   Jewish Daily Forward (newspaper) 2220   Jewish Press (newspaper) 2197,2202,2221   Jewish Stake in Vietnam, The (book) 2202   Jews of SUence, The (book) 2225   L  Letter To A Zionist Friend (booklet) 2230   M  Mirror 2235   P   Political Affairs (magazine) 2229,2230   Pravda 2219, 2222   R  Russian Sketches 2220   S   Sovietskoye Zakarpatye 2226   T  Trud (newspaper) 2225   W  Worker, The 2205,2219,2231   Y   Yediot Aronot (Israeli Hebrew-language newspaper) 2232   o     BOSTON   1 1 1  3 9999    PUBLIC LIBRARY   LI   05706 3024

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  1. HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY VEriRI GIFT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION ■-) / HEARINGS BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES NINETIETH CONGKESS SECOND SESSION JUNE 19, 1968 (INCLUDING INDEX) Printed for the use of the Committee on Internal Security HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY. DEPOSITED BY THE nwTED STATES GOVERNMENT JUu 9 1939 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 27-407 WASHINGTON : 1969 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfHce Washington, D.C. 20402 – Price 20 cents #^ i COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERIOAN ACTIVITIES United States House of Representatives (90th Congress, 2d Session) EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio JOE R POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina Francis J. McNamara, Director Chester D. Smith, General Counsel Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel COMMITTEE ON INTERNAL SECURITY • United States House of Reteesentatives (91st Congress, 1st Session) RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri, Chairman CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio EDWIN W. EDWARDS, Louisiana RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana RICHARDSON PREYER, North Carolina ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina LOUIS STOKES, Ohio WILLIAM J. SCHERLB, Iowa Donald G. Sanders, Chief Counsel Glenn Davis, Editorial Director Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel CONTENTS Page Synopsis 2197 June 19, 1968 : Statement of Meir Kahane 2202 Testimony of Harry Bronstein 2206 Statement of Meir Kahane (resumed) 2220 Index i III The House Committee on ITn- American Activities is a standing committee of the House of Representatives, constituted as such by the rules of the House, adopted pursuant to Article I. section 5, of the Constitution of the United States which authorizes the House to deter- mine the rules of its proceedings. RULES ADOPTED BY THE 9(>TH CONGRESS House Resolution 7. January 10. 1967. as amended April 3. 196S. by House Resolution 1099 RESOLUTION Sesolred. That the Rules of the House />f Representatives of the Eighty-ninth Congress, together with all applicable provisions; of the Legislative Reorganiza- tion Act of 1946. as amended, be. and they are hereby, adopted as the Rules of the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Congress * * * ****** m RrxE X STA^DrSG COMMITTEES 1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress. ******* (s) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. ******* RtXE XI POWERS A>TI DITTIES OF COMMITTEES ******* 19. Committee on Un-American Activities. (a) Un-Americ-an activities. (b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigatons of (1) the extent, charac- ter, and ot)jec-ts of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 1 3 1 all other qu,estions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such invessti- gation. together vrith such recommendations as it deems advisable. For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any mem- ber designated by any such chairman, and may be .served by any person desig- nated by any such chairman or member. ******* 28. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee : and. for that pur- pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. SYNOPSIS A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities held public hearings in Washington. D.C.. on June 19. 196S. to receive the testimony of Eabbis Meir Kahane and Harry Bronstein. The hearings were held pursuant to a committee resolution which authorized hearings relating to — the extent and character of Commimist propaganda and c-onsptratorial techniques employed within the United States to promote the objectiTes of the Commtmist Party in the United States and to advance the purposes of the world Commtmist movement by the dissemination of false and misleading information c-onceming Communist doctrine and practic-es in regard to religion and ethnic and minority groups * * *. Eabbi Kahane, the first witness, identified himself as a writer and editor for the Jewish Press, which he described as ‘Tihe large-st Anglo- Jewish newspaper in the country.” The rabbi said he is one of the founders of “a group called the Jewish Defense League, which is cur- rently being organized to defend Jewish people against anti-Semitism and to defend this country against various extremist groups such as the Communists and the black nationalists, functioning at the present time.” Eabbi Kahane testified that for a period of about 15 years he had made a study of communism and Soviet anti-Semitism. The rabbi stated that, prior to 1917, Eussia was the “heartland of the Jewish faith — seminaries, synagogues. This was what one could truly say was the flower of the Jewish people.” “^Tien the Soviets took over.” he said, “there began an immediate campaign to do away with this.” State- controlled institutions for Jews were established to replace the truly Jewish institutions. The rabbi said these institutions — were created for the very purix)se of doing away with the idea of Judaism. * * * Xo .Jewish child was allowed to study his faith, either in the government sered. “When you go back to the free world, don’t hold your peace. Stir up the people, turn the world upside down if you must, but help us! Help me so that my Volodenka will remain a Jew.” This story typifies the plight of Soviet Jewry at the moment. As Mr. Watson asked, are there people who are trying to bring this story out to the American public ? The answer is “Yes.” Being with the Jewish Press, we are deeply disturbed at the im- mense ignorance and lack of knowledge on the part of people in America and especially the young people, both Jewish and non-Jew- ish, who have no idea of the horrors that are in store for them if what they want to happen would really happen. Much of the materials which I am about to present appeared in a series of articles, extending for more than 4 months, “Communism v. Judaism.” I and our paper certainly intend to get across one message to the American Jewish people, that communism is a deadly enemy of Juda- ism and all free men. As I began speaking before, when the Communist government took over the So^aet Union in 1917, there began a massive campaign to do away with Jewish communal institutions. This was handed over to the Jewish section of the Communist Party, which was known as the Yevesekzia. Staffed by bitterly antireligious and anti-Zionist Commimists, the Yevesekzia went about its job with gusto. All existing Jewish com- munal and religious organizations were to be smashed and replaced with a well-subsidized network of Communist-oriented Yiddish-lan- guage institutions. Religion was the special target of the vicious fury of the Yevesekzia. Armed with instructions by the Conununist government to eliminate religious “superstition,” they hastened to sequester synagogues and convert them to Komsomol (Communist youth) clubs. Rabbis and teachers who broke the law by secretly teaching children religion and Hebrew were caught and arrested. No minor child may be taught religion in the Soviet Union. The religious schools were shut, and the great Russian Judaism began to dry up at its source — the child and his studies. Within a decade the greatness that had been Russian Jewry was withering on the vine. The word of God was no longer heard on the lips of Jewish children, and what the Czars with all their tyranny had never done, the Communists were now accomplishing. The leader of his generation, the ffreat Rabbi Yesroel Meir Hacohen, the Chofetz Chaim from Poland, knew the trials of his Russian Jewish brethren and his heart ached for them. 2222 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION In the month of Av, that tragic month in Jewish history of the year 1929, this great rabbi penned a letter to world Jewry. His sub- ject was the tragedy of the Jews in the Soviet Union. This is what he wrote : Most bitter and fearful is the situation of our brethren in Russia and the Ukraine, may God have mercy. Almost three million Jews find themselves in great danger (aside from the fact that a great portion of them have no economic status and are simply starving). One’s hair stands on end hearing of the great suffering of our brethren in Russia due to the overwhelming wickedness of those who desire to uproot our Holy Torah. They closed the Hebrew schools and yeshivas. Those Roshei Yeshivas and teachers who continued to spread learning privately were sent to Siberia. The rabbis are being held as hostages. The synagogues and study halls are being shut down and turned into clubs (the scornful tyrants seek every excuse to close synagogues and tear away kosher meat from Jewish mouths). Those whose livelihood depends on the government are afraid to Judaize their children. They are Marranos. Just as in the times of the Inquisition Jews were forced to cause others to go astray, to profane the Sabbath and to openly eat leavened bread on Passover, equally tragic is the present situation which leads to assimila- tion and destruction, Heaven forbid. Our sufl’ering and persecuted brethren over there are afraid to speak out a word of protest. It is therefore our responsibility to protest openly, to cry out and to awake public opinion … to pray . . . and just as our fathers did, so must we do. We must declare a fast. But the prayers of the great rabbi and others like him were not sufficient to have Heaven intervene and the Yevesekzia went method- ically about its job. As the years went by the Yevesekzia grew even more vicious. Its schools, lectures, forums, newspapers, and books mocked Jewish laws and customs and distorted Jewish history. “Wedges were deliberately driven between children and their parents and grandparents. The new generation was being ripped from the bosom of its heritage. Not only religion but Zionism, too, was brutally hunted down. Show trials of Zionists accused of imperialist conspiracy against the state were held. Hebrew, the language of “rabbinism” and “imperialist Zionism” both, was strictly forbidden. The disintegration of Soviet Jewry was rapid and there was, as I have mentioned, no longer a need even for these Jewish institutions whose purpose was to destroy Judaism. By 1936 the final liquidation of Soviet Jewry began. In 1936 a wave of arrest of writers and artists took place. In 1937 the liquidation of Yiddish elementary, secondary, high schools, the Communist ones — they arrested Communist teachers Litvinov, Colback, Weinstein, Rofus, Bookbinder, Friedland, and many others. This continued through to 1939 when the Soviet Union concluded its pact with Adolf Hitler. From the time of that pact to June 21, 1941, the Soviet Union was the greatest opponent of the free world coming to the defense of Great Britain and France. In December of 1939 Stalin in an interview with the editor of Pravda said the f ollowinof : ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2223 “(a) It was not Germany that attacked France and England, but France and England that attacked Germany, thereby assuming responsibility for the present war; “(b) After hostilities had broken out, Germany made overtures of peace to France and England, and the Soviet Union openly supported Germany’s peace overtures, for it considered, and continues to consider, that the earliest possible termination of the war would radically improve the position of all countries and nations ; “(c) The ruling circles of England and France rudely rejected both Germany’s peace overtures and the attempts of the Soviet Union to secure the earliest possible termination of the war.” ^ Because of this, countless Jews died — countless Jews that might have been saved. Their deaths are laid directly at the feet of the Soviet Union. By 1941 Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, and suddenly things changed. The Soviets were greatly in need of the aid of the same United States which they had been pleading to stay out of the war. Incidentally, as I will indicate later, the Communist apparatus in this country swallowed this line — hook, line, and sinker, and it is the measure of the obscenity of the Communists in this country and throughout the world that there were Communist Jews who knew what would happen to their fellow Jews if they espoused this line and they espoused it anyway. In 1941, as a result of the desperate need for American aid, a neutral America, an organization by the name of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee was formed. In a passionate address, Ilya Ehrenburg, the famous Soviet writer who was also Jewish, laid the main emphasis on the fact that he appealed to the Jews in the United States, who mitil that moment had been pleaded with to stay neutral, to turn to their Government to come into the war on the side of the Soviet Union. The war was over, and there was no longer a need for the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. In 1948 a wholesale liquidation of every member of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee began, and from 1948 to 1952 anti-Semitism on a physical scale raged inside Russia. Jews were killed because they were Jews, just as in Nazi Germany. This culminated in 1953 with the infamous doctors plot. On January 13, 1953, the Soviet news agency Tass published a plot by Jewish doctors on the life of Stalin. It was a fantastic thing that would have done justice to Julius Streicher. In each case, the Jewish origin of the doctor was made abundantly clear. They were accused of having maintained relations with the Joint Distribution Committee, which is an organization devoted to the relief of Jewish refugees, which was called the international Jewish bourgeois-nationalistic organization which was created by the Ameri- can intelligence service. These doctors were killed, and we have clear indication that Josef Stalin intended to liquidate the entire population, the entire Jewish population of the Soviet Union, if not for the fortunate fact that he died. His place was taken by Khrushchev, who at the 20th Congress startled the world with the facts of Stalin’s crimes. And despite the 1 This quotation appeared in English in an official Communist Party, U.S.A., publication entitled “A History of Soviet Foreign Policy.” which was published during the Soviet-Nazi Pact by Worliers Library Publishers, Inc., 1940, pp. 44, 45. 2224 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION fact that Khrushchev had a leading hand in these crimes, the blame was imputed to Stalin and others. All during this era of murder of Jews in the Soviet Union, the Com- munist Party in this country, including its Jewish section, went up to the barricades, on the ramparts, and said it was a lie^ — it was a lie created by the Americans, by the imperialists, by the Zionists, by every- one. Suddenly Khrushchev said it was all true. The ComLmunists didn’t bat an eyelash. They said it was true and the reason was simple : that Stalin was in aberration, but Khrushchev had the courage to admit it so this proves the integrity of communism. Khrushchev began an immediate persecution of the Jews in the So- viet Union. Under him, we saw the rise of the charge of economic crimes. Economic crimes were suddenly imputed again to people, 80 percent of whom were Jews. Every Jew had his name indicated clearly and if he had changed his name, his original Jewish name was put m brackets. Economic crimes were imputed to the Jewish synagogues. The great synagogue in Lvov was accused of anti-Soviet activity, illicit cur- rency dealings, and this excuse was used to close it down. Today in the Soviet Union anti-Semitism continues. In 1963 a vicious 48-page booklet published in Uzhgorod in the Ukraine inadvertently shed light on the heroic secret resistance as it stated : It must be said that in our day, too, there are some people who are in the captivity of Judaism and who are trying to inculcate children with religious fanaticism. In 1958, in Uzhgorod, there was an exposure of the dirty activities of Nander Leibovich. He gave up his job and began teaching children the Torah. This semi-literate idler made use of his own ways to lead the children unto the “path of truth”. A similar breeding ground for religious obscurantism also existed in the Seredneye Vodanoye village of the Tyachev district. Mayer Faig was misleading the children. … It is characteristic that after the public had exposed these harmful and forbidden religious schools the rabbis began to go to the children’s homes and teach them individually — something that is also an infringement of the Soviet regulations. . . . Until 1957 there was literally not one school for religious studies in the Soviet Union. In 195Y, as in 1958, because of public pressure, Khrushchev created a farce, a fiasco, one school for 13 students, the youngest of whom was 40 years old. That was the sum total of rabbis to service the religious needs of 3 million Jews, and that school was closed down. It is closed at the moment. At the moment, there are no schools for the training of rabbis. The average age of the Russian rabbi is 70. In Moscow, in the main synagogue, it has Chief Rabbi Levin who is 74, and one other small one, a rabbi who is 92. Being deprived of their leadership, the Jew^s of Russia are subject to another equally severe disability. Judaism is permitted no publica- tions and no publications facilities; no Hebrew Bible nor one Russian translation of the old Hebrew Bible has been published since 1917. Not a single religious book has appeared in print since the early 1920’s. Until 1958 not one prayer book was printed, and in that year a ri- diculous 3,000 copies were photocopied, none for the domestic use of the Soviet Jewry. ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2225 No Jewish calendars are available in the Soviet Union — and the Jew depends on his religious holidays — he has no idea when the holidays of Rosh Hashana or Yom Kippur occur. This country once boasted tens of thousands of synagogues. There were 450 synagogues in 1956 and 7 years later there were only 96, a de- crease of 500 percent in a period of 7 years. The process of attrition is not due merely to the fact, as Soviets main- tain, that Jews don’t want to go to synago^e. There have been physi- cal closings of synagogues and administrative orders which have closed them down under various pretexts. At this moment, there are 64 synagogues left in the entire Soviet Union. That includes the Russian empire, taking in the captive nations of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, plus the various parts of other East European countries that were annexed by the Soviet Union immedi- ately after the war. Just 64 synagogues in this vast area. In those regions where Soviet fiat has ordered synagogues closed, stubbornly pious Jews have taken to organizing private services in their homes. Propaganda assaults on these meetings have been frequent, while Soviet police have harassed, disrupted, and dispersed such gatherings on hundreds of occasions, warning those who attended and occasionally punishing them. Articles list those who organize and attend the meetings. The persecution of Jewish religious institutions has been systemati- cally stepped up in recent years. In June and July of 1961, six lay religious leaders in Moscow and Leningrad were secretly arrested and synagogue presidents in six major provincial cities deposed. The arrested leaders were held in prison until October of that year and then secretly tried, convicted of alleged espionage, and sentenced to lengtlliy prison terms. Wlien a storm of protests arose, Trud^ the trade union paper, pub- lished a vicious article accusing the religious leaders of being agents for the Israeli secret service and tools of the American intelligence system. Each of the remaining lonely synagogues stands alone, for Jewish congregations are forbidden to maintain a central organization or a nationwide federation which would coordinate needs and standards and bolster religious beliefs. Needless to say, no communication with for- eign religious bodies is countenanced. And so the synagogues remain dying centers of a once-thriving reli- gion, where old people sit beneath the eye of ih& inevitaJble synagogue informer, Wliere the rabbi and the remaining devout sit motionless, fearful, wateople in the eyes and called upon all believing Jews to finish with this barbaric custom This is the propaganda that the Soviet people and the Jews must read. This is what the young Soviet Jewish child is taught in his school. There is no way, no legal way, for him to hear the opposite view, to hear the opposite facts. I would just like to touch at this point on something which I men- tioned before. All faiths in the Soviet Union are persecuted. The Jewish press has come out time and time again calling for the American Jew to stand up in protest against the persecution of the Baptists in the Soviet Union. There have been meetings, joint meetings, held by organizations in this country who are active on behalf of the Soviet Jewry, in conjunc- tion with Baptist groups, to protest the persecution. tin fortunately — and I say this with a heavy heart — when certain Baptists appealed for sanctuary at the American Embassy in Moscow, they were turned away. I think this is a terrible, terrible stain on this country. Mr. Watson. Spell that out a little better. They appealed for sanc- tuary at the American Embassy, and the American Embassy did not give them sanctuary? Rabbi Kahane. Yes, sir; about 40 families suddenly appeared in Moscow. They had come from the provinces. They appeared in Mos- cow and they came into the United States Embassy and they listed a long list of persecutions they had undergone and they asked for sanc- tuary inside the Embassy and they were turned away. They were kept there for a day, and instructions were asked of Washington what to do about them. Mr. Watson. How long ago was this. Rabbi? Rabbi Bronstein. I was there. It was about 5 years ago. It was publislied in all of the papers in the United States. Rabbi Kahane. At the time the Jewish press wrote a very, very strong editorial on this. It was one of the few moments when I who am truly proud to be a citizen of this country — ^the finest country in the world — felt a twinge of shame that we had done such a thing. Mr. Watson. Were these people charged with any specific crimes? Rabbi Kahane. No, none at all. Mr. Smith. You indicated that the Embassy asked for instructions from Washington as to what to do. Rabbi Kahane. Yes. Mr. Smith. I don’t believe you stated what happened. Rabbi Kahane. The next day they were ousted from the Embassy so it is quite obvious what those instructions were. Mr. Smith. Rabbi, has the plight of Jews been aggravated by the attitude of the Soviet toward the situation in the Middle East? Rabbi Kahane. Tliere is no doubt that the Soviet Union suffered a severe blow; in fact, the world Communist movement suffered its severest blow in more than a decade when the Israelis defeated the Arabs last year. I cannot tell you how infuriated and how psycopathic the Soviets became at that defeat. Not since the Soviets were forced 2228 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION to remove the missiles from Cuba have they literally suffered any defeat in the world. In Laos, Vietnam, throughout Africa, throughout America com- munism was expanding. And here was their opportunity to literally seize the Middle East, to destroy one of the few Western bastions aside from a country like Turkey. There are really few Western bastions, bastions of freedom and democracy, aside from Israel. The Soviets campaigned for over a year to prepare the ground- work to have the Arab states attack Israel. It was the Soviets who began spreading the rumor that Israel was about to invade Syria in early 1967. It was they who encouraged Nasser to demand the withdrawal of U.N. troops from Sinai and to block the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel shipping, which they knew was an act of war, which they knew would compel Israel to fight or die. For months prior to the outbreak of the war, the Soviets, the press, and radio laid the groundwork for public opinion against Israel and against America. Let me make this clear right now. During this entire period preced- ing the war and during the war and after the war, Israel was called by both the Soviet Union and China the lackey of American imperial- ists, that Israel was being used to reestablish imperialism, colonialism, ad nauseum, in the Middle East, Moscow radio on April 8, 1967, broadcast this following gem : New and very important details have emerged in the news concerning the 7 April Syrian-Israeli armed clash caused by Israel. For example it has become ap- parent that American pilots participated alongside Israelis in the air raids against Syria. Syrian authorities were told this by one of the American pilots whose plane was shot down while the Syrians were repelling the Israeli attack. The statements of the American pilot, who fell into the hands of the Syrian au- thorities, indicate that a deal has been concluded between the United States and Israel to import planes and other war equipment. In compliance with Washington’s request, Jordan granted Israel the right to use its airspace without interference. These facts indicate once more that Israeli aggressiveness is but a curtain behind which Washington pursues its aggressive aims toward the independent Arab states. * * * Unfortunately, very, very few people know or realize how closely linked American foreign policy or the American security, the Ameri- can future, is linked to that of freedom-loving nations such as Israel, and I would like to make the comment right here that I believe my newspaper believes, and the majority of American Jews believe, that the war in Vietnam and the war in the Middle East were part of the same war, same enemies. Communism is an entity, a unity. The Israeli troops fought for America. American troops in Vietnam fight for Israel. Both fight for the free world, and I would like to make that very, very clear to you, that no matter what you might read or think, American Jews are con- vinced of this. And while many of us, many Americans, might differ on certain aspects of the war, some calling for less escalation and some calling for more, but the fact is that the knowledge is clear that Israel and Vietnam and every other area in which communism fights the free world is part of the same thing. Mr. Smith. What are the so-called economic crimes in the Soviet Union ? ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2229 Eabbi Kahane. As I had mentioned, the Soviet Union used the pre- text of economic crimes as a cover for anti-Semitism. To begin with, 80 percent of all of the so-called economic criminals was Jewish, listed as such, to ethnic charge ; to charge, their ethnic background was care- fully listed and above all religious leaders were linked to these crimes. Just as an aside, those same groups in this country which protest against the death penalty for rapists and murderers did not protest when 250 people were shot to death for black marketeering, just as the same groups that protest against the bombing of Hanoi and the accidental killing of civilians do not protest when, in Saigon, civilians are purposefully, deliberately murdered. The economic crimes, as I say, were used as a campaign against the synagogue and against the Jew. On November 5, 1962, the great synagogue of Lvov, the last remain- ing Jewish prayer house in the Ukraine, was shut down. The closing of the synagogue was the culmination of an intensive campaign of the state police, the militia. In a paper published in Kiev, 1962, a demand was made that the Lvov synagogue, which is pictured as the center for illicit currency dealings, be closed. According to the article : Jewish speculators from Lvov and foreign towns met and carried on their trade and concluded their transactions. * » * The leading figure in the Synagogue and in the ring speculators was * * * the ritual slaughterer Kontorovich, who made religion and its rites the source of his i)ersonal income. In contravention of the State wine monopoly he made religious wine, which he sold at exorbitant prices, for the celebration of religious festivals.^ The article goes further and says this misdeed caused the death sentence of this person and another member of the synagogue council. They were both shot, and the synagogue was closed. Mr. Smith. What has been the reaction of the groups that you mentioned a while ago. Communist Party, Workers World Party, Youth Against War and Fascism, Progressive Labor, and Socialist Workers Party, toward the persecution of the Jews in the Soviet Union ? Eabbi Kahane. All of the Communist groups, whether Moscow- oriented or Peking-oriented, follow the party line precisely and ex- actly. There is no doubt that within the Soviet Union there is an attempt to forcibly assimilate the Jew and do away with the congre- gant Jew. The facts were so obvious that several Jewish Communists who have withstood the storms and the tides of swerving party lines fi- nally had it just a little bit. Several of them called for the Soviet Union to alleviate its line just a little bit. The American Communist Party, the Communist Party of the U.S., devoted three issues of its Political Affairs journal to this question and various top Communist leaders as well. Daniel Rubin, who at that time was the Communist Party’s youth director, wrote in the December 1966 issue of Political, Affairs — we still should ask ourselves whether, if it is true that Jewish culture in the USSR will be dead in 10 years, this in itself is bad? * * * 1 “Economic Crimes in the Soviet Union” (reprint). Journal of the International Com- mission oj Jurists, summer 1964, vol. V, No. 1, p. 37. 2230 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION What Eubin was saying was that to be a Jew was no great or important thing. And this concept was taken up by Irving Potash, a long-time anti- Jewish Semite and long-time party leader. Potash writes : This false concept is a throw-back to historic narrow nationalism reflected in such expressions as “Jewishness” and “Jewish spirit” * * *. This emphasis on the idea of the Jewish community, from the em- phasis arises the fantastic demand that the Soviet Union allow its Jewish community to establish contact with the Jewish community of other countries. Hyman Lumer, at that time the editor of Political Affairs [quoting from Lenin] , states : Marxism cannot be reconciled with nationalism, be it even of the “most just,” “purest,” most refined and civilized brand.* * * The Jews of the Soviet Union will disappear. This is precisely what the Communist Party wants. This is one area in which the Communist Party defends the present campaign to destroy the Jew at this moment. But this is only an end. Here is a long, long traditional precedent. At the time that Stalin was opposed to intervention against Hitler and at that moment when Jewry was being doomed, the Communist Party of this country, through one of its Jewish traitors named Moses Miller, published a booklet called A Jew Looks at the War,^ in which Miller said the Jewish people of America are against this war. The Jewish people do not want one single American young man to lose his life over there. We have a war to carry on, but that war is right here. Incidentally, you could take these paragraphs and the Jewish Com- munists are saying it right at this moment — things never, never change. At that moment he knew adaptation of that policy would doom Jews to death, but he wrote it anyway. Mr. Smith. Do you have any evidence of the deliberate creation of anti-Semitism by any of these Communist groups? Rabbi Kahane. I am not quite finished. I would first of all like to mention several more areas in which the Communist Party of this country has hewed faithfully to the line on the Jewish question, since this is the basic line of this committee, and in addition to that also cover several of the other Communist groups which are not led by Moscow. On the question of the establishment of a Jewish state, in 1937 when the specter of Hitler, who swore to wipe out the Jews of Europe, was hovering over the world, at that moment when there was still a hope that some of these Jews could be saved and somehow they could be gotten to Palestine, the Soviet Union opposed any such move and since the Soviet Union did, the Communist Party of this country put out a booklet called Letter To A Zionist Friend.’^ At that moment, Arab mobs were carrying on terrorism against Jews. 1 Booklet published by Jewish Peoples Committee, New York, N.Y., June 1940. 2 Booklet by Ben David, published by Jewish Pamphlet Library, New York, March 1937. ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2231 My aunt was killed in 1937 by the Arabs in Palestine, and I am happy to say that I am ready to testify to that scene at any time. All through the horrors of Stalin, the Communists in this country said that there was no truth to it, there was no truth to anti-Semitism, there was no truth to the stories that Jewish writers and intellectuals were being killed. Suddenly, Khrushchev says it is true, it all happened. So, sud- denly, Jewish life under the Communist order grows. “We are sorry, we are sorry,” they said, “we were wrong.” During the crisis last year between Israel and the Arabs when the Soviet Union, of course, followed a completely viciously anti-Israel line, the Communist Party of this country followed the exact line. The Worker said in an editorial on May 28, 1967 : GUILT for the present dangerous crisis in the Middle East rests solely upon the Wall Street imperialists, the oil trusts and the Johnson Administration, which is acting as their agent. June 13, 1967, headline of The Worker was “LBJ Helps Israel In Attempt to Hold Seized Arab Land.” In November 1967, an International Conference in Support of the Arab Peoples, a Communist group, was held in New Delhi. Herbert Aptheker wrote a speech in support of the Arab peoples right down the line, though Aptheker knew that the Arab peoples, the Arab armies, intended not just to conquer Israel, but to liquidate the Jewish state and its inhabitants, to add 21/^ million Jews to the 6 mil- lion that Hitler killed, but Herbert Aptheker went right down the line, right down the line and he called in his declaration : The method of warfare employed by Israel was in cynical violation of stand- ards of human decency, now established by the judgments of the Nuremberg Trials, the Charter of the U.N.O. and the Conventions of the International Red Cross. The large-scale use of napalm — “Portable Crematoria” — against civilians, the expulsion of civilian populations, the shooting of prisoners or turning them loose in the desert to die — such actions can not fail to raise memories of the policies of Hitler’s Nazis.* Not just the Communist Party of this country, but those parties which follow the Peking line went right down the line with Peking. Incidentally, I want to make it very, very clear to groups in this country such as the SDS, which sees no evil in China, to such groups as Youth Against War and Fascism, which sees no evil in China, as the Progressive Labor Party would see no evil in China, I would like to call attention to what the Chinese version is for the final solution to Israel. The Chinese are not talking about whether Israel should take in Arab refugees, whether they should give up conquered lands. In June of 1966 at a conference in Peking [the Afro-Asian Writ- ers’ Emergency Meeting, June 27-July 9, 1966], the following resolu- tion on Palestine was passed, and paragraph 10 reads : The Meeting demands that Israel, a colonialist entity completely dependent on world imperialism, be completely liquidated.” That was the Chinese version. Nevertheless, those groups which owe allegiance to China, such as the Progressive Labor Party, went down the line — July 1967 issue of ^ Political Affairs, January 1968, p. 42. a Peking Review, July 15, 1966, p. 47. 2232 ANTI-SEMITISM EST THE SOVIET UNION Challenge, the newspaper of the PLP — “5 pages on MID EAST Facts, Lessons” — facts were facts, lessons were lessons. “Israel Plotted Suez Grab With Imperialists, Minister Confirms” “PALESTINE: WHOSE HOMELAND?” “Israel’s Birth: Zionists Coldly Planned Terror” All through their leaflets and their publications was one theme — Vietnam, the Middle East, are one war and in this particular case, I agree with them. It is one war. I would like to conclude with this following word : I was in Israel last year, a year in which anti-Vietnam riots in this country were going very, very well. If the Israeli people could have a referendum on that war, I can assure you overwhelmingly they would have pleaded with America to stay in Vietnam. I want to read an article to you to conclude with this which was in one of the leading Israeli papers: In Vietnam, the United States bars the road of destructive military force that is capable tomorrow of reaching India and the next day Asia Minor, if only she is allowed to do so. It is worthwhile for the sensitive souls who decry the dirty war to remember this : It is time for them to remember bombs falling- on a bridge in Hanoi. So long as America stands alone and does this work and spills the blood of her sons in Vietnam, she is not worthy of being kicked and smeared but is deserving of appreciation and support for then in the end she defends that civilization, that way of life, those ideals common to her and to everyone who sees himself belonging to the free world.’^ Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, since time will not permit Rabbi Kahane to cover all of his material, I request permission for him to submit various documents he has used here and additional ones which will reveal the manner in which U.S. Communist groups have denied that they tried to clear the Soviet Union of all charges of anti-Semitism and persecution of the Jewish religion. The Chairsiax. That permission is granted. Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, because of its relevance to the testimony received this morning from Rabbis Kahane and Bronstein and also the testimony of Richard Wurmbrand received last August, it is re- quested that an article entitled “the greatest beggar in the world” be printed as a part of this hearing. The article in question was published in the June 18, 1968, issue of the National Review. It concerns Communist-bloc persecution of Ca- tholicism and certain steps being taken by the Catholic Church to preserve the practice of Catholicism behind the Iron Curtain. The Chairman. That will be received and printed. (See appendix, pages 2235 and 2236.) Thank you very much. You have made a great contribution to this committee and to the cause we are digging into. Mr. Watson. Mr. Chairman, may I just make one statement and ask Rabbi Kahane a question ? The Chairman. Yes. Mr. Watson. I notice in the Evening Star yesterday an article on the second page of section A, where Rabbi Levin, who is the chief rabbi of Moscow, received “a clamorous welcome” and the official wel- coming party was headed by Richard Korn, president of the American Council for Judaism. 1 Quoted from Yediot Aronot, an Israeli Hebrew-language newspaper. ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2233 Could either of you give us some information on this organization or this individual ? I am not trying to pick an argument here with any faith, but I was just trying to get a reading on this thing as to whether or not your people are fully apprised of what is going on in Russia and this man’s particular position. Eabbi Kahane. Ordinarily, I hesitate to comment on other Jewish organizations. However, in this case since you have asked me, I thank you for asking me. The ACJ is a very, very small group of individuals who are opposed to the establishment of a Jewish national homeland. They fought the creation of the State of Israel until 1948, when it was created, and since that time they have j oined openly with Arabs. Many of their members have traveled through Arab countries for anti-Israel propaganda purposes. “Wlien all American Jewish organi- zations have been protesting anti-Semitism within the Soviet Union, this group alone said it was not true, not because they are Communists, but for other reasons. In any case, the Soviet Union, which is desperately anxious to call all these charges a lie, thought of the idea of sending Rabbi Levin to America. I can assure you that Rabbi Levin was not anxious to come in any manner or form. He has no desire in any form to be a part of a Soviet plot to disprove these true charges. However, as Rahbi Bronstein said, the Soviet Union is one great prison, and he is a prisoner. It is not just for his own life or safety he fears, but for 3 million hostages back in the Soviet Union, 3 million Jews. He was forced to oome. The Soviet Union cleverly came up with the one and only organization which would work with them m having Rabbi Levin come here. It is an anti-Zionist and, in a sense, truly an anti-Semitic group. Therefore, this clamorous welcome was far from clamorous, inciden- tally. I don’t know if this story has a wire service heading or not. Mr. Watson. New York AP byline. Rabbi Kahane. The Neio York Times had the same lead paragraph, and I have my own particular criticism of that paper. The fact is that it was not a clamorous welcome. The fact of the matter is a second group came there in an attempt to salvage something and to at least rescue Rabbi Levin and have him come over with a legitimate British group, and that is the group mentioned there led by Rabbi Teitz. I want to say in no way should the visit of Rabbi Le’in be con- strued as any lessening of Soviet anti-Semitism. You can rest assured that Pravda and all of the lackeys of Moscow here will play this up to prove there is really no anti-Semitism. That is the sole purpose of this visit. Mr. Watsox. In other words, the group led by Rabbi Teitz? Rabbi Kahane. It is a group of orthodox Jews who have held per- sonal contact with him. I think on this particular point. Rabbi Bron- stein could certainly add several things. Rabbi Bronstein. I would like to clarify the purpose of bringing Rabbi Levin to the United States — I am talking here about the true purpose. I know Rabbi Levin from my nine visits to the Soviet Union. He is a loyal, learned rabbi. However, any official in the Soviet Union 2234 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION just because of the fact of being an official must follow the Soviet line. I know of many great rabbis and scholars who are collecting junk and who are doing the most black work not to be a rabbi, just to avoid being an official rabbi, because if they are official rabbis they must sub- mit every sermon before it is preached to the minister of all religions, and every news medium is controlled by this bureau. Mr. Watson. In other words, Eabbi Levin is officially selected by the state as the head or chief rabbi of the state ? Rabbi Bronstein. Rabbi Levin was a rabbi in a small town and when the Yeshiva was opened in 1950, he was called in to be one of the Yeshiva’s presidotels upon the passing of the present chief. Rabbi Levin was selected as the chief rabbi of Moscow. Mr. Watson. Selected by whom ? Rabbi Bronstein. By the government. In Russia there is such a thing as a Barzetska, which is a group of 20 members of the synagogue who are so-called in control of the religious activities in the synagogue, but they are really informers for the Soviet Union. Mr. Watson. The main thing we wanted to get to is this man is an official of the state and he is not over here speaking for the 3 million Jews in Moscow. Rabbi Bronstein. Certainly not. All of the rabbinical organizations, including my own and other organizations, have always attempted to invite Rabbi Levin to this country, but he could never get here. When this Organization of Assimilations invited him and because they followed the anti- Jewish line, they were successful in getting him. Now, when Rabbi Teitz and myself went to greet Rabbi Levin, we didn’t go to greet him on behalf of the American Council for Judaism, but rather as personal friends and hoped we would have every oppor- tunity to show Rabbi Levin real Jewish life in America. The Chairman. Tliank you for your great contribution. The subcommittee will stand adjourned. (Wliereupon, at 1 :50 p.m., Wednesday, June 19, 1968, the subcom- mittee adjourned.) ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION 2235 APPENDIX PIMPERNEL FOR THE CHURCH THE GREATEST BEGGAR IN THE WORLD CHARLES FOLEY Yot HAVE TO PUT ten lire in the elevator to Inake it work. Grumbling, it heaves you up six floors to the lop of a nineteenth-century palazzo on the Vatican side of the Tiber. A door is opened by a smiling, fresh-faced girl with a lot of fair hair, who looks as if she should be selling butter and eggs in Holland, and you step, slightly startled, into a clean and sparkling set of rooms that also seems to have been imported from the North. White curtains, blowing in the breeze, white walls and paintwork, clinical modern furniture, and behind a desk buried in papers, a big man in abun- dant, dazzling white robes. The Re-CkriMiani:frs Father Werenfried van Straaten looks a bit like an ex -boxer: heavy shoulders, a solid jaw, a little trouble around the midriff, which he slap5. heartily. “Nothing to be done! No time for exercise!” He is a Dutchman and the head of a remarkable or- ganization which has been called “the Vatican CIA” and is in fact the Catholic Church’s “Iron Curtain Re- lief Service.” Its immediate task is to help the persecuted church of East- em Europe, and iti ultimate aim is nothing less than the re-Christian- ization of the countries now under Communist domination. Father van Straaten admits to be- ing a boxer in his youth; but as for running a spy center — “my spies only interest thenuelves in charity and re- ligion.” “But it’s true,” he adds, “that in Czechoslovakia, for example, where the Church is dying and the 1,400 priests are prevented in so many ways from carrying out their ministry, they call us spies. Once I entered Czech- oslovakia clandestinely with a tourist party. In a Prague square I saw five big photographs exhibited — the five biggest religious enemies of the re- gime. The Pope, Cardinal Mindszenty, Cardinal Spellman, Cardinal Frings — and me. Under my picture the cap- tion read: “This is the man who calls himself chief of the army of God. He takes money and jewels from the faithful to turn priests into spies.” Father van Straaten rummaged among the papers on the desk and found a document which he recently took to Pope Paul VI at a private audience: his annual budget. The to- tal income — ^which equaled expendi- ture — was more than $5 million. There were items for aid to churches and priests who work in secret, for the families of priests in prison, for food, clothes, books. I queried “motorization.” “Those are our chapel trucks.” Father van Straaten explained: “We have converted hundreds of lorrief. You open the side and there’s the altar. Priests drive them around the villages in areas which have no churches.” Part of the money goes on prepara- tions for the day when the Communist regimes will crtimble. More than twenty seminaries and monasteries are training priests and close to a thousand refugees have already be«n ordained. The target is 3.000, and If. by some means, all restrictions were to be lifted on the Church in satellite countries tomorrow. Father van Straaten’s priests would be ready to cross the frontiers the same day in chapel trucks, bearing supplies of food and fuel. “We’ve even recorded messages of hope and greeting to be broadcast when the day of freedom comes,” he says. To raise money, the head of Iron Curtain Church Relief goes on speak- ing tours. His dusty black Mercedes clocked up 100.000 miles last year. He sleeps in the back seat, to be woken at frontiers and towns whsre people are waiting to hear him preach. He has made twelve speeches a day in different towns and villages. When we met in Rome he was just pre- paring for another tour in East Ger- many. He asks for money, or for gifts. This means that ICCR’s ware- houses are crammed with 2,000 tons of ofTerings, from socks to smoked sausages, double beds and diamond brooches. He bep addreases from business organizations, and to these he sends copies of his twice monthly yiirroT periodical, which has a print- ing of 50 million. “I’m sorry I cannot teD you the means we use to send aid behind the Curtain,” he said. “But one way or another we keep the supplies go- ing. Money, food parcels, typewriters, cars. . “Transport Is vital In one way or another we’ve provided thousands of motorcycles and cars for priests in Communist lands and In refugee areas.” Priests for Sale Father van Straaten has traveled often in Communist countries. He risks his life but seems also to eBJvy it “I adopt a false name and leave my habit behind. I go as a farmer, say, or tourist and I grow a how-do-you-say. . .?” IQs fingers twirled at the ends of an invisible moustache. In Ibis way he has visHed the bishops of the Catholic Church in six Peoples’ RepubUca, and per- sonally spoken to scores of secret priests — men who wear no robes and who are. In outward appearance, or- dinary factory ■ ugh e ia or farm lab- orers. Ttiese men evade state con- trol by being ordafeied in brief cere- monies in some secret place. Some are betrayed by iirforraers, but many thouaands are at w«rJu baptizing, hearing confessions, celebrating Mass among Ibe 65 million Catholics of Eastern Europe. Many Communist nffirials turn a blind eye to the work af aecret priests, dther because tbey wish to insure tbcmselves against a poasiUe col- lapse at the regime; or bacause they •re thcmsehret secretly Christians. It la known that ssme very high-up Soviet leaden are bettevera; they may even, like Svatlans StaMn, be mem- bers tl the Biisslaii Church. Certain Caamunlst regimes aeO. priests, along with Jews and other “undesirables,” to the West. The prac- tice has provided uaeftjl support for the Rumanian economy over the past six years. But, perhaps bccauae Ca- tholicism Is the most stringently per- secuted of all Christian creeds. Father van Straaten has been able to buy only seven priests over this period. Weren’t things getting better for Jom I(. IM* 609 2236 ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET UNION the Church in these days of “peaceful coexistence”? I aaked. Van Straaten looked at me with quefitioninK grey eyes. “On the cen- tral y, they are getting worse.” he said, and brought out a thick folder stuffed with documents. “This ia my radiograph of the persecuted Church, country by country. They cannot touch thousands of our bravest priesta, because they are all e»dy dead. Some three thousand, however, art- still in prison and more than ten thousand nuns have been driven from their convents to work in labor camps. Of the bishops, about two himdred have been exiled, imprisoned, killed or forced to renounce their ministry. TTicre is a constant movement to re- place a faithful priest with a ‘state candidate* — a man who will obey whatever order the government may give him, however contrary to his faith. Albanian Church Gone •Take Poland. For 35 million Cath- olics there, no new church has been built since 1958. The authorities talk about the separation of church and state, but in fact the stale controls every last detail. There’w, I wasn’t altogether at home aa a monk. 1 sang In the abbey dioir, but my eoice was loud and ahvays slightly oA key.” T%mm Is a certainty in his voice now that Is, in Hsetf, a s(da«t It Is easy to mdaniaDd «Kir “Werenfaiad” — bis monastic name, meaning “OMmploB (or Peace”— has become for minioos at psople in East and West a symbol of (altk In the future. AKaJL BIO National Review INDEX INDIVIDUALS A Page Aptheker, Herbert 2231 B Bookbinder 2222 Brezhnev (Leonid I.) 2236 Bronstein, Harry 2197-2199, 2205, 2206-2220 (testimony), 2226, 2233 C Colback 2222 D David, Ben 2230 E Ehrenburg, Ilya 2223 F Faig, Mayer 2224 Foley, Charles 2235 Friedland 2222 Frings 2235 G Gendel 2226 Gendelman, Yonah 2213 Gromyko (Andrei A.) 2236 H Hocohen, Yesroel Meir 2203,2221 Hitler, Adolf 2199, 2203, 2204, 2222, 2223, 2230, 2231 J Johnson (Lyndon Baines) 2231 K Kahane, Meir 2197, 2199,2202-2205 (statement), 2218, 2220-2234 (statement resumed) Khrushchev (Nikita Sergeevich) 2197, 2199, 2204, 2223, 2224, 2231 Kontorovich 2229 Korn, Richard 2232 Kosygin (Aleksei) 2208 i ii INDEX li Page Leibovich, Lyudvig 2226 Leibovich, Nander 2224 Lenin (V. I.) 2230 Levin (Yehuda Leib) 2205, 2212, 2224, 2232, 2233 Litvinov 2222 Lumer, Hyman 2230 M Mao (Tse-tung) 2236 Miller, Moses 2230 Mindszenty (Joseph) Cardinal 2235 Morcza 2205 N Nasser (Gamal Abdel) 2225 Nikodin, Nikolai 2212 P Pope Paul VI 2235 Potash, Irving 2230 R Rofus 2222 Rubin, Daniel 2229, 2230 S Shekhter 2227 Slipy 2236 Spellman (Francis) Cardinal 2235 Stalin, Josef 2199,2203,2222-2224,2230,2231 Stalin, Svetlana 2235 Streicher, Julius 2223 T Teitz (Pinehas M.) 2218,2233 Tito (Joseph Broz) 2236 Tress, Michaeil D 2206 V van Straaten, Werenfried 2235,2236 W Weinstein 2222 Wiesel, Elie 2225 Y Yaris, Harry 2205 ORGANIZATIONS A ACJ. (See American Council for Judaism. ) Afro-Asian Writers’ Emergency Meeting, June 27-July 9, 1966, Peking, China 2231 Agudath Israel 2206 Al Tidom 2199, 2206, 2218 American Council for Judaism (ACJ) 2232-2234 American Jewish Committee 2220 INDEX C CPUSA. ( See Communist Party of the United States of America. ) Paee Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) 2197, 2199, 2202, 2223, 2229, 2230 Communist Party, Soviet Union 2222, 2224, 2226, 2230 Congresses : Twentieth Congress, February 1956, Moscow 2223 I ICCR. (See Iron Curtain Church Relief.) International Conference in Support of the Arab Peoples 2231 Iron Curtain Church Relief (ICCR) 2235, 2236 J Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee 2223 Jewish Defense League 2197, 2202 Jewish Pamphlet Library 2230 Jewish Peoples Committee 2230 Joint Distribution Committee 2208, 2223 K KGB. ( See entry under Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of. Secret Police. ) Komsomol. ( See Young Communist League, Soviet Union. ) O Organization of Assimilations 2234 Polish United Workers’ Party. (-See United Polish Workers’ (Communist) Party.) Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) (or Party (PLP)) 2229,2231 R Rabbinical Alliance of America 2198, 2206 Radio Free Europe 2212, 2215 Radio Liberty 2198, 2215, 2218 S SDS. ( -S^ee Students for a Democratic Society. ) Socialist Workers Party (SWP) 2229 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 2231 T Tass (News Agency) 2223 U Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of 2208, 2209, 2213, 2229 Secret Police (GB — Grosudarstvennaya Bezopasnost — state security) : KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti — Committee for State Security) 2198, 2199, 2208, 2211, 2213 United Polish Workers’ (Oommunist) Party 2205 United States Government : Embassies : Moscow, Russia 2^7 United States Information Agency : Voice of America 2198,2212,2215,2217,2218,2225 Voice of America. {See entry under United States Government, United States Information Agency. ) Voice of Israel 2215, 2225 iv INDEX W Page Workers Library Publishers, Inc 2223 Workers World Party (WWP) 2229 Youth Against War and Fascism (YAWF) 2229,2231 Young Communist League, Soviet Union (Komsomol) 2219,2221 Youth Against War and Fascism. {See entry under Workers World Party (WWP).) PUBLICATIONS Challenge (Progressive Labor Party newspaper) 2232 Communism v. Judaism (Meir Kahane) 2202,2221 F Folks-Shtimme (newspaper) 2214 G Greatest Beggar in the World, The (artiicle) (Charles Foley) 2232,2235 H History of Soviet Foi’eign Policy, A (booklet) 2223 J Jew Looks at the War, A (booklet) 2230 Jewish Daily Forward (newspaper) 2220 Jewish Press (newspaper) 2197,2202,2221 Jewish Stake in Vietnam, The (book) 2202 Jews of SUence, The (book) 2225 L Letter To A Zionist Friend (booklet) 2230 M Mirror 2235 P Political Affairs (magazine) 2229,2230 Pravda 2219, 2222 R Russian Sketches 2220 S Sovietskoye Zakarpatye 2226 T Trud (newspaper) 2225 W Worker, The 2205,2219,2231 Y Yediot Aronot (Israeli Hebrew-language newspaper) 2232 o BOSTON 1 1 1 3 9999 PUBLIC LIBRARY LI 05706 3024

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