Latvia: Year of Horror

Latvia: Year of Horror 

Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, Editors 

Riga. Zelta Abele Publisher. 1942 

 The book with pictures – Pdf 6,6 MB


 is a collection of photos and documents covering the communist rule in Latvia 

from June 17, 1940 to July 1, 1941. This book shows communism as it was in reality — cloaked in 

deception and lies, filled with inhuman cruelties, revelling in torture and blood, sadistic in its delight in 

the lamentations of sufferers, and infinite in revenge and destruction. An unfathomable darkness, a 

madness, a mockery of honour and a rejection of all virtue sought to annihilate nothing less than the 

soul of the Latvian nation, a people for more than 4,000 years. 

Latvia: Year of Horror

Table of Contents 



1.The Beginning 

2. To Moscow! 

3. The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist 

4. Bolshevik Cynicism 

5. Elections! 

6. We Stand for Peace 

7. Placards, Placards, Placards 

8. What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

9. On the Night of June 14, 1941 

10. To the Serbian Tundra 

11. The Cheka 

12. The Killers and their Victims 

13. Victims Found in Baltezers 

14. See – There They Are! 

15. Too Many to be Counted 


The reprinting of Baigais Gads (Latvia: Year of Horror) is not only laudable and welcome, it is also necessary. 

This book deals with a turning point in Latvian history which must not remain hidden. Latvia: Year of Horror 

was the first (1942) and, at this moment, the only full documentation of the horrible events of 1940. It offers a 

precise witness of that time in Latvian history. 

It is an historical documentation of the now all-but-forgotten events in Latvia of that horrible summer of 1940. 

It is a period of time filled with tragedy. A manipulation of historical events to suit today’s needs is not 

allowable. These are the facts!

Latvia: Year of Horror, an historical, unexpurgated publication, not adhering to any political fashion or line, has 

the blessing of God. These are the plain facts. There are no grounds to consider it anti-Semitic literature. 

–Rev. Karlis Zuika 


Earth’s juices were flowing into new shoots and buds. Spring’s life strove to release its forces into summer’s 


Suddenly, in the spring of 1940, destruction opened its gates. The Latvian land was awash with poison. It was 

absorbed into the soil and saturated the air. Bloody vapours darkened the sun so that a newborn child would 

absorb it breast-feeding it with his mother’s milk, a wife would lose the strength of her hands and her virtue, a 

man in his maturity would dry up and his honour and strength of spirit would become a rotten wood, unable to 

sprout or even support its own weight. 

The hand of man wants to erect a monument to an extinguished life, and this life itself leaves footprints among 

the living. However, those who intend to destroy do so to the very end so that not even a stone will witness 

where and how great this destroyed life was. For where the roads of torture are washed with blood and ruins, 

not even one witness, whose blood was spilt, remains to testify. 

Such has been the fate of the Latvian nation. 

What form of depravity was able to hoard such poison and pour it over the Latvian land? Everyone attacking 

his victim from a hiding place is a villain. Anyone stabbing a living being in the back in the darkness of night 

must be called a murderer. However, there is no suitable name to describe the demonic power which left 

behind skeletons and ruins. Likewise, no name can be found for all that nightmarish existence which transends 

the limits of human conscience and understanding. For the horror, bloodlust and destruction which this 

atrocious power possessed, humanity had not sensed nor seen the like before. Martyrs and exiles are silent. 

The torture ends with death. The painful moans are heard in heaven, but the wrongs inflicted, the humiliation 

and shame, that cry from the mouths of the dead in their dark burial places will never be silenced. Their blood 

will forever yearn for retribution and earth itself, while hiding their remains, will not be silent, until justice, nature 

and God will have atoned for the pain, both spiritual and physical, suffered by the humiliated and disarmed 

Latvian nation in its hour of crisis and torment in 1940! 

The ground opened up. It brought forth the victims with their undisguised horror and the depth of their hideous 

sufferings which the perpetrators of Latvia’s year of horror had tried to hide. The lips of the dead are silent. 

They cannot move to speak of the abyss of inhumanity, beside which the Latvian nation stood, destined for 


The images and testimonies left by this sad era shall speak for themselves and the words spoken by them 

calling for justice shall never fade from the consciousness of the Latvian nation. 

Latvia is a small nation hugging the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. Its land mass is roughly the size of the state 

of West Virginia or the Republic of Ireland. Long ruled by Russia, its sturdy and independence-minded people 

achieved their freedom in 1918. The Latvian language is among the most ancient Indo-European languages still 

extant. In 1938, the population of Latvia was 1.49-million. Riga, the capital, had a population of 392,926. 

Lumber and farm products, especially dairy, were the bedrock of the Latvian economy in the 1930s. 

In republishing , we seek to right a wrong. As the years go by, World War II, at least 

Latvia: Year of Horror

as it is recorded in the Hollywood version that most people know — movies, television docudramas and talk 

shows — is the story of the Holocaust, the suffering of the Jews. Geopolitical considerations of the times or the 

brave role played by the soldiers of many lands are largely forgotten. Ask any teenager how many Jews died in 

World War ii and you’ll likely get the answer: “It’s said 6-million.” Ask how many American, British or 

Canadian soldiers died and the youth’s eyes are likely to glass over. That’s not something he was ever taught. 

In the years immediately after the War, in the 1940s, the 1950s, and the 1960s, popular entertainment 

focussed on the great battles, escapes, or personalities in movies like Sink the Bismark. While most movies had 

a determinedly pro-Allied slant, as might be expected, the German soldiers and even the Japanese, in movies 

such as Tora! Tora! Tora!, received a grudging respect. 

However, by the 1980s, there was a new and more bitter thrust. Gone were the battles, the generals, and the 

war stories, often glorifying the deeds of the Allies. Now came a barrage of movies, the best known being 

Schindler’s List, whose major theme was the suffering of the Jews. 

Indeed, the sufferings of the Jews has so come to dominate the political agenda that, by the late 1990s, more 

than 54 years after the end of hostilities, ancient East Europeans are harassed and stripped of their citizenship in 

countries like the U.S.A and Canada for having servied on the losing side in that war. The World Jewish 

Congress, enlisting powerful U.S. allies, brought the Swiss banks to their knees and extracted billions of dollars 

in compensation for suddenly remembered bank accounts left there by those who might have perished in the 

Jewish Holocaust. Other nations are soon to be targetted and German firms are busy paying recompense to 

aged forced labourers. 

War War II was an immense and largely fratricidal conflict. Many peoples suffered cruelly. The purpose of 

republishing Latvia: Year of Horror is to shed light on the sufferings of others, all too soon consigned to the 

memory hole by the Western media, dominated as it is by Jewish interests, that seem utterly fixated on the 

travails of just their co-religionists. Latvia: Year of Horror is a cri du coeur written the year after the horrific 

Soviet invasion of Latvia. Other people too suffered deportations and genocide. Among these were millions of 

Volksdeutsche — Germans living in the East– , Estonians, Lithuanians, and others. This study focuses on the 

sufferings of the Latvians. 

What was the last Hollywood movie or docudrama you saw on the Latvian holocaust? Can you remember the 

first? Similar questions might be asked about Hollywood’s strange silence on the sufferings of the Lithuanians, 

Hungarians, Estonians, Volksdeutsche, Ukrainians and many others. This publication, we hope, will go a small 

way toward filling this information gap. 

Another issue that needs clarifcation is the role of Jews — not all Jews — in the betrayal of Latvia. Hollywood 

history too often makes Nazi hostility toward Jews seem like some form of dementia, unreasoning hatred. 

Perhaps, some of it was. However, the resentment and hostility felt by many Latvians and other East 

Europeans flowed not from some dementia or some weakness before the power of Nazi public relations. It 

flowed from their own bitter experience. In his introduction to the reprinting of Baigais Gads (Latvia: Year of 

Horror) , Rev. Karlis Zuika emphasizes: “This book must not be considered as an invitation to radical action or 

a condemnation of any nation, as a people. … These are the plain facts.” Hostility toward Jews after 1941 

flowed from the fact that many — not all — had proved themselves to be a hostile and treacherous communist 

fifth column only too eager to betray, rob, torture, and murder their fellow citizens in Latvia. Thus, when the 

Nazis decided to round up and intern this hostile element, many Latvian saw this as a reasonable position and 

co-operated. That, of course, is not the sort of fact presented in the standard Hollywood fare. Not knowing 

these facts leaves a major gap in any student of World War II’s understanding. The reasons for Latvian hostility 

toward many Jews, of course, in no way excuses massacre or atrocities. 

Writing in the Toronto Sun (December 13, 1998), foreign affairs expert Eric Margolis explained: “The 

predominance of Jews among Bolshevik leaders, and the frightful crimes and cruelty inflicted by Stalin’s 

CHEKA on [the] Ukraine, the Baltic states and Poland, led the victims of Red Terror to blame the Jewish 

people for both communism and their sufferings. As a direct result, during the subsequent Nazi occupation of 

Eastern Europe, the region’s innocent Jews became the target of ferocious revenge by Ukrainians, Balts and 


In a previous column (Toronto Sun, January 25, 1996), Margolis had discussed the jailing for life in Latvia of 

retired KGB Maj.-Gen,. Alfons Noviks, known as “The Great Slaughterer”. He was 87. Wrote Margolis: 

“Other surviving members of Stalin’s secret police are equally aged. These monsters still deserve the same 

Draconian punishment given to elderly Nazis. There must be no statute of limitation on mass murder. That’s 

because this century’s greatest killer has not been war — but Communist regimes. Communist governments 

have killed at least 65-million of their own citizens. Wars of all kinds caused 35.5-million deaths. 

“Noviks was a senior CHEKIST, or Soviet NKVD secret policeman during the USSR’s annexation of Latvia 

in 1940. He supervized the mass deportation of 120,000 Latvians to Stalin’s Siberian death camps, as well as 

the interrogation and torture of thousands of victims. … By some estimates, from 1940-45, 8-10 per cent of 

Latvians died icy deaths in Siberia or were shot by the NKVD.” 

Why are there no trials in the West for those who perpetrated these horrors? Why is there not even a border 

watch for some of these aged communists to , at least, deny them entry into Western countries? There are, of 

course, such border watches for many former Nazis. Why the silence? The Latvians murdered by communism 

cry out for fairness, for justice and for remembrance. In some small way that is what this book is all about. 

The Beginning 

On June 15/16, 1940, many Latvians had gathered to attend the song festival in Daugavpils. This was to be the 

last such festival for free Latvians for almost half a century. The attack by Stalin’s communists on the night of 

June 14, 1940 was the prelude to Latvia’s road of suffering. The orgy of bloodshed had begun. On this night, 

the “great Eastern neighbour” — the Soviet Union — after a silence of 23 years, took the first step in the dance 

of death on Latvian soil. Their invasion was their calling card and showed how the Bolsheviks betrayed their 

commitments undertaken in the Mutual Assitance Pact of 1939.

They burned the quarters of 

Latvian borderguards in the 

Maslenkis community in 

Augspils Township [ABOVE] 

The half-burned body of 

border guard Macitis 

The body of Hermine, wife of 

border guard Purins 

The body of border guard 


The son of border guard Purins 

died in hospital from fatal 

injuries. Border guard 

Cimosko died with Beizaks. 

Forty-three border guards and 

nearby residents who tried to 

save the burning quarters were 

seized by the invading 

communists and taken across 

the border as prisoners. 

These events took place at the very time that the Bolshevik press proclaimed: “The Soviet Union has 

maintained and continues to maintain a policy that is beneficial and to the highest degree pro-Latvian.”

The cynicism and bestiality shown by Soviet rule seemed unbelievable. The hypocrisy and falsification of truth 

were incomprehensible. Yet, they did happen. The official announcements by the Latvian Government 

protesting the invasion had no effect. Moscow proceeded according to plan for the invasion and annexation of 

Latvia. These plans werre thorough and far-reaching. 

On the morning of June 17th, Latvia was overrun by the armed hordes of Communist Russia. Many of the 

invading troops were Asiatic units who could, thus, not speak to the victims. 

The arrival of the Bolsheviks in Riga, the Latvian capital, via the Iron Bridge. 

View from the central market on the afternoon of June 17th, 1940.

Communist-instigated mob incited disorder at Riga’s Police Headquarters.

View at the Main Post Office in Riga on the day of the communist invasion. 

… But from the underground, sensing ideological allies in the Bolsheviks, there arose “the oppressed masses” 

groups of hooligans, criminals, vagabonds, and many Jews, “the Chosen People”, to welcome the invaders and 

to attack the police as they tried to maintain order in the streets packed with the invading Soviet soldiers. 

The Red Army arrived “to assure the realization of the USSR and Latvia’s mutual assistance pact,” embraced 

and protected the pro-communist rioters. [illustration centre of the page]. Thus. the Soviets demonstrated who 

deserved their “mutual assistance”. It was not the Latvian nation at large. 

Grimly silent, Latvians on the sidewalks were watching a real life drama, about which no one at the time could 

sense the horrific outcome of the final act. 

Attacks on Latvian police and on soldiers and officers of the Latvian Army took place

in the capital and throughout the country. Rocks were thrown at the police by communist-instigated mobs. 

After the dispersal of the mob, the area of the 

railroad station and around polcie headquarters was 

littered with rocks hurled by the communist rioters, 

The Latvian institutions, not yet familiar with the 

practices of the Bolshevik invaders, attempted to 

enforce the laws of the land, in the belief that those 

who had incited the riot should be charge and 

punished. This was a bitter delusion. The Soviet 

Embassy explained that it was satisfied with the 

manner in which the Red Army’s arrival in Riga had 

been welcomed! The names of the hooligans 

charged for rioting indicate their mostly Jewish origin 

— Genech Kreiness, David Goldberg, Heim 

Klackin, Grigory Varuskin, Abramy Gemjanov, etc. 

All these events were legitimized, A new government took power on orders from Moscow. The duly 

constituted Latvian Government was replaced. At left: Puppet President Prof. Kirchensteins addresses trhe 

crowd, with Peter Blaus and Julius Lacis. Demonstrators requested and got the legalization of the Latvian 

Communist Party.

The sensitive ear of the Latvian Communist Party’s first secretary Kalnberzins-Zakis, who carefully noted the 

“just demands of the nation”, in reality, his orders from Moscow. 

What Nationality were they? The language and the characters on the signs indicate clearly – Jews. 

The master of ceremonies of all events planned by Moscow, 

the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union 

comrade Vishinski [at left] greeted the “friendly” 

demonstrators and stated his belief that, in the future, the 

Soviet and Latvian flags would fly side by side. The future 

would reveal this to be a barefaced lie and would expose the 

cynical intentions behind this statement. 

On June 21st, workers were forcibly driven out into the 

streets to participate in a “demonstration of joy” to hail, with 

many enthusiastic Jews, their own future murderers. The 

Soviet power, already having taken under its wing the crowd of hooligans, now released prisoners guilty of 

illegal political activities. Sadly, it did not occur to the new puppet government that the USSR would establish 

its “pro-Latvian policy” with the aid of enemies of the state! This coerced demonstration in Riga was a 

forerunner of future manufactured “support” for the planned implementation of Soviet power.

Mostly Jewish crowd awaits the release of political prisoners from Central Prison in Riga. 

Newly released criminals parade out of prison.

Prisoners, accompanied by largely Jewish crowd and the coerced crowd of demonstrators, enter the street. 

A prisoner addresses the crowd. His face is clearly contorted with hate and a desire to destroy. 

The prisoners and crowd of Jews were of one mind: the Soviets in power were their real friends. The Soviet 

Embassy on Anthony Street was the den where the local hirelings fulfilled Moscow’s plans. The masses had no 

notion of their contents. Many even opined — as did many gullable people in the West — that, in its 23 years of 

existence, communism had changed for the better. 

View from the Soviet Embassy in Riga 

The largely Jewish crowd cheered the speaker addressing the crowd. Their “roaring cheers for the liberators” 

became understandable only later.

Deported or escaped anti-government Bolsheviks returned from Sweden. It is not necessary to note that most 

of them were Jews. 

The former S panish Civil War Red Front volunteers are greeted by Jewish functionaries.

Simultaneously, Red Army soldiers staged performances in the city’s parks and gardens, displaying their 

“culture” and diverting attention from the destruction planned for the Latvian nation. Everything proceeded 

according to plan. 

All interested in the destruction of the state of Latvia and of the Latvian nation and the ruin of its values had 

now met and joined arms. The team of destroyers was now in place. 

With forces unified, the destruction of the existing system, order and values could begin. A fearless hand 

stabbed in the back the nation’s greatest and best organized guard and support: the Latvian Army was to be 

bolshevized. This task was entrusted to largely Jewish hands. 

Visible above and below on the left is one of the new power brokers, Abraham Genkins, a Jew.. He had been 

a soldier in the Latvian Army in the Courland Division, labour — that is, punishment or military prisoner — 

commando in Liepaja. He had been arrested for subversive activities. With the arrival of the Bolsheviks, this 

criminal was promoted to the rank of “politruk” (political commisar) in the Artillery Division. He is seen wearing 

the uniform of a Latvian Army officer.

Into the Latvian Army, “politruks” — political commisars — with no ,military training and often without even 

grade school education — were introduced. Frequently, they had criminals pasts and were promoted at once 

to the ranks of captain or colonel. The first and essential condition of their appointment was that the army must 

not be apolitical. 

“Political Indoctrination” session during training in one Latvian Army unit. On the left, a “politruk” 

The work of destruction continued feverishly. It was necessary to falsify the wishes of the nation in order to 

ratonalize actions to which no one with common sense would agree. On July 15/16, in elections for the Saeima, 

the Parliament, the people were compelled to vote for only one existing slate and were forcibly driven to the 

polls. Afterwards, holders of passports that did not have a stamp indicating they had participated in the voting, 

were considered to be traitors. Propaganda signs in Russian and such coercive methods left no doubt about the 

purpose, persistance and relentlessness of Bolshevik intentions.

One of the forced marches from work to voting stations where there was only one choice on the ballot. 

The fateful “newly elected” session of the Saeima opened on July 21, 1940. 

There the destiny of Latvia was to be decided and the Latvian Soviet Socialist 

Republic (SSR) was founded. 

To Moscow! 

Official statistics show that, in spite of coercion of the voting process, a significant number of voters abstained. 

Therefore, the new Soviet rulers announced that participation in the election had been nearly 100% of the 

electorate. The new members of the Saeina, elected as they were in forced and staged elections, now took the 

next step of high treason and resolved to approve the annexation of Latvia to the Soviet Union. 

Prof. Kirchensteins, the new president-in-waiting, undertook the task of begging Moscow for mercy to realize 

this goal. This was done. All obstacles to Bolshevik plans had been removed. 

The real meaning of these events was best expressed in the rejoicing of so many Jews. For the Latvian nation, 

the hardest moments of awareness and a crucial test of its very existance had arrived.

Prof. Kirchensteins and the Soviet Ambassador at 

the Riga railroad station, leaving for Moscow. 

In Moscow, the long planned sequence of events reached its conclusion. The Latvian nation had been dragged 

to a threshold, the crossing of which was designed to erase it from the registry of nations forever!

Most Jews were ecstatic. The demonstrations on 

August 5 turned into Jewish national celebrations. 

It was no secret what the result of Prof. Kirchensteins’ trip would be. This was to be the last act in a masterfully 

directed drama. It was to prove to the world that the Latvian nation “ardently wishes to join the family of other 

nations in the Soviet Union.” 

The request to incorporate Latvia into the Soviet Union was in the hands of the press on the day of 

Kirchensteins’ arrival in Moscow. However, Moscow already knew what it wanted and what was to be done. 

Jews request the annexation of Latvia to the Soviet Union 

Everything proceeded as planned. On August 5th, the fate of Latvia was sealed. 

The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist On August 


Like a mockery of truth, the Soviet newspaper Izvestia reported on August 6th: “Yesterday, the U.S.S.R. Supreme 

Soviet separately voting by chambers unanimously agreed to accept the request of Latvia’s Saeima to include the 

Latvian SSR into the U.S.S.R.’s fraternal family of nations.” 

The Jews rejoiced most. 

The following day, large numbers of Jews in Latvia again rejoiced, and their joy was unrestrained. However, 

Latvians driven into the streets to join in “gratitude” demonstrations were grim-faced. As of this moment, they 

had lost their free will, and their destiny was completely in Moscow’s hands. There was only one road left open 

to the Latvian nation — to close ranks and with heads proudly raised, inspired by love and loyalty for the land 

of their fathers, to resist and meet the fate of martyrs.

Demonstrations near the Opera House in Riga, on August 7th. 

The Acting President and Prime Minister Prof. A. Kirchensteins 

This man, to make believable the grossly falsified will of the Latvian people, hypocritically lied: “The workers of 

Latvia suffered from unemployment and lived in hunger. … Every attempt to gain human subsistance and rights 

and to determine their own future, they paid for with suffering and torment, with incarceration of their best sons 

and daughters in prison and forced labour camps. … Only the inclusion into the U.S.S.R. assures real 

independence, development of industry, agriculture, the blossoming of real national culture, brilliant and 

powerful rise of material and cultural well being. …” [As George Orwell would write in his novel about Stalinism 

1984, is the communist world peace is war, freedom is slavery.]

The new communist power was established. Loyal guards and support had to be provided. Already 

operational was the Institute of Police Assistance Service “P.D.” With few exceptions, this was comprised of 

the dregs of society: thieves, burglars, cheats. This institution eventually became the People’s Militia. Many 

Jews and hardened criminals were entrusted with the organization and supervision of these institutions. 

The organizer of the Workers’ Guard and People’s Militia, a man 

with a lengthy criminal record, was a Jew Izak Bucinskis. 

The duties of the police were assumed by the newly founded People’s Militia, although their prime task was not 

to fight crime. This concept lost its meaning when criminals were released from prisons, and the leadership of 

security establishments was handed over to them. The militiamen had mastered shooting, in the event they had 

to face their own countrymen. Hardly able to read or write, they controlled identity documents in search of 

enemies of the new regime. These were considered to be anyone decently attired or intelligent looking.,

People’s Militia at target practice. 

Workers received arms and founded Workers’ Guards. Among them were women, there on the understanding 

they would not flinch when executing their duties. 

Militiamen check identity papers of pedestrians in Riga.

To allay suspicions, many workers joined the Guard, even though they had no connections with the Bolsheviks. 

To justify the existence of this armed guard, the Bolsheviks invented horror stories aboout sabotage. The 

guards were guarding the factories against imaginary ghosts. 

The Workers’ Guard in formation in honour of delegation from Moscow. The women of the Workers’ Guard. 


Latvia: Year of Horror 

Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, Editors 

Riga. Zelta Abele Publisher. 1942 

 is a collection of photos and documents covering the communist rule in Latvia 

from June 17, 1940 to July 1, 1941. This book shows communism as it was in reality — cloaked in 

deception and lies, filled with inhuman cruelties, revelling in torture and blood, sadistic in its delight in 

the lamentations of sufferers, and infinite in revenge and destruction. An unfathomable darkness, a 

madness, a mockery of honour and a rejection of all virtue sought to annihilate nothing less than the 

soul of the Latvian nation, a people for more than 4,000 years. 

Latvia: Year of Horror

Table of Contents 



1.The Beginning 

2. To Moscow! 

3. The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist 

4. Bolshevik Cynicism 

5. Elections! 

6. We Stand for Peace 

7. Placards, Placards, Placards 

8. What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

9. On the Night of June 14, 1941 

10. To the Serbian Tundra 

11. The Cheka 

12. The Killers and their Victims 

13. Victims Found in Baltezers 

14. See – There They Are! 

15. Too Many to be Counted 

Bolshevik Cynicism

In those few weeks was hidden the most horrible villainy of Bolshevik 

cynicism. From the very first days of the occupation rule, word spread 

like wildfire of the first wave of arrests. The prisons, emptied of 

recidivists, criminals, Bolshevik agents, subversives, spies and illegals, 

quickly filled with Latvian patriots. Former Latvian policemen were 

arrested for attempts to maintain order during the largely Jewish-incited 

riots in city streets Every other Latvian who wore a uniform was arrested 

— soldiers, border guards, home guards, — or those who were in a 

supervisory position in the former government offices as well as judges 

who ruled in accordance with the prevailing law, and finally those who 

openly and proudly announced their affiliation to the Latvian nation. 

Ironically, at the same time, the Bolsheviks proclaimed the equality and 

brotherhood of nations. 

Unrest and agitation among the people grew. The nation, confused and 

shaken by events arranged by cynical and coldblooded minds, was facing 

an uncertain future and sensed the presence of danger. The occupation 

power was fighting the distrust and hatred of the nation. There would be 

no reprisals, the puppet regime promised! That had to be repeated again and again, not because this power 

attempted to establish and secure authority and regain the lost trust, but rather it exploited the existing and 

freshly and deliberately provoked antagonisms to arrive at its real goal: To Destroy “Harmful elements”. These 

elements These elements were the whole independence-minded Latvian nation.

“There shall be no reprisals.” These words encompass the oldest Bolshevik lie, their most horrible deeds 

perpetrated during the year of their rule. Words seemingly expressing trust and forgiveness hid the real intent of 

the Bolsheviks — the destruction of the Latvian nation. 

When a year later, the ground opened up and the corpses disclosed the truth, it was more horrible than aything 

anyone had imagined or feared. 

On the 26th International Bolshevik Youth Day, Latvians were again coerced. Students were ordered out into 

the streets. The Bolsheviks had to prove to the world that the nation and especially the youth understood and 

loved the new era and that they “freely and without coercion rejoiced in the establishment of Soviet power.” 

Compulsory demonstrations were the best method to create this falsified effect. 

Streets were crowded with a variety of signs and 

displays on which much money was spent.

Again, the loudest screamers and the most ardent participants were Jews, 

the Chosen People, and the only really voluntary demonstrators. 

“Farmland, livestock and inventory will be left intact.” Although new slogans and ever louder promises issued 

forth, nobody believed them anymore. Not one farmer believed that Latvian agriculture would be saved from 

the fate of the collectivized farms in the Soviet Union. The farmers gave up. They sensed the future. So, the 

Bolsheviks had to lie to mask their plans as much as possible. The Minister of Agriculture lied gladly. 

Latvian farmers’ suspicions proved correct: farms were subdivided to give farmworkers 10 hectares of land 

each, and minimal livestock to ensure that the new farmers would not thrive. This was the transition period to 

kolkhoz (collective) farms. Thus, 10,140 farmers were robbed of their land and livestock.

The land distribution committee at work. 

Quickly and deliberately, according to plans from Moscow, the poison of Bolshevism was fed into the flesh of 

the nation. More and more the spirit of the nation’s life and vitality was threatened. Next to the screaming 

agitation which paralyzed people in demonstrations, the Bolsheviks used widespread and colourful signs and 

newspaper articles to feed their ideas into schools and places of higher education, even the University of Latvia. 

Youth everywhere, the healthiest and most positive rsource of a nation, were subjected to these pernicious 

ideas. New “sciences” , hitherto unknown on Latvia, were created — a Chair of Marxism-Leninism. The 

facultries of thology and philosophy were closed, the staff fired and arrested. 

As new replacements were hired, their only qualifications were diplomas from the “Red Professorship Institute.” 

This institution prepared special instructors for the dissemination of Bolshevik ideas.. Often these “professors” 

had problems with written material, but qualifications were based on the length of membership in the 

Communist Party and on the number of years spent in prisons. These men were chosen to be the new 

educators and leaders of Latvian youth. 

Apart from the foregoing innovations, the Latvian Communist Youth Alliance was created with the task to 

Bolshevize the Latvian youth. To be successful, it had to mar the spirit of youth from childhood — by having 

them join the Pioneer organization 

The wave of contradictions, lies and exploitation also swept over factory and office workers. Now they were 

to work according to impractical plans, goals, and targets, that could never be achieved. The stakhanov 

movement created an artificial fever for raising production quotas, competitions between factories and firms to 

improve efficiency. This was a method to falsely mirror the wishes of the workers, compelling them often to 

work double time, instead of eight hours. This cruel shock movement drained and totally exploited the energy 

of the workers. 

Simultaneously, to spiritually destroy the people, the Bolsheviks undermined the support of the nation’s 

economic and material life.. Despositers lost their life’s savings in banks and credit unions.. This most of all hurt 

the small and thirfty working man, To add to the misery, houses were repossessed, industry and transportation 

was nationalized, the farmers’ land was taken for the collectives, and tradesmen’s tools, equipment, and 

apartment furnishings were also nationalized. 

Ironically, this entire programme was called “a fight for a better future, a fight for the ideals of Marx, Engels, 

Lenin and Stalin.”

The tentacles of Bolsehvism had the flesh of the nation firmly in their grip. Only one result was forseeable — 

spiritual helplessness and dullness, physical weakness and overexertion, preconditions firstly for slavery and 

then an animal-like existence. 

Out on the Streets! Out on the Streets! Out on the Streets! 

Demonstrations! Demonstrations! Demonstrations! 

Such was the characteristic trademark of the Bolshevik era: shoutd slogans, marches of communist supporters, 

the tread of thousands of feet had to proclaim how to commemoratre the day when the Dictatorship of the 

Proletariat was born, a day that promised paradise on earth.

In reality, these marches, slogan shouting, and parades had to try to drown out the noise of a life collapsing in 

ruins from Bolshevik poison and lies. The reality was an indictment of the Soviet occupation that had 

transformed life on earth in Latvia into a hell. 

Job Seekers at Labour Exchange in Riga | Ads for job openings 

Come wintertime, everybody was surprised by the new agitation method:

Ads in newspapers invited people to a Labour Exchange to fill innumerable vacancies and new jobs positions 

available. When long lines of the unemployed formed at the Exchange, people there knew nothing of these 



Persuasion at home. 

January 12, 1941 was a day when Latvians were compelled to do what they did not want to — to vote for the 

deputies of the U.S.S.R. Higher Council (the Soviet “parliament” where, of course, there would be only one 

name, a communist, on the ballot). In addition to existing methods of driving out the voters, the Bolsheviks 

invented a new one, so-called “persuasion at home.”

View of one election meeting for the U.S.S.R. Higher Council. 

Bolshevik agents visited individual flats and apartments, then ordered in all residents to assemble in order to 

convince and explain to them the significance of the elections. It is not necessary to note that among the keenest 

visitors to these meetings were pro-communist Latvian Jews. When this method was not suitable, it was 

replaced by meetings in factories and at work, where the only visitors often were housewives and children. 

Elections generally, under communism, one of the most underhanded and falsified methods of gauging the 

people’s will and conviction, on this occasion were engineered especially carefully. Everyone had to verify in 

advance that his name was on the register of the electorate. It was obligatory to vote. If one lacked the stamp 

in one’s identity documents indicating that one had voted, one was liable to the risk of being classified as a 

“saboteur”. As always in this terrible time, Jews assumed key leadership roles. 

On January 8th, 1941, the newspaper Cima wrote: “Who wishes the Latvian nation (!) the fortune of peaceful 

life, the joy of labour and new creation, the conviction of safety for self and family, and welfare for the nation, 

shall vote for the Bolshevik Party, for the candidate of the communistic and independent bloc.” But there were 

no other candidates.! It was not possible to abstain. The inevitable results were clear! 

What was not clear was to what extent this farce would ensure the safety of the Latvian nation and its families. 

One of the “volunteers” votes. 

A few months passed and the mask of hypocrisy began to drop. The malignant, bloodthirsty cynical face of 

Bolshevism was revealed. There was no longer any need to hide. All the harm that could be inflicted on the live 

flesh of the nation had been done. The nation was disarmed, morally degraded, and blindly subjugated. Now 

could begin the preparations for annihilation. The will of the nation was again falsified. The workers “demanded 

death” for the so-called “murderers”, those police officers who, while on duty during the Soviet invasion of June 

17, 1940, had mainained order in the streets against the Bolshevik mobs. 

These “workers’ resolutions” occurred in the followinf manner. When workers announced that their desire to do 

certain assignments at the rate of “shock tempo” or when they “unanimously demanded the highest degree of 

punishment for the bloodthirsty [police] hounds”, the procedure was always the same. A representative from 

the Party or the Union arrived at the factory with a prepared resolution, read it aloud at a meeting of workers 

and asked if anyone opposed it. People who had seen relatives and friends arrested on the slimmest of 

suspicion, grimly stayed silent. This meant the resolutrion was “passed unanimously!”

It is tyrannical to murder, but at worse is it to press a knife in the hand of one nation against its will for the 

purpose of killing its own countrymen. That was how the Bolsheviks acted. Their sadism took a form and there 

is not one more despicable: their method of falsifying a nation’s will revealed a degree of callousness that few 

will want to forgive or forget. 


“No grace for murderers of workers: Masses of workers 

demand highest punishment for 17th June executioners.” 

We Stand for Peace 

Subjected to Bolshevism by force, the Latvians were coerced to take upon themselves “the fulfillment of proud 

duty to the motherland — the Soviet Union.” Latvian youths were doomed to be recruited into the Red Army. 

A sign at the registration office proclaimed: “We stand for peace, but we are able to respond to the blows of 


At a colourfully decorated Red Army recruitment office Communist agents lectured recruits on how dangerous 

to the Soviet Union was the “capitalist siege”. [below] At one time, even the Baltic States [with a combined 

population of fewer than 5-million!] “threatened” the borders of the USSR. It was no secret that the Soviet 

Union, while professing peace, was secretly preparing for war. The Baltic States offered a favourable base for 

an attack on Germany, and now — in an irony of fate — it came the turn of Baltic youths to hand over their lives 

to the hated Bolshevik occupiers.

Political instruction lecture to recruits. 

Youth entertainment in Pioneer House hall. 

Special attention was paid to Latvian youth. They had to become “true Bolsheviks”. Pioneer — young 

communist — units were formed. MOPRA, a Red assistance organization was legalized. The Komsomol 

(Young Communist League) was organized, with the goal of preparing future candidates for the Communist 


Tensions existed in classrooms. If any of the the pupils did not join the Pioneers, the communist educators 

considered their parents to be enemies of the socialist state. To be an “enemy of the state” was to put oneself in 

grave danger. 

With clenched teeth, many parents suppressed their opinions and silently observed their children joining the 

bearers of “New Culture”.

The historical Riga Castle was renamed the Pioneer Castle. While children in their innocent naivete enjoyed 

their youthful pleasures, their fathers disappeared from their homes, from their places of employment often 

without a trace. For silent were the corridors of the CHEKA (the NKVD or Soviet Security Police). There 

was silence behind the closed doors of the prison cells. Silent were the employees of the CHEKA and the 

guards, and silent too were the few who, by a miracle, were able to return from the CHEKA prisons to civilian 


A corridor of the CHEKA prison.

The communists focussed all the skill and ability of their propaganda machine on unending demonstrations, 

complete with blaring signs and chanted slogans. The motley colours, exaggerated sizes of signs, and the 

artificial and blaring volume and noise on the one hand sought to drown out the deep indignation, anger, despair 

and hatred hidden yet smouldering in the nation’ and, on the other hand, sought to cover the misdeeds and 

outrages flowing from the commands and orders of the new conquerors.. In this respect, the May Day 

celebrations in Riga reached a pinnacle. 

1941, May Day rabble in Riga.

People, tired from endless marches, grew indifferent. Worn out from continual social competitions and long 

working hours, people grew indifferent to the outside world. The communists sought to demoralize the spirit of 

the Latvian nation and strangle it.


Latvia: Year of Horror 

Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, Editors 

Riga. Zelta Abele Publisher. 1942 

 is a collection of photos and documents covering the communist rule in Latvia 

from June 17, 1940 to July 1, 1941. This book shows communism as it was in reality — cloaked in 

deception and lies, filled with inhuman cruelties, revelling in torture and blood, sadistic in its delight in 

the lamentations of sufferers, and infinite in revenge and destruction. An unfathomable darkness, a 

madness, a mockery of honour and a rejection of all virtue sought to annihilate nothing less than the 

soul of the Latvian nation, a people for more than 4,000 years. 

Latvia: Year of Horror

Table of Contents 



1.The Beginning 

2. To Moscow! 

3. The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist 

4. Bolshevik Cynicism 

5. Elections! 

6. We Stand for Peace 

7. Placards, Placards, Placards 

8. What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

9. On the Night of June 14, 1941 

10. To the Serbian Tundra 

11. The Cheka 

12. The Killers and their Victims 

13. Victims Found in Baltezers 

14. See – There They Are! 

15. Too Many to be Counted 

Placards, Placards, Placards

A typical communist demonstration with signs featuring portraits of the tyrants and slogans. 

The Soviet people were reduced to the level of animals and were forced to see the image of their ruler and 

judge, Stalin, constantly before their eyes. This people-control concept was now imposed on Latvia.

Neither farmers nor townspeople were spared these endless demonstrations. 

The intentions of largely Jewish agitators, shown on the left, sought to subject the masses to delusions and 

falsehoods. To this end, the propaganda plumbed new depths of wild exaggeration. Demonstrators were led by 

dancers and commandos to energize the spectacle. 

Election bus.

Street decorations were erected at every communist celebration. Means of transportation — streetcars and 

buses — were mobilized. Plastered with signs and slogans are buses carrying soldiers. They drove along the 

streets urging out the vote. — abstaining was not possible — to elect the nation’s “best sons and daughters for 

the attainment of a bright and sunny future.” 

The buildings and and offices of communist organizations were constantly covered with new signs, converting 

typically cleanly Latvian streets into a Jewish motley mess. Considerably more resources and labour were spent 

on propaganda than on all other cultural activities. That’s what government statistics showed. 

Decorations on “Freedom” Blvd. in Riga.

The attractive front of the Riga Latvian Association (then the Red Army) building disfigured with signs. 

Communist operatives and their spies infiltrated every group of people and travelled to the farthest corners of 

the land. 

Apart from ordinary meetings for the general public, meetings were called in factories and businesses so that 

Bolshevik agitators could preach to the workers the “just cause of Marx-Engel-Lenin-Stalin.” The workers’ 

response is evident from their grim faces..

Ski commandos en route to election. 

In some places, special commandos were organized to enlighten those “still remaining in fascistic darkness.” 

Jews used radio contacts with Moscow. 

These were calculated to impress people with the might of Bolshevik technology and their “concern and 

limitless possibilities for improving the welfare of the workers.” Yet, at the same time, the people were coerced 

and egged on with imflammatory words to sign agreements to compete and raise productivity levels. Quantity 

not quality mattered. Even if the product was useless, the goal must be met.

Workers at one factory sign on for a socialist production contest. 

The manager, a Jew, explains to Latvian workers 

“the great significance” of work graphs and plans.

The Red Corner is one company in Riga. 

The walls of factories and businesses were covered with graphs and plans, not understood by many. The 

Latvian worker did his job. A Jewish director monitored him to see that he filled his quota. When, after work, 

the stressed and exhausted worker was, according to propaganda instructions, beckoned to the Red Corner, 

naturally he didn’t want to attend. This corner of devotion for Stalin and the Party became the object of 

sarcastic remarks and the butt of innumerable jokes. 

As well there were ” bulletin board newspapers”, the assembly of which required much time and effort. They 

were read only by the Jewish censors 

The purpose of the bulletin board was the creation of discord and betrayal, which are the primary supports for 

communist and Jewish power. The bulletin board papers openly and sharply criticized “undesirable occurrences 

and persons” in the factory, business or institution. There were people who took advantage of this opportunity 

to settle old scores or to try to get ahead by denouncing others.

Typical bulletin board newspaper. 

Starting with the first day of the invasion, the communists sought to promote the “heights of culture” and hinted 

that it would be brought to Latvia, a “culturally retarded” land. The new Russian cultural forms quickly 

swamped Latvia. 

The public performances of the Red Army in Riga’s gardens. 

The serious deportment of soldiers in any other army would preclude such “cultural” clowning.

Performing group out in the country. 

To pledge friendship to Soviet nations, the designated heavyweights of Latvian literature — Andrejs Upitis, Vilis 

Lacis, and Janis Niedra — donned Tajikistan morning gowns. This took place when thousands of Latvian sons 

and daughters were being deported. 

The leaders of this new “culture” were mostly Jews, of course; for example, 

the Chairman of the School Board Bergmanis and his predecessor Grasmanis.

How deeply Judaism controlled life is demonstrated by the fact 

that even managers of sports activities were almost all Jews. 

Jewish sportsmen at one meeting during the Bolshevik era.

Observe the real sign of communist culture: the Liberation Monument of Latgale (the sculptor K. Jansons) in 

Rezekne at its unveiling and in ruins [photo not available] after the arrival of the communists.


The report of one patriotic school director asked: “Where did communism lead our youth? Is it the only hope 

for the future of Latvian youth?” [handwritten letter at right] 

Crowd incited by communists drags a broken cross through Painis Cemetery in Riga. 

“Do not believe in God. Do not believe in yourself. Do not believe in good or evil! Rise against everything and 

yourself, for then shall you leave the fortune of equality. For then shall you be easily dominated and 

enslaved..Therefore, will you become like animals for your spirit shall be broken.” This was the hidden intent of 

the mostly Jewish manipulators. 

While Latvians had to endure the communist cynicism forced upon them, while people were set against one 

another, while churchgoers were persecuted and gravestones desecrated in the name of communism’s 

proclaimed “religious freedom”, the Jews continued to practise undisturbed their religion and traditions, for this 

“freedom” did not apply to them.

They lined up for kosher meat. They worshipped the cruel Jewish God 

who demands that animals be slaughterd slowly and tortured according to religious ritual. 

“The most democratic constitution in the world,” Stalin’s constitution said it allowed unlimited freedom of 

religion. However, the communists organized anti-religious displays and museums. Soon after the arrival of the 

communists, all the methods tried and tested in the Soviet Union were introduced in Latvia, albeit 

unsuccessfully: The churches remained crowded! 

View of an anti-religious display. 

At the same time, the judicial conscience of the nation suffered a heavy blow, when, with the creation of 

“people’s courts”, men with no education in the law and often with no education at all, became judges. 

Caretakers, servants, cab drivers — of what quality could their judgments be? How many innocents did they 

condemn under the pressure of blind power and their own ignorance? 

Illustration of one sitting of a “people’s court” 

A Jewish instructor advises a Latvian farmer.

The whole nightmarish year (1940-1941) was saturated and sealed with absurdities and ridiculousness. On 

some occasions, these absurdities surpassed all limits of reason. 

The Jews in a demonstration were the first to demand land for farmworkers. Jews never did any farming in 

Latvia. Jews also, when confiscating farm machinery, were the ones to instruct the new owners in its use. This 

was a burning insult hurled into the farmers’ faces. The results of such instructions by the inexperienced Jews 

were as absurd and disastrous as anything in the Bolshevik system. The fields were harrowed before ploughing! 

The farm machinery broke and fell useless.

On July 19, 1940, newspapers reported that “six Hebrew citizens” wished to organize a piece of land on which 

to build a collective farm. Unrest among the farmers was calmed by an announcement in the press by a bigwig 

named Spure that collective farms (kolkhozi) were not in the plans — “There shall be no kolkhozi!” What a 

consolation to the suspicious independent farmer so that he would not hide seed and would not hesitate to plant 

his fields. However, the farmers did not believe the assurances and they were not mistaken in their skepticism. 

Forgetting all their promises, in the spring of 1941, the Soviet power, with no hesitation, assembled the first 

collective farm. State-run farms (sovhozi) already existed. No effort was spared to degrade Latvian agriculture 

down to the level where Soviet agriculture was after 23 years of existence.

The most intense attempt to impoverish the land had begun. What remained was the physical destruction of the 

nation. The oppressive invaders made careful preparations. 

What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

The sequence of events could not be changed. Latvians rejected communism, closed ranks, and united against 


Latvian soldiers ordered by political instructors to march against their will, did so with military bearing, proudly 

and with dignity, in controlled disgust. With a nationalistic conscience, they kept aloof from everything 


One unit of Latvian soldiers marching at the International Youth Day demonstration display faces 

that are deeply serious or sharply ironic. They convey something other than joy under Soviet power. 

Most painfully the nation’s misfortune and suffering was felt by Latvian youth. With grimly determined faces and with 


reluctance, the youth marched, driven by the fanfares of May Day, deeply conscious of the nation’s misery.

Pioneers at a demonstration. Their faces show feelings of being trapped and frightened. 

Herded into the strange Pioneer organization, in a manner repugnant to the child’s soul, the little Latvians 

sullenly performed their assigned tasks. Communism was searching in that exact place — among the youngest – 

– for suitable subjects. The poison of betrayal was injected into the hearts of the smallest. 

The betrayal by way of a denunciation of his classmates contained in a report by one Pioneer.

A unit of Latvian soldiers marching to elections is ordered to pose for press photographers. The officers 

deliberately turned their backs to the cameras. 

Dissatisfaction and the spirit of resistance were manifested everywhere. 

Soldiers in one regiment expressed their resistance to communist 

absurdities and deliberate depravity in a daring sign: “We have no place to rest our heads.” 

This regiment had no permanent billets and was constantly moved from one place to another. 

The people found thousands of ways to show their feelings. This was seen in election ballots covered with 

remarks or mutilated and in reports of committees being stuck to deal with damage to election ballots for the 

June 12, 1941 election. Disregarding the damage, these ballots were later used to round up the percentage of 

voters taking part. 

Everybody knew how difficult it was to express such, albeit small, protests.

The Latvian spirit remained unbroken throughout all the tribulations — the most horrible known to mankind — 

starting with the CHEKA and ending with the martyrs in exile or dead. 

General K. Goppers in the prime of his life and then beyond the gates of human existence — in CHEKA prison. 


This task was pursued most diligently from the very first days by the communist invaders. Those known 

opponents not arrested by the CHEKA were often deported. 

The order of acting Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Vilis Lacis to deport the Minister of Defence 

General Janis Balodis. 


Here is the receipt for “loading” O. Zakis and family into cattle car for deportation. The receipt shows, written 

as a numeral, that the family consists of “2” people, but the register shows three. This “order” indicates that the 

official of the Latvian SSR (Soviet Socialist Republic) State Security Commisariat Operative Group chief 

comrade E. Saulitis could hardly read, write or add! 

Order issued to Saulitis.

On the Night of June 14, 1941 

On this night, Latvians discovered fully the fate assigned to them. On this night, they recognized the real face of 

communism. Women, children, the aged — none was spared. On this night, the Soviets arrested the cream of 

Latvian families, delivered them to railroad stations, and, in cross-barred cattle cars, shipped them to the Soviet 

Union. Thus, on this night alone, 14,693 of Latvia’s best sons and daughters were torn from the heart of the 


With these horrible deportations, Latvians entered the worst stage of their tribulations and sufferings. 

Room from which a Latvian family was dragged and taken on an untraceable route of torture. 

In an archive left by the Bolsheviks is a map showing plans for collection and loading (!) locations for Latvian deportees. The 

designations are a circle for a collection location and the triangle for a loading location. Cattle cars were provided for 




Relatives of the unfortunate deportees crowd the doors of one of the cars. 

CHEKISTS forbad relatives to give the deportees food, drinking water or warm clothing. 

The unfortunate people arrested had to endure many days and nights 

without food and water over a journey of thousands of kilometers. 


The unfortunate deportees for the last few moments gaze at a country many will never see again. The armed 

CHEKA guards take care of security. How could women, children and old people put up any resistance? 

What threat did the communists see in Latvian men armed only with a nationalistic spirit and a determination to 


Found by the railside, dropped out of a window, is a deportee’s description of their fate, handwritten in a 

printed book. Carved into an aluminium drinking cup is a deportee’s last wish: 



Latvia: Year of Horror 

Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, Editors 

Riga. Zelta Abele Publisher. 1942 

 is a collection of photos and documents covering the communist rule in Latvia 

from June 17, 1940 to July 1, 1941. This book shows communism as it was in reality — cloaked in 

deception and lies, filled with inhuman cruelties, revelling in torture and blood, sadistic in its delight in 

the lamentations of sufferers, and infinite in revenge and destruction. An unfathomable darkness, a 

madness, a mockery of honour and a rejection of all virtue sought to annihilate nothing less than the 

soul of the Latvian nation, a people for more than 4,000 years. 

Latvia: Year of Horror

Table of Contents 



1.The Beginning 

2. To Moscow! 

3. The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist 

4. Bolshevik Cynicism 

5. Elections! 

6. We Stand for Peace 

7. Placards, Placards, Placards 

8. What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

9. On the Night of June 14, 1941 

10. To the Serbian Tundra 

11. The Cheka 

12. The Killers and their Victims 

13. Victims Found in Baltezers 

14. See – There They Are! 

15. Too Many to be Counted 

To the Serbian Tundra

A long line of rail cars at Rezekne station en route to the Soviet Union. 

Documents left behind by the Bolsheviks reveal the destinations of the deported Latvians. The map on the right 

shows districts of intended locations. Numbers for each location are specified as numbers of railway cars, not 

people! A few, who at the last moment discovered the terrifying communist plans, escaped and went into 


An officer of the Home Guard with his wife [above]. 

After three weeks of hiding in the forests, they were scarcely recognizable. [right] 


Everyone who went through this door of the CHEKA lived through the most terrible fear, and the worst torture 

and suffering. For many Latvians unable to escape, who did not know how to hide from the Bolsheviks’ bloody 

clutches, life ended behind these doors. 

“The most democratic constitution in the world”, the constitution of Stalin, “the Father of Nations and of 

Working People”, guaranteed that “Latvia’s future would be happy and sunny.” Thousands of Latvians endured 

a bloody and pain-filled night, where death was the only deliverance. 


If the CHEKA intended to destroy anyone, it requested that material for that purpose be found; that is, 


An order addressed to the NKVD Third Special Branch to provide

complete proven and compromising material on Clara Veiss. 


Deliberate malice on this occasion is especially conspicuous: 

Clara Veiss had departed from Latvia a year before, as shown in an NKVD document. 

The Soviets could rely on their mercenaries. The report of writer Janis Niedra to the State Security Commisar 

comrade S. Sustin. 

Special reports were ordered for the gathering of incriminating information on people under suspicion. The 

CHEKA kept a special file on each one of them. If one institution did not have the needed material, they were 

borrowed from another.

Order from Latvian Interior Commisariat for the gathering of incriminatint materal. 



The witnesses of the methods of the communist rule. Statements of arrests and searches. 

A police calendar taken from citizen Prieditis during a search. A note identifies the searchers. 

Particulars and directions on persons to be watched, searched or arrested were delivered to the CHEKA by a 

carefully organized network of informers, spies and agents. However, the most valuable service came from 

trustworthy men, planted in offices and working places.

A few of these, responsible for the suffering of Latvians. One is a Jew Cipe Gutmanis [top], 

a thief and a robber, who served 3.5 years in prison for his crimes. He was the Bolshevik 

officer in the Dwelling Allocation Office. Another was Ernests Rozkalns [bottom], a specialist 

in break-and-enter and theft. He had 16 convictions. He was the manager of commercial 

establishments during the communists’ rule. 

The Cheka


Corridor and cells in CHEKA prison.

Solitary cell used for torture. In this solitary confinement cell, 

it is not possible to stretch or lie down. It was used to exhaust 

prisoners and to reduce endurance and resistance during interogations. 

The yard of the CHEKA prison, where prisoners sometimes were taken for walks. 

One of the CHEKA’s cells. At night time suddenly shouts were heard: “Get up!” CHEKISTS called out the 

names of prisoners. They were ordered to follow along endless corridors to a special room.


Here everything was provided for the killers: wooden padding on the walls to protect the walls from bullets. 

The door was covered with soft material to deaden the sound of the gunshots. The floor was concrete to 

facilitate the rinsing away of the victims’ blood. 

Those unfortunates who entered this room left as corpses. 

View into the execution chamber. 

The walls were covered with special covreings to prevent them being splattered with the blood of the victims. 

The corner of the cell had a drain for blood. After each execution, the cell was hosed down in preparation for 

the next killing. In one groove near the drain, 240 bullets were found. How many had been washed down the 


Drain in the corner of execution cell. 

The Killers and their Victims

The Killers: Sustins, Noviks, and Citrons — all three Jews 

Interior NKVD, later State Security Commisar S. Sustins. [ left] 

Interior Commisar A. Noviks, Sustins’ successor. [center] 

Moses Citrons, CHEKA director in Daugavpils. His salary was 900 rubles per month — 

three times the going rate for doctors. Whom did he cure? [right] 

Jewess hired by the Cheka as a torturer. 

One of the victims of the communists, murdered with a Jewish “schechert” or butcher’s cut to the throat.


Padding removed from the walls of the CHEKA prison was covered with the blood of the tortured victims. 

During the night, the corpses of those shot were taken outside Riga for secret burial. 

In the CHEKA prison courtyard, they found blood soaked tarpaulins used to wrap the victims on their final 


Student Bruno Rungainis, one of the few who managed to escape the CHEKA death grip. What tales could the 

innumerable victims tell who are now silenced for eternity? 

The hideous testimony of the illiterate Jew Ginsburg regarding 

nail-pulling torture in Daugavpils prison.

The statement of Bruno Rungainis regarding torture at the hands of the CHEKA. 


A silent cottage in Baltezers. There, in locked trucks, armed CHEKISTS transported dozens of Latvian 

patriots. Beyond the fence of this cottage, their journey of agony ended!

Not far from the cottage among trees full of the sap of life was the freshly dug ground. 

Freed from the bloody yoke, in July, 1941, when the German armies drove out the Soviet communists, the 

Latvian ground began to reveal its dreadful secrets.. It revealed much of what the communists had tried to hide 

behind barred windows, barbed wire fences, in prison basements, and in their own secretive brains.

Criss-crossed, thrown into a mass grave in the garden of Baltezers cottage lay some of the prisoners who had 

been shot. The pit yielded more corpses, one after another. 



Latvia: Year of Horror 

Paula Kovalevskis, Oskars Noritis and Mikelis Goppers, Editors 

Riga. Zelta Abele Publisher. 1942 

 is a collection of photos and documents covering the communist rule in Latvia 

from June 17, 1940 to July 1, 1941. This book shows communism as it was in reality — cloaked in 

deception and lies, filled with inhuman cruelties, revelling in torture and blood, sadistic in its delight in 

the lamentations of sufferers, and infinite in revenge and destruction. An unfathomable darkness, a 

madness, a mockery of honour and a rejection of all virtue sought to annihilate nothing less than the 

soul of the Latvian nation, a people for more than 4,000 years. 

Latvia: Year of Horror

Table of Contents 



1.The Beginning 

2. To Moscow! 

3. The State of Latvia Ceases to Exist 

4. Bolshevik Cynicism 

5. Elections! 

6. We Stand for Peace 

7. Placards, Placards, Placards 

8. What the Latvians Thought and Felt 

9. On the Night of June 14, 1941 

10. To the Serbian Tundra 

11. The Cheka 

12. The Killers and their Victims 

13. Victims Found in Baltezers 

14. See – There They Are! 

15. Too Many to be Counted 

Victims Found in Baltezers

Great care was needed to bury with appropriate honours the martyrs who had died for their country. Many 

had been robbed before their deaths, their shoes removed. Many had been stripped of their clothing. However, 

even more had had their human appearance removed. Many were scarcely recognizable. They had been 

disfigured by blows. Their faces were contorted and transformed by indignities after death. 

The hands of many victims were tied behind their backs. 

Who could be threatened by these unfortunate, tortured, exhausted people?

The corpses were undressed. 

In 23 years, since their bloody start in 1917, the communists had not changed. The scene of the opened mass 

grave was similar to those uncovered in 1919, after the first Bolshevik invasion of Latvia. 

The rows of those found murdered at Baltezers.

Murdered Latvians found in Krustpils airport after the communist withdrawal. 

Again and again, new gravesites gave up their victims. Victims unearthed in Riga at Cross Church. 

At the time when the walls of basements muffled the screams of martyrs, when shots in the night extinguished 

many lives. 

The remains of Latvians shot to death discovered after inspection in Dreiliui.

The big wigs saw no evil. From left: members of the Supreme Council — V. Lacis, Party Secretary Z. Spure 

and the president of the puppet government Prof. Kirchensteins take part in the Bolshevik celebrations. 

In the vicinity of Riga, numerous gravesites of shooting victims were found. Each contained 10-30 corpses, 

sometimes more. Such sites were found in Bikermieki, Preilini and other places. 

How many such graves of those cruelly murdered were and still are hidden beneath Latvian soil? The names of 

many of those buried in these graves are not known and the fates of innumerable people who just disappeared 

cannot be traced even today. 

Identification of corpses in Bikenieki.

The row of dead victims in Dreilini. 

At the start of the war between Germany and the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik terror intensified, reaching the 

level of open slaughter. The most horrible fate befell Latvian soldiers. The ones deemed politically unreliable 

were dismissed from the service. As they departed from the station, they were lured into a trap and summarily 


In the community of Balvi, on June 29, 1941 three soldiers were murdered: 

Vilis Lapius, Peter Krauja and an unidentified soldier.

Near the Army camp at Litena were found these soldiers shot to death: 

from left, E. Vilkajs, J. Piuka, V. Leja, V. Tumasevics, and A. Tumasevics. 

This copy of his death sentence was found on murdered student Gedimins Frankevics. “For offences 

committed by Frankevics, Gedimins, son of Sigismunds, due to their severity, and according to USSR Penal 

Code, paragraph 18.58.9 application — the highest degree of punishment. He is sentenced to be shot with the 

confiscation of all personal property.” This short text signalled the extinction of the life of a young man and cut 

another branch from the Latvian nation’s tree of life.


The corpse of Gedimins Frankevics. The contusions to the head are 

mute witnesses to the torture he endured before the deliverance of death. 

See – There They Are! 

The start of the war drove the bloodthirsty oppressors off Latvian soil. Not having had enough time to destroy 

the Latvian nation and sensing the end of their rule approaching, the Bolsheviks brutally settled accounts with 

their victims — the prisoners in the Central Prison, helpless, unfortunate, unable to resist. 

Unearthing of corpses in the yard of the Central Prison. 

Layer of earth. Only a couple of feet of earth covered the corpses of prisoners shot and carelessly thrown into 

the pit.

The earth reveals the victims. 


Many of those who had disappeared were relentlessly but futilely sought by their relatives, only to be found in 

these graves, silenced forever.


And it can relate more powerfully than any words. The unearthed victims, after they were disrobed and 

washed, were identified by close examination. 

New victims were found again and again. A row of corpses in the yard of the Central Prison. 

All that remains of many lives and lifetimes dedicated to the country.

Medical orderlies remove a victim from the common grave. 

Row of corpses in the yard of the Central Prison. 

The yard of the Central Prison.

This is how the Bolsheviks took revenge on imprisoned enemies during the last hours of their rule on July 28, 


The relatives of those shot and lost without a trace are searching for their kin among the corpses in the yard of 

the Central Prison. 

On the left is as document of the Bolsheviks’ sordid cynicism. It is receipt by an officer of the CHEKA to the 

prison administration stating that 62 prisoners condemned to death had been received. “I received the 62 

arrested persons.” Apparently, now the names did not matter, only the number. The numbers received equalled 

the numbers shot. 

The real scope of the Bolshevik murderers is evidenced by the Commisar of Internal Security Sustins’ 

resolution written in red ink, appropriately enough, on the register of those arrested: “Bearing in 

mind the social dangerousness, all are to be shot!” 

This death sentence erased the lives of 78 people, who, as noted in the register above, were arrested for 

“counter-revolutionary activities.” Noted among the counter-revolutionary offences meriting punishment by 

death were: 

“Sang Latvian folk songs.” 

“On May 1st, abstained from singing ‘The Internationale.'” 

“Came from a family of rich farmers.” 

“Exploited other working people.” 

“Was hiding in the forest.” 

“During air raid, he stayed in cemetary.” 

“Was a member of a student organization.” 

“Was a member of Mazpulks (youth organization).” 

“Was a policeman.” 

“Was decorated with Lacplesis Order (a military order)” 

“While in the latvian Army, he fought against Bolshevism.” 

“Was of anti-Bolshevik disposition.” 

“Ignored Red Army soldiers.” 

“Criticized Communist Party.” 

“Was adjutant to Presiodent.” 

“Incited hate against other nations.” 

Too Many to be Counted 

Tailor Valdemars Janelis in private life. 

Tailor Valdemars Janelis — prisoner of the CHEKA

Whoever knew him alive would not recognize him after death. The CHEKA took care of that. 

Tailor Valdemars Janelis — victim of the CHEKA. 


School Department Director Arnolds Cuibe 




Michails Afanasjevs

Andrew Krumins 

Smashed skulls and mutilated faces, open distorted mouths — everything testifies to the terrible suffering that 

victims had to endure during the last days and hours before death. 

Peteris Dobe

Stanislavs Belkovcis 




It was not possible to determine the identity of many victims



One of them — Silvestrs Brokans

“Passport” of one of those arrested — his cell I.D. card. 

The text of the death sentence. 

The reason for his arrest, Brokans said: “The Germans had downed 400 Bolshevik planes and will be here in 

two weeks.”

A few days passed and Riga was liberated. However, on June 26th, Brokans received a death sentence. Only 

a miracle saved him. 

As the German forces neared Riga, the Bolshevik terror became indescribable. Street announcements carried 

messages announcing arrests. When common mass graves were opened, it was noted that among those 

executed there was not a single Jew. 

When retreating from Liepaja, even while in a hurry, the Bolsheviks dealt with their prisoners. 

A view of the basement in Piepajas militia headquarters. The three persons shot to death were 

all members of one family. Their “offence” was that in front of their apartment a white piece of 

cloth had been found. The motivation for sentencing them to death: the cloth was alleged to be 

a signal to German planes. 


“Yesterday and today for counterrevolutionary activity — acts of subversion, terror, signalling the enemy, etc., 

several persons were arrested. Among them were Lukins Miervaldis, son of Janis; Rainics Nikolajs, sone of 

George; Kagans Jazeps, son of Abrams; Cuibe Arnolds, son of Janis, and others.

All those arrested received the death sentence and were shot. Anybody discovered supporting the enemy and 

betraying the motherland will receive like treatment. 

“I appeal to the working people of Riga to be helpful in detection of hostile elements.” 

— The Commander of the Riga Garrison Lieutenant General Safranov 1941, June 27th 

The pile of corpses in the basement of the Liepaja Militia. A hand grenade 

was thrown into the room and anyone still alive was shot dead.

Once more the basement of the Piepaja Militia. 

Victims in Daugavpils 

Those who suffered a similar fate in Valmiera. 

The row of persons shot in Valmiera. 



The murdered residents of Jelgava. Before being shot, they were tortured and afterwards thrown onto a pile a 


The murdered workers of Jelgava. 


While retreating from Riga before the attacking German Army, the Bolsheviks left empty bottles in the CHEKA 

building and a burning city which they themselves had set on fire. 

Riga burns.

The inner city of Riga at the departure of the Bolsheviks. 

They murdered even when fleeing. A woman murdered by the Bolsheviks lay in the street on the day Riga was 


Those who did not feel safe as they were troubled by a guilty conscience joined the Bolsheviks fleeing East. 

However, military opreations were faster. Many Jewish refugees and Bolshevik supporters were apprehended. 

A crowd of refugees after their return to Riga. 



All that the Latvians received from Bolshevik rule, besides promises of “freedom, brotherhood and 

equality” of a happy life and a sunny future, was 

34,250 people 


Published on April 8, 2009 at 6:29 am  Comments (1)  

The URI to TrackBack this entry is:

RSS feed for comments on this post.

One CommentLeave a comment

  1. Ater satan, jew is the greatest enemy of humanity.
    And they make sacrifices (70 bulls) to the satan. Don t believe me?
    Read ” Kaballa”, – know your enemy.
    They are so evil that it is hard for a normal human to comprehd – so read their “sacred” books.
    Dont forget to read “Tania”. Judaism has never been “monotheistic” religion. Read “exodus” attentively- what it says about other goods?
    And “caballa” is openly pagan – praying to god and satan.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: