Reds ln America

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  1. “Reds in America; the present status of the revolutionary movement in the U. S. based on documents seized by the authorities in the raid upon the convention of the Communist party at Bridgman, Mich., Aug. 22, 1922, together with descriptions of numerous connections and associations of the Communists among the Radicals, Progressives, and Pinks.” FBflflKuHB ; CauKTCKaa nnouiAllh TT S***% A. Mil. “■. in tht ■ tf)pr»H M- « P. H H ^State^^ctlon^^^^^^ _ nited States documents seized by the authorities in the raid upon the Convention of the Com- tnist Party at Bridgman, Michigan, Aug. 22, 1922, together with descrip- tions of numerous connections and asso- ciations of the Communists among the ves and Pinks. : , front page cartoon, reproduced in original colors, from The Godless, dlus- i anti-religious weekly published in Moscow by the Communist Party ;j;y. San Francisco. Lob Angeles S&n Dicjii 1 -and ^QiVs iSe war covered die Siaie Department for the AsaGciaced Press, He has been x correspondent tn Mexico* Central and South America (or many papers. He is the author ai numerous pamphlet on patriotic eubjects, Opus Kb. Eill CONTENTS Page I nl i oduction ,….,..,… – . . . 5 Tha Raid at Bridgman . 19 In Political Fields ‘ . – 39 Imola and Colleges*^ , 55 Radical Publications and Literature * 71 I »-irul” Organizations S5 Relief Drives; The Agrarian Program 103 American Civil Liberties Union . 117 rho Industrial Program . 127 Hi.- Stage and the Movies 141 uiiy, Navy, and the Government 155 Thfl Labor Defense Council — Women’s Clubs ♦ 171 The Negro Program — Future Plans of Communists 189 I’m went Status of the Bridgman Cases ……… 207 ftie Shortcomings of Our Laws , , . * * 211 AlTKNDlX A. Thesis on Co-ordination of Communist Activity in the Americas 219 Appendix B. Thesis on “Relations of One and Two ,J . . ‘■ 225 Appendix C. “Adaptation of the Communist Party of America to American Conditions” 231 Appendix D. “News Letter Service” marked “Rush One to Each Group 237 Appendix E. The Workers’ Party on the United Front ……. Ml A ri’KNDlX P. Next Tasks of uhe Communist Party in America ….. 247 Appendix G. _ “Our Bolshevist Moles” * b ‘ ILLUSTRATIONS “Take, cat; this is my body.’* …….. Frontispiece Facing page Cablegrams from Moscow in coda 35 The Red Napoleon 44 Communist publication* in the United States 66 Schematic diagram of the Bolshevik propaganda organization . . 74 Anti-Christian cartoon from Max Eastman’s Masses . . + . 79 The Young Comrade 98 Captain Paxton Hibhen at the grave of John Reed 107 “The Jesus-Thinkers,” by Michael Gold 119 “Communism and Chrietiamsm” 135 Communist leaflets 161 Appeal of Labor Defense Council 173 Max Eastman and Claude McKay 190 INTRODUCTION “Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions, thou ruined by too confident security.” ‘The effect of liberty to individuals is, that they may do what they olea&e: we ought to see what it will please them to do, before we risque congratulations, which may soon turn into complaints. Prudence would dictate this in the case of separate insulated private men; but liberty, when men act in bodies, is power. Considerate people, before they declare them* ■elves, will observe the use which is made of power; and particularly of bo trying a thing as new power in new persons, of whose principles, tempers, and dispositions they have little or no experience, and in situations where those who appear the most stirring in the scene may not possibly be the real movers.” The Rt. Hon. Edmund Burk£. Reflections on the Revolution in France, and on the Proceedings in Certain Societies in London Relative to that Event. In a letter intended to have been sent to a Gentleman in Paris. (Published in October, 1790.) Turning over the pages of Burke’s Reflections, the thought is constantly dominant — even if no other sources of information were at hand — that the points of similarity between the French Revolution and that which recently ■ Mired in Russia far outnumber those of dissimilarity. The revolutionaries of France were as much adepts at the dissemination of catchwords and ■logans as their Russian prototypes of a later day. Some of the rallying rrles, as for instance “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,” have persisted in their ipiychic malfeasance even to the present, and the literature of the French Involution abounds with phrases which crop out in the wordy exudates of [.ruin and Trotsky. The correspondence of Jean Baptiste Carrier 1 has been ■ nrntly published, and it is difficult to realize that the scenes of terrible niolty which Carrier describes are not those in which the central figure is * Dzerzhinsky or a Moghilevsky or that Carrier’s loathsome sacrilege is not tlmt of a Bukharin. The machinery of organized revolution which produced such a change lit France has been well described by Mrs. Nesta Webster, 8 and the most ■1 nit ling truth is clearly brought out that the organization through which ilir chief conspirators accomplished their purposes of destruction was ma- nipulated through Minorities, secretly organized, and working in secondary urn! tertiary minorities^ also secretly organized, ultimately influencing vast numbers of people who knew not the objective and cared less. The direc- * 10. H. Carrier — Correspondence of Jean Baptiste Carrier. (John Lana Co.) Nesta Webster— World Revolution. (Small, Maynard & Co.) £5] REDS IN AMERICA tion of the movement, therefore, always came from the top. It must bej admitted that the Revolution was in small part only, a reaction against abuses which were rapidly in process of abatement, and which, such as they were, furnished talking points to the curbstone agitators. Mr. Theodore Roose- velt showed his keen historical insight and freedom from the influence of Carlisle a Prussianized history when he wrote to Mr. Felix Frankfurter, one of our modern revolutionaries: “Robespierre and Danton and Marat and Herbert were just as evil as the worst tyrants of the old regime, and from 1791 to 1794 they were the moat dangerous enemies to liberty that the world contained.” This organization of disorder in France carried its fighting front into foreign countries and counted upon reverberations as a part of its political capital at home. Friends of the Revolution in England, many of them fanatical in their devotion to the cause of democracy as pictured by its philosophers, organized, agitated, assembled, talked, and raised much money to help the cause along; so much so that many were of the belief that it was British government gold upholding the hands of the protesting party. As clearly defined but with less intensity, the same organized movement ap-> peared in the United States. Its advent caused George Washington and his coworkers considerable anxiety for they evidently could not understand its true significance. It can be said verily that the scars of that agitation are still apparent in our political life. They are the first deviations from the standard of a representative republican government as conceived by the framers of the Constitution, who were attempting to build something which could protect minorities against the liquid rule of a mob. It was in contemplation of such things that Edmund Burke was prompted to write his Reflections. The times furnished an opportunity for a bit of wise political philosophy, just as applicable to-day with our eyes turned towards the north-east, as it was in the days of Burke when he was viewing events from the safe side of the English Channel. The lessons are all worked out, ready for study. As this book will show, we have with us a group of people numbering about 30,000 at the most, ninety percent of whom are aliens and cannot vote, who are closely bound by ties of a harsh discipline, fear of treason, hope of loot, and an easy future. They are ruled by a clever, more or less secretly organized minority. As a minority, this party hopes, or rather its minority leaders hope, to dominate an in- articulate and unorganized majority. It is this latter mass, in which it is so difficult to stimulate reactions but wMch once stimulated are so difficult to stop, that was finally roused in both France and Russia. The revolutionary leaders themselves know it for we find William Z. Foster telling his fellow conspirators in the convention of Communists at Bridgman, Mich.: “The fate of the Communist party depends upon the control of the masses, through the capture of the trade unions, without which revolution is impossible V There is a certain candor about this which is refreshing even if spoken [61 INTRODUCTION in IV I low Communists and in a secret session. Foster also said in the same ipBOoh: “We no longer measure the importance of revolutionary organizations by their size,” Foster has evidently studied the history of revolutions and the psy- ‘ hology of minority control. Then again Foster said: “Communi&ts get things done and paid for by others.” Quite so* Some of us have been watching the revolutionary movement foi years, and with Foster, the opinion is unanimous that if the following [hr« things happened, the movement in the United States will collapse in ii hurry. 1. Cessation of governmental support to socialistic projects, which ire on the periphery of the revolutionary program. 2. “Withdrawal of ad- vertising support on the part of the several large corporations from quasi- Dolthevik magazines and other similar publications. 3. It is also suggested that benevolent old ladies and gentlemen (some of them not so very old lither) clamber off the Bolshevik bandwagon and stand on a real rock-ribbed AniPiican platform, giving their funds to assist in maintaining the best government on earth as it was originally conceived. It is to be granted that ii’. “.i ving of money for an object thought worthy stimulates a satisfied feeling Which is quite desirable, but it is equally true that starving children in Rus- IJB ore not fed by the absent dollar — not at all. Up to this point at least, It in impossible to disagree with Mr. Foster. But we must turn aside for a moment and determine j.ust what kind of HI urbanization this revolutionary party is. A line of thought is suggested by r I it-: Communists themselves. The Bridgman Convention adopted a ‘Thesis i ii 1 hn Relations of No. One (illegal branch) and No. Two (legal branch).” ti iv) is written by a committee of which J. Lovestone was chairman, at that executive secretary of the Communist party of America, and must therefore be accepted as authoritative. “The revolutionary party can avoid suppression into a completely secret rxistenco * * * by taking advantage of the pretenses of ‘democratic forms’ which the capitalist stats is obliged to maintain. By thia means the Communists can maintain themselves in the open with a restricted program while establishing themselves with mass support.” In other words, the revolutionary party assumes the pretense of demo- – i alii- forms in order to secure the support of the masses and this pretense iimed only during the transitory phase which precedes the climax of l’i<delarian dictatorship. Things are said sometimes which do not work ■ Hi in practice — especially with the Bolsheviks* Therefore, it behooves us |0 r-atnine the machinery of world revolution and see for ourselves whether || ii ussurning the "pretenses of democratic form." Authentic evidence is fortunately right at hand. Hon. Henry Cabot i idgo of Massachusetts addressed the Senate of the United States January /. |024 and gave a clear insight into the workings of world revolution right "i ii i center in Moscow, Then followed the hearings before a Sub-Com- nf the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate i the chairmanship of Senator Borah "pursuant to S. Res, 50, declaring [7] Anitkirt n nh inert REDS IN AMERICA INTRODUCTION that the Senate of the United States favors the recognition of the present Soviet Government in Russia," a resolution which was introduced by Mr, Borah himself. Mr. Robert F. Kelley and Mr. A, W. Kliefoth, both of the Division of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State, testified, and placed on record voluminous documents to back their conclusions. The Russian Communist party — This basic organization has never numbered more than 700,000 out of a general population of 120,000,000 and at the present time has about 387,000 members, largely confined to the urban centers. The party is highly disciplined, thoroughly organized, and is also a righting as well as a political unit. Its members may be called upon to go anywhere, either singly or in numbers, in some respects resembling our own militia. New members are recruited after a probationary period of at least one year, often extending to five years, during which each candidate is subjected to the most rigid observation and trial. At the present time,' no one can join who is not of the proletariat (urban industrial workers). "At the party Congress held in April, 1923, it was decided that for one year, only industrial laborers were eligible to be enrolled in the party, and they must be seconded by two party members. All other applicants, it was decided, are to remain candidates for another year."* Political reasons for limiting the membership to industrial workers are obvious. •'After admittance into the party, the new members must survive periodic combings of the party roster, during which their reports as practicing party members are minutely scrutinized. * * * The object of these cleansings is to eliminate all those who are not sincere communists."* Members are penalized for the slightest infraction of rules, lighter of- fenses being followed by suspension or expulsion from the party while greater transgressions are punished by those heavier penalties imposed under the statutes designed to discourage counter-revolution. Each member is pledged to propagandize against religion and is not allowed to enter a place of worship. Church marriage is a frequent cause for discipline. The Izvestux, official organ of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, pub- lished an article March 31, 1921, in which, 5 "a notice [was given! to all members of the Russian Communist party in regard to the strict fulfillment of Article 13 of the constitution of tha Russian Communist party, which compels all members to carry on anti- religious propaganda." In return for such fealty to the party, members are carefully cared for in many ways. Shortly after the revolution when food was scarce, members of the party were first in line during the distribution of the food packages. They all have jobs under the government: "Senator Pepper, I understand you to say that yon did not know of any case where there was a member of the Communist party who is not also an office holder of the Soviet government? "Mr- Kelley. Yes, sir."4 1 Speech of Senator Lodge, Cong, Rec, Jan 7, 1924, p. 579. a Loe. cit. 9 Hearings of the Borah Sub-Committee, p. 14, ' Ibid., p, 16. [8] Naturally, this works both ways. "There is not known a case of a single member of the higher govern- mental organs, either in the Federation or in the so-called Russian Soviet Republic, who is not a member of the Russian Communist party,"* Then, there is the good old-fashioned Tammany method of getting the party heelers out of trouble. An official report 3 of the Central Control i ommittee of the Russian Communist party, made at the last Congress, Itfitae: " * * * AH our work is carried on in contact with the courts and with the state political administration^ in view of the fact that often in the courta there are pending cases of members of the party. The judicial organs inform us about the comrades in regard to whom there is judicial evidence. We acquaint ourselves with this evidence, as not infrequently there have been cases where comrades have been put into the dock solely as the result of personal intrigues. In such cases, * * * we have raised the question of the expediency and advisability of a public trial in court lest we under- mine the party authority of our comrades." The party also has a "monopoly of legality" and no other political MMMociations are allowed under heavy penalties. 9 "I refer to the fact that we are the only legal party in the country, and have, in this wise, as it were, a monopoly of legality * * * . Let ua speak clearly — we have a monopoly of legality. We do not grant our oppon- ents political freedom. We do not give the possibility of legal existence to those who pretend to compete with us." Zinoviev, Pravda, April 2, 1922, The All-Russian Congress of the Russian Communist party meets, per- lupi, once a year, the lasl having been the twelfth. It was held in Moscow, April, 1923, and another is scheduled for March, 1924. The delegates are •ill hund-picked.* "Mr. Kelley. * * * [Exhibit] No. 21 is a translation from Pravda, May 12, 1923, a speech of Zinoviev, in which he points out that the delegates party conference [Congress] were carefully selected. * * * Se- lected by a small group of individuals. I Kxecutive] Committee.' Selected by the Central The selections, we may be sure, are safe ones. Not much voting is BOne ;it these Congresses. The business consists largely in listening to the i. ports of the "big chiefs," explanations of why things do not always hap- i" ii just so, and exhortations to remain steadfast in the faith. The same individuals always do the talking, usually members of the Central Com- mittee, or important members of the Soviet government. In turn the Central Committee is elected by the Congress: 3 "According to the statutes of organization of the party, the supreme DOWer in the party is exercised by the All-Russian Congress of the Russian SEe f A vhen U comes to the “»«« of selecting n/rl 1 r ” reaU ° f ‘ he CentraI Com »i»^. ^ey are promptly forgotten tTfe Conire ^m”*? *”** T * tW ° ™»^> and LtweL ^ess ons of the Congress holds supreme authority. With numerous proletarians on the Committee .t was, of course, difficult to transact business, so a PoHti a Bureau is elected by the Central Committees rontic, “Attached to [ejected by] the Central Committee, there is a Political within the Centra, Committee, which has b»£ xpm i^n^f u Ipril iflS Md mUSt te replaCed ” Hep ° rt of Comrade StaUn/ra;^ following are given as members of the Political Bureau: Lenin Zinoviev Tomsky Rykov Kamenev Trotsky Stalin Alternates: Rudzutak, Kalinin, Molotov, Bukharin Lenin is now dead. Trotsky is reported more or less ill, and in dis- KT V° PO fT W u h ° iher ^^ ° f the Bt ~ Tomsk” aTd nrl- rl r T u^ d aS h f Vmg P redom ^^ing influence owing to age and prev J0 pohtlcal kl5 t oryj th h Sta]in to ^ mak . * * « less. Rykov is perhaps of next importance because of hi skill alorS economic lines. He has been recently elected to fill Lenin’s place. Kamenev whose correct name is Rosenfeld and who married Trotsky’s sister is chief of the intellectual forces of the Bolsheviks, and is a close 8^ppo& *SS to Zmoviev (bom, Apfelbaum) . Zinoviev is unquestionably, at this time the dominatmg member of the Bureau. He is described as 4™ffi- ft is he who by the offices he holds in the Communist pa^y and the Communis Internatxona lis at the head of all propaganda in foreign countries ° ™ y hands ” Pj SayS eV ‘ S the kver WhiGh We Cannot let out of °™ Th J h f/^ sian . C f ^ nu ^ P*rty, the Russian Soviet government, and the Third (Communist) International- A rather lengthy description of the Russian Communist party machinery has been attempted for three reasons: in the first place, through it a small group of men, if not merely one or two, esponsible to none but themselves, dominate, politically and economically a large mass of people. The structure is that of minorities, openly organ ized but of necessity secret. Secondly, the structure is characteristic of all communists organizations Finally, by a system of interlocking director- ates, characteristic of radical and liberal organizations even in the United states the Communist party machine dominates by its Political Bureau ^ohtbureaii) the Russian Soviet Government (including the Federation of Soviet Republics) and the Third (Communist) International. “The func- tion of the Soviet government is to govern Russia; that of the International to carry out t he policy of the party abroad” both in the last analysis under 1 Hearings of the Borah Sub- Commit tee, p, 23, [10] the direction of the Political Bureau. A description by Lenin of the work “I the ohtical Bureau is enlightening in many respects. 1 “The principal task of the Organization Bureau was the distribution of party forces and the task of the Political Bureau was the solution of political ■ [iirslions. y “Naturally this division is to a certain extent artificial, being understood Uial it is impossible to conduct any policy without making certain classifies, lione. Consequently every question of organization assumes a political signifi- cance and among us has grown up the practice that the opinion of one member of the Central Committee is sufficient in order to have any particular question by virtue of this or that consideration held to be a political question. “To attempt otherwise to limit the activity of the Central Committee w.mJd in fact hardly be of value and in practice could hardly be possible During the year much of the work of the Political Bureau has con- sisted of the current solution of all questions arising having relation to policy unifying the activity of all soviet and party institutions, all organizations of 1 ilie working class, unifying and striving to direct all the work of the Soviet Kcpubiics, all questions of an international, domestic and foreign policy each of us working in this or that party or soviet organization watches overy day for any unusual developments in political questions, foreign qr unmeslic “The decision of these questions, as it expressed itself in the decrees of the soviet power or m the activity of party organizations was appraised by the Central Committee of the party. It is necessary to say that the questions were so many that it was necessary to decide them one after the other under rondnions of great haste and only, thanks to the full acquaintance of members of the collegium, to the understanding of the shades of opinion, and confidence was it possible to carry out the work. Otherwise it would have been impos- Hihle even for a collegium three times larger. Often it was necessary to decide rnnfhcting questions by substituting a telephone conversation for a meeting.” It is entirely conceivable that when the telephone was out of order, I. ruin took upon himself the responsibility of making the decision. This relation, however, is not of so much interest to ns as that which exists l-rlween the party and the Third (Communist) International. The organiza- tion schemes of both are practically the same with slight differences in 1. rminology. The Third International is the creation of Lenin who worked DUI the details in practice by utilizing the machinery of the Russian Com- munist party. Congresses are held at Moscow approximately every year, llm last (at the time this is written) having been held in Nov.-Dec.» 1922. Calls for its assemblage are issued by the Executive Committee, which ROB the power of seating the delegates and determining the number of del- egates which are to represent each country. In turn, the Executive Com- tniitee is nominally elected by the Congress, but the method of election 1 discs the cjueation as to whether it wasn’t learned from political experience inquired in the Lower East-side of New York. Zinoviev, chairman of the Executive Committee, and unanimously elected president of the Congress “[n-Liking: 3 • Before the Ninth Congress of the Russian Communist party. Hearings of the Borah Sub-Committee, p. 16. * Bulletin of the Third Congress, No. 2, p. 19. Cited by Mr. Kelley before the Borah Hub-Committee, p. 41. [11] REDS IN AMERICA “Unless there is objection, I will have the voting take place* I beg the comrades who understand German and sit alongside of the Russian comrades to translate as well as they can to them. The voting will now take place. Has anyone any objection to this list? That appears not to be the case. The list is con Grilled.” and the Executive Committee, having nominated itself, took office until the next Congress. Objection would have been futile, as the composition of the Congress was dominated by the Russian Communist party elements, voting under unit rule. The Congress agenda is prepared in advance, and consists largely of speeches and reports. The same persons appear, year after year. Voting is rarely attempted. 1 “And after the vote was taken, in which t of course, the Russian motion was carried, Zinoviev remarks, *Comrades, this is the only vote during the whole Congress, and it is, after all, only a question of such a little thing.’ ” The Executive Committee of the Comintern* delegates the absolute authority vested in it to the Presidium, which it in turn elects. At present, the members of the Presidium of the Comintern, elected subsequent to the Fourth Congress are as follows: 3 Zinoviev Katayama Shatskin Clara Zetkin Neurath Kolorav Kusinen Bukharin Souvarine Radek McManus Terraccini Little attention may be paid to those who are foreigners in Russia, as the Russian group dominates the organization and the foreigners are not often in Moscow anyway. Bukharin, Radek, and Kusinen are in immediate charge under Zinoviev, their names appearing on documents seized at Bridg- man, Mich. Kusinen signs the orders which go out Zinoviev is a member of the Political Bureau of the Communist party, and Bukharin is an alternate, “The Communist International is the chief channel of communication, organization, and agitation in the United States.” The Communist party of America — This is the American Section of the Third or Communist International.* “It must always be remembered that the real revolutionary party— the American Section of the Third International— is the Communist party of America and that the legal party [Workers’ party] is but an instrument which it uses to carry on its work among the masses.” 1 Speech of Senator Lodge, p. 585. The Congress has also a presidium of Its own which la in effect a “steering committee.\'” 3 Mr, Kelley before the Borah Sub-Committee, P. *0. s Radicals generally have a habit of abbreviating the long names of their organiza- tions. For instance, “Glavlit” refers to the Supreme Literature and Publishing Ad- ministration attached to the Commissariat of Education of the Russian Soviet Government, the bureau which has charge among other things of the press censor- ship; “Rosta” is the Russian Telegraph Agency which exchanges news with Reuters and the United Press; “Tuel” is the Trade Union Educational League of William Z. Foster, a branch of the Communist party of America to which is allocated the work of propagandizing and organizing within the trades unions. In the same manner, “Comintern” Is an abbreviation for Communist International. “Presidium of the Comintern” is an expression which is often used and refers to a small group of men within the Executive Committee which has ultimate authority, and which dominates the organization. The dominating group within the Presidium are members of the Political Bureau of the Russian Communist party, * See p. 3tM, ri2i INTRODUCTION And again: 1 “The ruling of the Communist International must be accepted as obligat- ing every member of the Communist party of America, minority or majority. In work diligently in the immediate construction of a legal political party, I Workers* party].” That this status is accepted by the American elements :* “Even though the Communist party shall have come afaoveground and acts as tie section of the Communist International, the underground organ- LeoHon remains as the directing organ of the open Communist party. This uiutus is to continue up to and through the revolution and to the establish* tnent of the dictatorship of the proletariat.” So that there is provision made for an illegal party to work as a secret minority within the open legal party. The relations between the two are * misidered in great detail both at the headquarters of the Comintern in Moa- OOW and by the local leaders. No other relationship is thought possible foi effectively carrying on the work of revolution in the United States. “The illegal Communist party * * * must continue to direct the whole communist work.” “The whole open work of all communists * * * must be directed by ihe Communist party.”s “The entire membership of the underground party, the real Communist party, must join the open parry [Worker’s party] and become its most active rliMiieiil * * * must at all times hold positions of leadership in the legal party.’** And then again: 5 “During the time when the Communist party operates, not under its own name and program in the open, but through a ‘legal* political party with i. ted program and different name, the same principle is applied by having lull control of such legal party in the hands of the Communist party. “This is accomplished by having a majority of all important committees iiiosed of Communist party members, and by means of regular and com- ry caucuses of all the Communist party members within any legal unit, bound by the unit rule, a principle which will prevail in some effective form when the Communist party is itself in the open.” “The convention of the Communist party must be held prior to the con- vniiion of the Labor [Workers’] party and determine all policies for the jiittly and all its open organizations,” The absolute domination of the open party by the illegal party, the DMiiioctions with the Communist International are therefore shown. The Workers’ party however is only one form of activity which is planned and •ii ii even does the Workers’ party have a monopoly in the political field. I In presence of William Z. Foster at the Bridgman convention plainly in- ■ ii itfld that his organization, the Trade Union Educational League was ncd to work in the field of labor as the Workers’ party was designed i.. work in the field of politics.* notions signed by Bukharin, Ra^ek, ana Kusinen, p. 249. in on Relations of No. One (illegal branch) to No, Two (legal branch). Appendix i ‘ten by J 4 Lo vest one, executive secretary of the Communist party of America Mini ji.injited by the Bridgman Convention. i.rt of the Adjustment Committee to the Convention, written by Robert Minor, inher of the Executive Committee, p. 2&. . i iniix P. . ndlx B, Thesis by J. Lovestone, oiutlons adopted by the Bridgman convention, p. 28. C131 235000 REDS IN AMERICA INTRODUCTION “The general control of the No. One [illegal branch] within X [Trade Union Educational League] as within all other organizations must be in the nands of the party, and not in the hands of special committees.” Within the ranks of conservative labor unions are to be established nuclei, here and there gradually winning over the more or less radical and discontented to a “red” platform and securing the benevolent neutrality of the conservatives. The plan does not call for the adhesion in an organic sense of larger numbers of the labor union members but for secretly organ- zzed minority groups. Acting through the labor union organizations the Communist nucfci exercise an influence which reaches far beyond their immediate membership. 1 “The party must use its influenr.fi a nil strength in the trade unions to iorm delegated conferences of labor organizations. Such conferences decide on a general political campaign including all forms of political action. Our members should initiate such action through the unions w In creating a united front for the working class for their economic strug* gles, the existing labor unions must remain the instruments of these struggles while the members of the Workers’ party must be the instruments to unify these economic organizations.” The same methods of control are extended to the Communist press. As 1 Foster expresses it, “one of the secrets of control is monopoly of the press,” and provision is made that, insofar as possible, all editors of the Workers’ party organs shall be members of the Communist party. The convention of the Communist party at Bridgman was organized and carried on in true Bolshevik style. Little voting was allowed, care being taken to insure healing in the party dissensions early in the convention. Only true and trusted delegates were present, handpicked as it were. The program consisted principally of reports of committees, orders from Mos- cow to which the delegates themselves listened on the whole without much discussion. The convention had its presidium- 3 ”Throughout the Communist movement of the world, the system of presidiums’ prevails, by which matters of necessarily secret nature are kept in the hands of the most reliable and most trusted members of the party. This is a necessary feature of a revolutionary organization.” Secrecy of course is necessary to control, and the caution to observe it came from Moscow— the result of extended experience; — emphasized by the local leaders. 3 “While coming out in the open, the Communist party must not make the mistake of being trapped in the open by exposing its national or district Communist party headquarters, records, or illegal machinery, its underground printing arrangements or the personnel of its Central Executive Committee” * * * * The identity of members of No. One [illegal branch] working in offices or upon committees or in units of No. Two [legal branchl as well as their relations to No. One, must not be exposed. * * • Get used to speaking in terms that will not in any way reveal connections with No. One.”* 1 Appendix E, Instructions from Moscow. Vide. Chapter 11 * Thesis by Lovestone, Appendix B, p. 221. ■ Vide, p. 199. – Confidential bullatin written by ^ovestona ana sent to Communlat groups thlOUxli- out the country, p. 38. iyuKU [14] The Communist party of course has its Executive Committee and pre- iii iMy it is elected in about the same fashion as those elected in Moscow. Wlii In the Bridgman raid on the party convention was a staggering blow i the revolutionists, the latter have recovered their equilibrium rapidly and have transferred a part of their work to the Workers’ party organization. I In- 1 Icntral Executive Committee of the Workers* party is now composed of: Alexander Bittleman William Z. Foster Earl R. Browder Benjamin Gitlow F. Burman Ludwig Lore J. P. Cannon J. Lovestone William F. Dunne Jnhn Pepper J. L. Engdahl C, E. Ruthenherg It also has its Political Bureau: Foster Browder Cannon Pepper Lovestone Dunne Ruthenberg And it is perfectly safe to assume that this is the inside ring in i B United States. John Pepper officially represents the Third Interna- tional of Moscow in the Committee and in the Bureau. Pepper’s correct name, i. e., the one under which he was born, is Pogany and his Com- munist party name is Lang. This picture is complete. For the time it is possible for the aver- man to gain a conception of the great political machine which controls ill.’ destinies of so many individuals in Europe and which would extend its Operations to the whole world. The lines of activity and the channels of though! are now an open book. To an extent never before dreamed of, the principles of secret, irresponsible, minority control have been brought to . magnificent perfection. Yet, in the very perfection of its development I I the very danger to which it subjects society at large, the cancer-like in- filtration into untouched fields. If one minority can build up and sway f li a machine, why not another? That the leaders themselves have recog- nized this danger is apparent. 1 “The Thesis adopted by the Third World Congress on the_ subject of organization explicitly prohibited the formation of closed factions within I ‘nrnmunist patties.” Of course; the danger is much too real. Another minority might grab machine. It borders on the silly to say that this ponderous organization has been .in led for the purpose of bringing about a proletarian dictatorship. That ■ .1 of a slogan may be sufficient to keep the proletarian busy with his [noughts while the leaders twist his nose, for “it is necessary for victory i bring about common ‘mass action’ of workers who are not yet commu- m t8.” The climax of a proletarian dictatorship is somewhere else. The » Taken from a news letter service sent out by Brooks, representative or tHe Com- munist International in this country, p, 232, [151 REDS IN AMERICA cCSti ^ ,0Cate “‘ 6VaIUate * «* ™ t0 **« Merest the movement world y* German steam hamtner and Soviet wheat will conquer the eathe *.^AW.=:s-^&saas INTRODUCTION El one of many evidences of its work. 1 am also greatly indebted to Mr. Will- Ism E. Brigham, Washington correspondent of the Boston Evening Transcript* WAO has been of much aid and comfort because of his determined stand foi Americanism and his insistence that the American people shall know »Ik> truth of the radical situation. My appreciation is also expressed to Mr. Fred Marvin, editor of the Searchlight department of the New York Commercial who wrote the chapter concerning the trials of the Com- niflts at St. Joseph, Mich., following the raid at Bridgman. Thanks are HllO extended to Dr. Harris A. Houghton of New York, who has given me iminy valuable suggestions and who, at my request, corrected the final proofs. The officials of the Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice, ■ pecially Mr. William J. Burns, Mr. John Edgar Hoover and Mr. George !■’. Ruch, have also been particularly helpful in advice and friendly * I Hinsm, My earnest hope is that this book will be helpful to those students of 1 1 to science of government who are still befogged in the tractless sea of “liberism” as now defined and that it will ultimately prove to be a per- manent contribution to the bibliography of loyalty to American institutions. Washington, D. C, February, 1924. R. M. WHITNEY The preparation of the material for this hook hj» K„ c r. . . interest. Since much of it appeared in tL n ° 00 y ,as . been of absorbing a year ago, there ^b^CrTb^a^?” T^l f^”** ™ The attacks give little concert hlr^T fit *”* mt ^ 1 mnch !*»*”■ every hue, from Red t™ or ^X^f™^ T™’ **? Padi » h » f Union, a most H ^iJS^SS^ S tJXS?*? ^ ^^ pretend to be patriots and wfeleTdSg und^te “clotk ^C! ^ iveism” are in reality playing the same nf tn- » Jm t * Progress- pacifists have been particu “rl V AK V tf£ u ^J*****. The obtain peace. PrdJh*^ » %”ting to m the open publication of the truth reX IZXl T £f ‘ ? h ° beheVe loyal to the Lets of those XtL^Z^U^ “*** *” ™ ^ *i America in this form would no^Ll. K l^ publication of Reds cooperation of the aZ^V^I^Z^ ^frlg?* Under the greatest difficulties this organization is attemnH^ V Directors ‘ ou^ucceeang generations an Ame/ea such” ^foSS? ^ffi^S [16] rn] : : : ‘, ; Crii^TES:ON£ :; THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN The most colossal conspiracy against the United States in its history was unearthed at Bridgman, Michigan, August 22, 1922, when the secret Convention of the Communist party of America was raided hy the Michigan Constabulary, aided by county and Federal officials. Two barrels full of documentary proof of the conspiracy were seized and are in possession of the authorities. Names, records, cheeks from, prominent people in this country, instructions from Moscow, speeches, theses, questionnaires— indeed, the whole machinery of the underground organization, the avowed aim of which is the overthrow of the United States Government, was found in such shape as to “condemn every participant in the convention. It is now known and can be made public to what extent this movement, inspired from Moscow and directed by Lenin and Trotsky, has grown since the first seeds were sown a few years ago. The seriousness of the menace may now be measured for the first time. The ramifications of the organ- ization are now known. It can be stated with authority that the Workers’ party of America is a branch of this organization, placed in the field by orders direct from Moscow and supported by the illegal branches of the Communist party. It is known that agents of the Communists are working I6C cetly, through “legal” bodies, in labor circles, in society, in prof es- nional groups, in the Army and Navy, in CongresSj in the schools and jcol- leges of the country, in banks and business concerns, among the farmers, in the motion picture industry— in fact, in nearly every walk of life. These agents are not “lowbrows,” but are keen, clever, intelligent, educated men and women. They are experts in their several lines. Their programs, which are now known, show that their plans for inciting the negroes, the farmers, the clerks, the workmen in industry, members of Con- gress, employees in Government departments everywhere, to violence against I he constituted authorities, have been drawn with almost uncanny appreciation of the psychology of each group, with facts and figures so manipulated as to appeal to those approached, with false premises so cleverly drawn as to fool almost anyone. The names of persons interested directly or indirectly in this move- ment are astounding. They range from bricklayers to bishops, and include many prominent official and society people. It must be understood that by far the greater number of these people do not know to what they are lending the use of their names and influence or to what they are giving I heir money. They have been approached to give aid to the Workers’ party, [19] REDS IN AMERICA THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN or to the many relief organizations which have sprung up diseuisin* Com thTsSret circles of Z ^™ – $&$&* ™ on what are known i KS Communists as Vaeksr lists” comprising the nam ot people who have given to one or another of the various “causes” whic ~ss£#3?wK i ^ who w ^p^r P ? r oa w J contaS’hVpro’V^Erf- ,1^ pl T T* u Pr ° Sram9 ° f the C I be printed in full Tt” ^ W ° f the d °™™”« 8 they might ai sr/ s ied srt: to Russia ‘ id by ^it° wtrr y Xwr =elr I 1 r rt«^ai ssisif f«L n C™™ * thrive on disorder. Trouble is a rallying cr Z™ r Y – . dell ^ latel y “Pknt” theii agents in labor unions hr 1 riZ L lnSP1 ^ g d f Wder ; Th6ir creed is to mak « capital out of strik nots, and every other form of popular unrest. Their plans for the coal an railroad strikes, winch were so extensive a feature of 1922, were laid in 92 Their sympathizers attend church meetings for the jmt^otvZ^t arguments to weaken the faith of members^ the clL^h P T^ey pf a hTe love the nationalization of women and children, and openly prSainT rtJ e ig ne^X^ot^l?L”rCuie the intf “T “A to meet the requirements for their foreign readers- fullv »h?W r I=!! S ..^! h – 5*”* are found^n ST&J&’ ‘ SS*T J scheming i. done by Ae^e foreigne^ta « part of it, and practically workM lookouts could keep watch and give warnin- of tJwTT™ if * SSfT in whic ” the -—^ ™ ^ – *-^&tsEr which the owner was accustomed to rent to summer cal^^fi [20] -d to house the seventy-odd delegates to the convention. The spot tiuild be reached only by a wagon road, not in good repair, so that swift “Hioinobiles could not travel with sufficient speed to prevent flight. Watchers were also stationed in the town of Bridgman to note and report the presence of any strangers and on August 21, this foresight gelded its rewards. Word was also received from Chicago of a raid In lhat city on the offices of William Z. Foster, who was in attendance OK the Bridgman convention, in his official capacity as head of the Trade Union Educational League. Foster and some of the higher-ups from ia and the United States escaped during the raid but later seventeen Wfiws caught. Foster himself was arrested the nest day in Chicago, and denied that he was at Bridgman — but the authorities had the minutes of • In- meetings, including roll calls to which Foster answered “present,” and the text of the speech delivered by Foster. Denial was useless. Preparations had been made, as is always the case at the illegal meet- lugs of the Communists, to secrete the records in case of discovery. In this instance a hole had been dug back of one of the cottages into which fftre dumped typewriters, mimeograph machines, adding machines, the private papers of the delegates and the official records of the convention ivben the authorities swooped down upon the conspirators. They are called Conspirators advisedly, for the purpose of the Communist party of America In to overthrow the Government of the United States by violence, by armed revolution, and to make this country like present-day Russia, It is interesting to note that every member of the Communist party Ihin what is known as a “party name,” by which alone he is known to the I’ i members. Rule No. 12 of the regulations governing the meetings nl Uridgman states that “no one shall disclose or ask for the legal name of Ihy person present.” The identity of many members is unknown, al- l hough the party name of practically every member is now on record. The delegates who were in attendance at this illegal annual convention M the Communist party of America came from all parts of the United llntes, There were also present honored guests (albeit in an official Mpncity) from Moscow, bearing instructions from their chiefs, Lenine, rrotsky, et al., and they gave explicit orders as to what should be done h> lliis country looking to its overthrow. There were present besides 1 ter, C. E. Ruthenberg, three times candidate for mayor of Cleveland: Mm Gitlow, the New York labor leader; Ella Reeve BIoot, who says U0 lias been arrested more than a hundred times for radical agitation hnong workers; Robert Minor, J. Lovestone, Ward Brooks, direct repre- • niaiive of the Communist International, of Moscow; Boris Reinstein, ^presenting the Red Trade Union International of Moscow; Rose Pastor |lokes, whose spectacular radical career is well-known; William F. Dunne, Candidate for governor of New York on the ticket of the Workers’ party, legal” branch of the “illegal” Communist party, and many others. The Jvrnteen arrested at or near Bridgman were Thomas Flaherty of New fork; Charles Erickson, Charles Kruiubeiii, Eugene Bechtuld and Caleb Harrison of Chicago; Cyril Lembkin, W. Reynolds, Detroit; William F. [21] REDS IN AMERICA THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN Dunne of Butte, Mont., and New York; J. Mihelic, Kansas City; Alex Ball, Philadelphia; Francis Ashworth, Camden, N. L; E. McMillin, T. R. Sullivan and Norman H. Tallentire, St. Louis; Max Lerner, Seattle, and Zeth Nordling, Portland, Oregon. The convention was called to order on the afternoon of August 17 by Comrade J. Lovestone, Secretary to the Central Executive Committee. Lovestone, whose party name is L. C. Wheat, had just returned from a trip to Germany where he secured 132,000 from the International Propa- ganda Bureau. At the head of this organization is Karl Radek, the no- torious Bolshevik who has been identified with the Communist movement since the timfi of th* Rrest-Litovsk Treaty and whose real name is Tobinch Sobelsohn 1 , The International Propaganda Bureau was organized for the specific purpose of pooling and distributing all propaganda funds so that the money could be quickly placed where most needed. A definite proportion of the funds collected in the United States is sent to this bureau in Berlin, a definite portion being retained for direct propaganda work here. The convention was quickly organized, committees appointed, and the work begun. William Z. Foster figured largely in the organization, be having been seated as a fraternal delegate by virtue of bis position as head of the Trade Union Educational League. Comrades Ben Gitlow j and Caleb Harrison were chosen chairmen by the ^Presidium,” or govern- ing body, of the convention. The regulations governing the convention, drawn by the grounds com- mittee, illustrate the efforts made to prevent any knowledge of the pro-j] ceedinga becoming known outside the secret circle. All persons were J forbidden to leave the grounds without permission of the grounds com- mittee, and if granted this permission they must register when leaving and report when returning. “No person shall mingle with strangers,” ] reads Rule No. 4, and the next one provides that no persons shall be al- lowed to send messages or mail letters. Rule No, 6 reads, “No incrimin- ating literature or documents shall be kept in baggage or in rooms. All such matter must be turned over to the committee every evening. The grounds committee must arrange for the safe keeping of this matter.” The rules prescribed the time lights should be out, what time the delegation should get up in the morning, and when they should bathe and j that “all persons going in bathing must wear bathing suits.” Lest some trace of their plans become known it was forbidden to write on tables, seats, or any part of the premises, and all were prohibited from “throwing away papers or written matter of any kind;” it was provided that “all written notes, not longer required, must be handed to the committee for destruction.” Roll calls were held three times a day to guard against spies getting in or leaving, and all grants to leave the grounds must be reported at every roll call. Following the organization of the convention and the adoption of the ” Webster, Kerleri, Beckwith — Boche and Bolshevik, l>. 27 (Beckwith). [22] i tiles and regulations, Comrade Ward Brooks, of Moscow, addressed the rutivention in German. Notes taken in English by Comrade Mas Bedacht, e member of the Central Executive Committee, were found among the buried records. At the outset of his address Comrade Brooks admitted lllfll “for the first time since the Third International” the party was faced by really serious problems. He said: “The revolutionary situation immediately following the Russian Revo- lution gave its impress on the Communist International. It was thought I licit we were really at the beginning of the world revolution. Some say lllBl this crisis will be the final one. Others that it will be followed by Q period of prosperity,” Evidently prosperity is not to be desired, for the Communist movement thrives on the dissatisfaction of the masses. Throughout their literature and In all their speeches the Communists stress “class struggle,” preaching always the need of creating class consciousness as a step toward the “strug- C,li 1 ‘ Comrade Brooks’s explanation of the present situation follows in I In* next two paragraphs: “The situation is really that although the economic situation is bet- torblg, still the political consciousness and the class struggle are sharpen- in; 1 . Capitalism has no way out to regain complete health. The situation in I he Entente is such that England and France are constantly at odds. America is at odds with the rest of the world. This leads to a great Complication of interests. Thus the revolutionary movement is solidifying. Inland endangers the position of Great Britain on the Continent. “Germany is the greatest proletarian power, with seventy per cent mliiin population. The bourgeoisie cannot for any length of time hold (inner. The slogan of a proletarian government by the German Com- munist party is not artificial, but is based on the desires of the proletariat. Germany is the seed of Europe. France is eo closely connected with Ger- ii y that an uprising in Germany would ultimately lead to a revolution in France,” Comrade Brooks went on to report on conditions in Italy, Hungary, Chechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Japan and Russia, painting the picture lu brilliant colors for his American hearers, turning every defeat of Com- munist plans to victory by twisting the significance of the developments Mich led to the defeat and claiming the results as satisfactory to the * ommunists. Among other wild claims he made was that Russia herself li id i ontributed ninety-nine per cent to, the relief of the famine sufferers nl lliat country. Then he turned to America. ,: The American situation. What has happened? Much and better. Tlic Communist party in America sees more concretely, more definitely, its ComI and also sees the methods. The tactical questions were never so ptenslvcly discussed as during the last year. This will fit them to take me lead in the class struggle. As far as results go nothing is to be seen hh yet. Are we better or worse off than we were last year? Better, be- i luse the party exists and knows why it exists. It is more fit for the purpose of the Communist party than it was last year.” [23] REDS IN AMERICA THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN Inasmuch as they were among themselves at Bridgman there was need of pretending that the work of the Communists was legal. The diffe entiation of the legal and illegal branches was made clear, and the fact that the illegal branch is regarded as the more important and the con- trolling branch is plainly stated. For it is in the work of the illegal branch of the organization that the violations of the laws of the country are committed, the conspiracies fathered by Moscow and imposed upon the! party in America are carried out. The report of the Adjustment Com- mittee, of which Robert Minor was chairman and of which Brooks and Reinstein of Moscow were among the members, consisted of revolutionary resolutions, which were adopted, as follows: “1. To multiply tenfold the activities of the whole membership oj the Communist party in the trades nnions is not only a question of the life and death of the party, but, alongside of another form of the worjl among the masses, the best counterbalance against controversies that teal the party to pieces. “2. The road to revolution in America leads over the destruction on the power of the yellow leadership of the American Federation of Labor. • This aim can be accomplished only through work within the American Federation of Labor for the conquest of this organization. Therefore it is the main task of the Communists to work in the American Federation ofj Labor. ‘ “3. The main goal of the Communists in their trades union work is the unification of all organized labor into one federation, “4. The work in the independent unions must be carried on in the above’ spirit. The necessary and right amalgamations (not artificial ones) ofl independent unions within a certain industry or in local councils should be influenced by the Communists so that they are not carried through in a separatist spirit against the American Federation of Labor but as a step toward the general unification of labor and in support of the work within] the American Federation of Labor. “5. The tendency for the formation of a national federation of inde- pendent unions or the amalgamation of local councils into a competing federation against the American Federation of Labor is harmful. “6. The existing councils wishing to affiliate with the Red Trades Union International should not be discouraged but should be attracted under’ the condition that they support the trades union program of the party.” ILLEGAL PARTY MUST CONTINUE “1, The illegal Communist party must continue to exist and must’ continue to direct the whole Communist work. “2. The open work in all forms and especially in Number Two 1 is the main task of the party. “3, A legal Communist party is now impossible. Should conditions^ change, only a convention can change the party’s policy.” * Th» legal branch. 124} RELATIONS OF ONE AND TWO 1 “1, According to the thesis of the Second World Congress of the Com- Est International the role of the Communist party in the Proletarian Ittvolution is, The Communist party is the organized political lever by Miimua of which the more advanced part of the working class leads all the proletarian and semi-proletarian mass.’ “2. The Communist party in its revolutionary outlook does in no PUntry feel itself bound by the existing laws forced upon it by the bour- i class state; not only in the historic revolution which it strives to Ming about and which naturally cannot be carried out legally, but also [I] Its activity in the period of preparation does the Communist party and i In- fighting proletariat come in open conflict with bourgeois justice and jk| i>igans of bourgeois state apparatus. Whether in spite of these facts K| Communist party can exist as an open party, tolerated by the enemy h ji Ho-called legal party, or whether it must exist as an illegal party die- Binds upon a number of circumstances which differ in various countries Mid from time to time. Even an open Communist party must be armed I mi the eventuality of exceptional laws against it and also for the carrying ••til of many permanent tasks it must maintain an illegal apparatus. The nl situation in America makes the existence of a legal Communist ■irty, as it exists in Germany, France, Italy, etc., impossible. In spite of ••II differences America belongs in the category of countries like Finland, I’lilrmd, Roumania, Jugoslavia where the Communist party must be illegal. In ipite of the fact that lately an extension of the possibilities of legal Iftlvities has taken place, prospects for the possibilities of an open Com- munis; party within a reasonable length of time do not exist. The Amer- i illegal Communist party, therefore, is and remains The Communist ■fty, the only section of the Communist International in this country, “3. The centre” of gravity of the Communist party lies in its open ac- ttvltles. The whole open work of all Communists in the legal political ■■i:l. in the trades unions and all other organizations, and in the press* ■ ii i be directed by the Communist party. The direction of this whole ii|nn work will not lead to a neglect of the illegal party work but, quite i ntrary, will instill the party with real life and give its work political || ■ (finance. It will direct its attention to the great problems of the !c of the proletariat. It will establish the real connections between | [iarty and the masses and their struggle, If in the future Number 1 should become a revolutionary mass party which can openly and irictedly operate as and call itself a Communist party, then the .. .ut underground organization will become an illegal apparatus within kit party and must be adapted to the new situation and new functions, i Di (ho practical carrying out of these policies the following rules must be ■i ■ ■ i ved: “A. In all their activities the Communists are subject to the directions and discipline of the party. nipriki and LegaL T25] REDS IN AMERICA THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN “B. Every member of the Communist party is in duty bound to ba active in Number Two. i j ” C j l he Central Executive Committee will see to it that the directing j body of Number Two will be subject to its guidance in the composition of its membership as well as in the execution of the political directiona of the Central Executive Committee. All meetings of the Number Two mus be prepared for by the Number One. This is especially important for th conventions of the Number Two which, under present conditions must b preceded by a convention of the Number One. “D. The same holds true for local party committees, “E. The meetings of party committees of Number One as well as th organizations and groups of Number One must be devoted, along with inner organizational questions, mainly to discussions of plans of action in the open work. These meetings must not duplicate and thus hinder the open work but must become the driving force of the open activities. T. The Number Two shall be recruiting ground for the Number One and must be the constant source of new forces. “G : No member of the Number One is allowed to neglect Number One work but must be in constant touch with the illegal organization This must grvc the members backbone and direction for the open work, H. The Central Executive Committee publishes monthly an illegal organ *or the discussion of important party questions to be distributed among party members and sympathizers. By actual work the Central Ex- ectitive Committee must keep in constant touch with the membership sol that its decisions are not carried out by purely mechanical means, bug also and more important, by a thorough understanding of party poIicV and technique on the part of the membership. “I. The publication of illegal propaganda and agitational literature tor mass distribution shall be adapted to political necessity whenever th] legal possibilities are exhausted.” TO PROLETARIAN DICTATORSHIP , . I’ 1 ‘.” 1 ! 10 P 1,0 ^™ of the Number Two must be short. A manifr winch in short, concise sentences, not in the form of a narrative or J syllogism, contains the declaration of principles. “2.— The red thread of the program is the idea and the practice of thj class struggle. In this connection mass-actions should be dealt with] 1 his part must be American; it must deal with partial struggles of the] American masses as well as with the general struggle of the thirty millior] ot American workers. In this portion must be stated the basic element^ out 01 which our trade union tactics are developed. The fundamentals of] tiie United .Front should be here expressed, “3,–Tie political part must lead up to the climax of the proletariat dictatorship. This formula appears in contradistinction to the dictator] ship ot the capitalists. American democracy must be analyzed Rule o] the thirty million for the overthrow of capitalism as against rule of Walll htreet for the conservation of exploitation. Soviet rule as the historic! iorm ot a proletarian regime in the transformation period . [26] * 4. — One or two sentences may be inserted in a fit place dealing with thi yellows and reformists and against the policy of compromise*” CENTRISTS IN THE WORKERS’ PARTY, “The Workers’ party was organized to comprise not only Communists lull also sympathizers who, although not yet clear
  2. CENTRISTS IN THE WORKERS’ PARTY,
    “The Workers’ party was organized to comprise not only Communists
    lull also sympathizers who, although not yet clear-cut Communists, gravitate
    lOWard Communism and accept the moral and political leadership of the
    | “Mirjumist International and the Communist party of America. From that
    point of view the decided n on -Communists and anti-Communists (that is,
    jlpponents of the existing Comintern), especially when they belong to the
    te of leaders, are not a desirable element in the Workers’ party, but
    in a disturbing and at times even a dangerous element. Even though at
    .i oortain period of development we are forced to accept such elements
    hii account of their important following, we must do everything in our
    bOWOr to win this following for us as quickly as possible and to destroy
    Him influence of the non-Communists, * * To the question of whether it
    MfOllld be better for us if they go sooner or if it were better they go later*
    jfl answer: at the present moment an open breach would mean a split, a
    IfOckening and compromising of the as yet extremely weak party. They
    ii i iv therefore remain; but even now already our Communist work within
    lb- Workers’ party must be doubled and trebled as well as our propaganda
    Ini the Workers’ party,

    “Kspecially dangerous are the positions of power of the centrists and
    ||lj centrists in the daily papers. This condition must be remedied im-
    mediately. First by organizational measures to get this press absolutely
    In our control; secondly; by the open criticism of their mistakes in the

    ■ ■Hi. u[ organ of the Worker’s party which latter organ must be absolutely
    In our control; thirdly, by the establishment as soon as possible of an
    I’jil’.lish daily paper. 1 ”

    The “Coordination of Communist Activity in the Americas”* was dis-

    ■ <• Appendix A.

    £27]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    lias opposed to a backward and unripe proletariat the highly developed boJ
    geoisie of the most powerful capitalistic nation in the world, with llir
    military resources of the United States at its command. The fight [|
    unequal. Isolated, the Latin American workers can not hope to defend
    their interests successfully against their mighty adversary. They ncfld
    us as well as we need them. A proletarian revolution anywhere in Latin
    America is well nigh impossible until there is a revolution in the UnitoJ
    States. Wall Street, with its billions of dollars imperilled, would cruik
    it immediately. American imperialism, economic and political, i s thl
    instrument of exploitation throughout the western world. In Latin Ameri-
    ca, as inthe United States and Canada, the Class Struggle is a struffdi
    against Wall Street. w |

    Throughout the minutes of the convention, and also in all Communis
    literature the letter «X” is used to refer to the Trade Union Educational
    League, of which William Z. Foster is the head and organizer. This is don*
    in order to aid Foster in his efforts to avoid conflict with the authority
    and to make the American people and his opponents in labor union
    circles believe that it is not connected with the Communist movement,
    taster was a member of the committee which drew up the resolutions on thl
    Relation of the Communist party to the Trade Union Educational League,
    adopted by the convention. These resolutions provide specifically *thi
    the illegal branch of the party must always be in control of the Leagy
    lhey read as follows:

    “L— The party recognizes the ‘X* as one of the most important facto
    for the revolutionizing of the trade and industrial unions and therefo
    will take all the necessary measures in order to develop and strengthen J
    through the active participation of the membership of the party to its worll

    “2, — The formulation of the trade union policies by the party must f
    based upon the closest contact of the party with the experiences of t
    trade union nuclei,

    “3.— The general control of the Number One nuclei within X as with!
    all other organizations must be in the hands of the party and not in tl
    hands of the special committees.

    “4.— Contact must be established between the executive committees of
    the party and the executive committees of the X.

    “5. — Number One nuclei within the X must be made to functii
    regularly.”

    The most important event, in the eyes of the delegates, was the spew
    of Foster himself before the convention. His hostility to Samuel Compel
    and to the American Federation of Labor, of which Foster is a membej
    was shown in his address. He told of the work done among the railro*
    workers and the miners leading up to the strikes of 1922* He counselh
    violence in overthrowing the Government of the United States. He told u
    his dealings in person with the authorities in Moscow and how the leaded
    in Russia understood the situation in this country. His speech in pad
    follows:

    THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN

    “The fate of the party depends upon its control of the masses. The
    Irnde union work is one of the most important things in order to get control
    U the masses. The influence of the masses can be measured by the amount
    fcf control we happen to have in the trade union work in all countries. We
    Imve seen the Socialist party here go to pieces, more so than in any other
    lountry of the world. The Socialist party in Germany suffered, but not
    like the Socialist party here. It is practically outside the labor move-
    ment. There is nothing left of it,

    “One of the prime reasons is that the Socialist party in this country
    never understood the importance of industrial work; never had an indus-
    trial policy. It seemed to go along on the idea that the Socialist party
    •liould be an organization of citizens in general, and did not realize that
    tlio foundation had to be the workers, and not only the workers but the or-
    linnized workers. The Socialist party never realized that the key to the
    working class lies through organizations that carry on bread-and-butter,
    KVfiry-day struggles. The consequence was that the Socialist party has
    wavered ever since it was formed. The Socialist party never crystallized
    llnelf. It fell into the hands of Debs, and Debs has been a man who has
    nnver really grasped the significance of mass organizations. As a con-
    fluence, the Socialist party developed a wing that stood for dual organ-
    tmtions, a left wing. The right wing stood for working in trade unions
    In mild milksop fashion. They used the trade unions merely as vote-
    unltirtg machines. They did not attach first-rate importance to them. The
    iH’t wing, led by Debs, Haywood and others, had the idea of dual organi-
    sm ions, the right wing had an idea of going along in trade union work
    tnildly.

    ‘The result was a compromise between the two positions. They en-
    dorsed the principle of industrial unionism but failed to direct the active
    *hfo
    ing and not doing real work. We formed this league, but in forming il
    we were under a great disadvantage. We did not dare to say it was ?
    Communist organization. It was necessary to camouflage to a certail

    ■Aleut, and for that reason it had to start differently. The ideal way
    |(j have started this league, was to call a national conference and there
    idopl a program, endorse the Red Trades Union International program
    “lr<L Afterwards they found out that it was a great handicap. We de-

    |blr(l to accept neither affiliations nor organizations without dues, but rather

    Im " i n a more advanced manner, at least until we were well intrenched

    R ft firmer basis without danger of expulsion. We have succeeded in making
    1 ' " {1 int0 a number of organizations. In fact, I find that the American

    '-try Socialist Committee (France).

    [30]

    [31]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    trade union movement is very receptive to a great deal of the prograij
    w Tlte situation on the railroads: we have carried on work not onl
    in the mining districts, but were particularly successful in the railroad
    trades. To show the ripeness of the American trade unions for this ki n|
    of proposition, to concentrate on explaining the situation will be as god
    as any. We started out with the railroads with a program of industri]
    unionism. There are sixteen organizations on the railroads. We started ofl
    with laying stress on the proposition of industrializing the situation, an
    started a movement for amalgamation. The trade unions connected wit
    the Trade Union Educational League were instrumental in sending out sever)
    thousand letters through local unions. In the face of the convening of m
    railway employees* convention, Ave sent out a letter with the idea of industrial I
    organization to the rank and file and delegates to that convention (500JI
    ninety-eight per cent being highly paid officials getting from $400 to $70]
    a month, more than the presidents. When the convention came togethcl
    Knudson and I spoke to as many delegates as we could and the result wJ
    that between sending out these letters and one meeting, we set up a stamped}
    among the delegates of the convention and had a majority on record foil
    our program.

    "This shows conditions as they were at the convention. Samuel GompeB
    came to Chicago for the purpose of spiking the league and preventing il
    from having any effect on the convention, and he held a public meeSnJ
    and advanced the league as being financed by Moscow and out to destrol
    the unions. He sent a man there to address the workers. He was deniej
    the right to speak to the convention, but in spite of all that, we succeedoj
    in stampeding these under-officers for that much of the program. Coulfi
    that happen in France or any other country where a lot of fellows coulj
    stampede a convention of high-paid officials? It could not be done. S
    no other movement in the world is there such a thing. If we were able 9
    stampede the majority of this convention, what can we do with the rank ami
    file? The president of the railway employees' department issued a challend
    to me to the effect that these people who talk industrial unionism shouln
    help them get down to something concrete and something definite.

    "We drafted a program for industrial unionism and sent out 11,0
    copies to every trade union in America* This cost the party absolut
    nothing. It was so organized as to pay for itself. The trade unions
    Minneapolis and St, Paul raised the money and circularized all the railrj
    unions in the country. We knew that the strike was coming along and trj
    to be on the job. The strike occurred with the result that there was the gr”iv During the strike I could go before them and talk anything at all. The
    Nil IhJiH broken and we have succeeded in getting a grip in these organiza-
    iImim nnrf have got them coming our way. We have got to break the mo-
    Rojioly of the press*

    “Tim bureaucracy of the trade unions has got the press which is one
    || Mm urcrcts of control, and we must try to aim at that — the breaking of the

    nopoly of the press, and with the great volume of sentiment we could

    il . . -I’ll,

    “I am not trying to overstress the importance of industrial trade union-
    Tin: workers of America are ready for new ideas. There is nothing to

    I i from the old machine and if we will go to them, they will listen to
    it lini wo have got to say. In our conference we should be very careful about
    ilm | Ingram that we adopt. As far as I am concerned, we should adopt
    h Ji hi -cut revolutionary program. Adopt a proposition indorsing Russia

    ■ I indorsing the dictatorship of the proletariat in Russia. Adopt a Teso-

    ii culling for the affiliation with the Red Trade Union International

    Million I qualifications. Adopt a program calling for industrial organiza-

    ■ and adopt a revolutionary program as a basis of our work. Popularize

    II mill let it be spread broadcast. It is a strange thing that some of our
    who are most extreme radicals left us and advocated the idea that we

    refill on the industrial field. It is a strange situation, but natural.”

    The relations of Number One and Number Two, that is the illegal and

    III branches of the party, to each other was set forth in a thesis that was

    |ilii]ilnl by the convention. 1 It was prepared with great care by an important

    liiiiimillce of which J. Lovestone, executive secretary of the party in Amer-

    iim chairman. It provides for the permanency of the illegal branch set-

    “•■I lot ill explicitly that even after the Communist party becomes strong

    ;li to come out in the open the illegal branch will be necessary to

    (Ihnil the conspiracies of the party. It says at the outset, in discussing the
    ity of a Communist party”: “all experience in the modern class
    lc proves that the working class can emerge victorious only after de-
    ling an organ of leadership in the form of a highly disciplined Com-
    i party, thoroughly conscious of revolutionary principles and tactics.
    I In lirst task of the Communists is, therefore, to develop such a party.”

    The authors of this thesis point out that while education and propa-
    • < I ■ tire necessary in preparing for the final great armed revolution, it is

    important that all Communists have a major task in the "participation

    II the struggles of the workers as the most active force." The inciting

    "iiiMutti'H,' 1 not individuals or even small groups, to violence is held to be

    I u« Appendix B.

    133]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    J

    the chief effort to which the Communists should lead themselves. It holihj

    LlIM

    ;

    Hi

    i

    .11.

    that the leadership of the masses of the exploited can be attained only W
    directly engapng m all their struggles together with the masses of til I
    workers. It is then urged that political organizations are necessary
    states that m America it has become the most urgent, immediate task of
    Communists to secure a public, open, so-called 'legal' existence as an or*
    ization The significance of the following paragraphs is obvious

    A truly revolutionary (i. e. Communist) party can never be 'legal'
    he sense of having its purpose harmonize with the purpose of the laws man
    by the capitalist state, or its acts conform with the intent of capitalist 1 J
    Hence, to call a Communist party 'legal' means that its existence is toleral
    by the capitalist state because of circumstances which embarrass the ca
    taint States efforts to suppress it. The revolutionary party can avoid su
    pression into a completely secret existence only by one or both of two means,
    a- By taking advantage of the pretenses of 'democratic forms' which J
    capitalistic state is obliged to maintain. By this means the Communil
    can maintain themselves in the open with a restricted program while estabJ
    lismng themselves with mass support.

    "b. (Later stage) By commanding such mass support among side masal
    or workers that enable them to proclaim publicly their final object in th]
    revolutionary struggle and manoeuvre openly to attain this object regardleJ
    oi the desire of the capitalist state to suppress it. It is necessary at tlJ
    present time (and circumstances make it the most urgent immediate need!
    to resort to the first of the before-mentioned methods of open contact witfl
    the working masses; which means to maintain an open political party wltH
    a modified name and a restricted program."
    The thesis continues:

    "A legal political party with such restrictions cannot replace the Co J
    munist party. It must also serve as an instrument, in the complete control J
    the Communist party, for getting public contact with the masses. It mini
    mobilize the elements of the workers most sympathetic to the Communis!
    cause, with a program going as far toward the Communist program as pol
    Bible while maintaining a legal existence. It must, with a course of actio.,
    m daily participation in the workers' struggle, apply Communist tactics and
    principles, and thus win the trust of the masses, and prepare them for the
    leadership of the Communist party."
    Again it is declared that:

    "The overthrow of the capitalist system can only come through thl
    overthrow of the capitalist state." |

    "To accept this view is to accept the certainty that the capitalist statj
    will rind itself m violent conflict with the masses led by the Communis!
    party. While the capitalist state retains the governmental machinery and
    as the struggle grows sharper in approaching the final struggle, the capitalist
    state will inevitably strike again and again at the revolutionary party in thT
    effort to destroy it. After the Communist party shall have established itsefl
    in the open, it must be prepared for and must expect to be driven out of &
    legal existence from time to time. The Communist party must at all time?

    [34]

    THE RAID AT BRIDGMAN

    I. 10 organized that such attacks cannot destroy it. It must perform its
    I iiik lions of leadership in the class struggle no matter what tactics the ruling
    i n miopia — open as far as possible, secretly as far as it must."

    I or this reason, it argues, the underground machinery of the Communist
    i.i.iy, that is, the illegal machinery, is not merely a temporary device, but
    | for permanent use.

    "There is never a time," it states, "previous to the final overthrow of
    ii,. i npitalist state, when a truly revolutionary party does not have to per-
    I mi ii i ii considerable amount of work free from police knowledge and inter-
    It M'linv The Communist party will never cease to maintain its underground

    Iiini'iy until after the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat

    tit llin Form of the Workers' Soviet Republic,"

    I I in held to be necessary for all members of the legal party to become
    iiipmlmrs of the Number One, or illegal part of the party, and it is impressed

    ii| all members of the Number One to be supporters of the legal political

    |ni 1 1 v. Then the thesis urges activity in the work of Communist party cau-
    ■ ii ili the class-consciousness and revolutionary white workers”; higher wages

    Hiiil lower rents. The entire program is intended to incite the negroes to

    mm by violence the ends specified.

    The work of The World War Veterans was also highly commended by

    I iivrHl.one, who presented to the convention the constitution and by-laws of

    If iti organization and a declaration of principles which has many revolution-

    im fixtures. It declares its unalterable opposition to any form of compul-

    [ |Ht v military training, and to “any interference, official or unofficial, with any

    lljilil secured by us by the first amendment to the Federal Constitution.”

    Ii iiIho expresses sympathy with and states that the organization shares the

    Ignitions of “the people of India, Egypt, Ireland and Russia.”

    The split in the Communist party of America in December, 1921, when
    iiu . members of the Central Executive Committee broke away from the

    [353

    REDS IN AMERICA

    majority members and continued publishing their illegal paper under tl

    h^?th° W -,- 0r f’T^ E ach , faCti0n Sent ^P^^ntatives to Moscow, an,
    the authentic there decided in favor of the majority, ordering the minorit
    fact,on to return at once to the fold and the majority faction to receive theS
    fZ,°M prejudlc ^ T1 f s iV xpknation of the Allowing messages receive,
    from Moscow and read to the convention. The first, a cablegram reads-

    Tit; l h l CabIegram Wa9 ig™* ” Biock an <* Company" and apparently 1
    Iates to business matters "Block and Company" are Comrades Jake CaL
    dnd Kittleman, agents for the majority faction sent to Moscow. Thev
    course, are the "salesmen." The "board of directors" is the earning
    governing body of the Communist Third International, and the "stockholdf
    meeting is the convention at Bridgman. If it had been postponed the m
    np^rt h * ve . taken P Ia <*- The second message was a radiogram, also a
    parently a business message, which reads-

    " HENRY CURTI $ T)OW COMPANY INSTRUCTED OUIT
    n$£ UR FIRM NAME AND TRADEMARK STOP THEY MUST
    ?w™l^RJF 0IN 0UR COMPANY IMMEDIATELY OR
    LOSE THEIR STOCK STOP JOHN IS WIRING THEM TO OUIT
    COMPETING AND ATTACKING OUR BUSINESS , STOPYOV
    MUST ACCEPT THEM WITHOUT PREJUDICE 'AND plsl

    nCIPA?^ 010 ^ C0NFERENCE S0 THEY CAN PM^

    who seceded from the Central Executive Committee; the "firm name au(
    rademark are the Communist organ. "John" is John J. Ballam of Wii
    throp, Mass., who was sent by the minority leaders

    Comrade Lovestone then read from the "news letter"* sent out from tl
    party headquarters with instructions to "rush to every group" the inform*
    Jon that Comrade Cook member of the Presidium of the Comintern anl
    the Presidium of the Red Trade Union International, has been ordered t
    return home (from Moscow) immediately, with full instructions from th
    Communist International," and urging all districts to hold themselves
    readiness to call hurried meetings to hear the instructions. He says in thli
    news letter that the Central Executive Committee, by a vote of five to five
    had decided not to postpone the Bridgman Convention in spite of mstruo
    I to. do so. This was doubtless because of the preparations aires*
    made for holding the meetings and the difficulties of disseminating the new!
    ot the postponement without letting the secret be known

    The imperative need of a "united front" of the workers was also pr iIm coming elections and carry on its campaigns independently.”

    In referring to the platform, he says: “The platform must raise as the
    of the campaign immediate questions of the class struggle such as

    ployment relief, the open shop, the use of the injunction against the

    is, opposition to industrial courts, etc.” He also says that special per-
    ■ n may be secured from the Central Executive Committee to place a
    Hiilidate on the ticket of an existing working class political organization if
    impossible to launch an independent ticket.

    Am exhaustive report of the activities of the party, especially in rela-
    < n to the organization itself, followed. This report bitterly assailed the

    ily trouble-makers, and precipitated a scorching debate, but docu-

    lound by the authorities show that this trouble was settled by the resig-
    ho1m.ii of the three trouble-makers and the election of Robert Minor, A*
    l\ .1, < nkiircht nud E. Browder in their places. This was in obedience to the

    Idle from Moscow, and resulted in the unification of the party in Amer-

    I his settlement of factional fighting within the party was followed by

    nance of a "special bulletin," one copy to be sent to each group in

    ■ country, with the injunction to "read this carefully: study each point

    llimmighly; and then make sure this is put into action." The bulletin deals

    Willi the relations of the members in legal and illegal work of the party, and

    '■'■►■ that the organization is enlarging its scope of work, and that new respon-

    i 1 1 it ics are imposed on each member. The features of the conspiracy laid

    limr in this document, with the injunction of secrecy are foreign in nature

    ili< American mind, but are a part and parcel of the communist work.

    *'A11 members of the Number One," says the bulletin, "must join the

    I nr Two, and activities of the latter are to be broadened as extensively

    « |ion.iible. We have no room for anyone who does not participate whole-

    |ti iitrdly. Number One must be strengthened by all possible means. No

    [37]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    hquidators will be tolerated and all rights must be watched. Every menti
    'a °l Nu ™ h ™ 0ne must 3ubmit to an iron discipline in both Number Oil
    and Number Two. If anyone is called upon to do a certain task, lie 1

    she must carry it out unflinchingly

    "All addresses of connections of Number One must be kept in code, and
    all incriminating material is to be kept absolutely safe; if possible out!
    side of the place where you live. All records of Number One must be kepi
    saiely and the identity of the members of Number One working in officd
    or upon committees or in units of Number Two, as well as their relation^

    lo Number One must not be exposed All groups are to havd

    alternate captains. All branches are to have alternate branch organizers. . .
    We must endeavor to have a majority of our members on all impor.
    tant committees, and all our members to £11 the offices of Number Two
    Use nothing but the Real Names in Number Two. Get used to speaking in]
    terms that will not in any way reveal connections with Number One, W
    not discuss any of the specific affairs of Number One in meetings of Number

    Under the head of Industrial Activities the bulletin says:
    "The proper conduct of this line .of activities is dependent upon tin
    alertness and understanding of our forces, and must be controlled al
    guided by Number One— the same principle applies here as was laid down]
    bet ore, that all decisions as to policies and fundamental principles, as welH
    as tactics, are to be decided upon by Number One before being carried ouJ
    m Number Two. We must organize nuclei of members of Number Two!
    and work as a unit within these nuclei, and become a live factor in all thl
    activities; but at all times keep our forces intact. 'We must endeavor, J
    create eft wing militant groups within the labor organizations in which wol
    must also become the leading factor." ■ l

    The end of this illegal, secret, mysterious convention came suddenly!
    On the afternoon of August 20, William Z, Foster saw on the grounds a maf
    whom he recognized as a Government official. Within a half hour he wal
    on his way to the railroad station at Bridgman with several of the othej
    delegates. He did not warn his comrades but promised to send more watched
    trom Chicago. The next day the watchers in the town of Bridgman reportef
    the presence of Chicago detectives arriving in town. In view of these facj
    the presidium decided to end the convention that day and so notified Comr j
    Caleb Harrison, who was presiding. The Presidium called a special meet]
    lor the final proceedings which were rushed through with machine-like snee
    It was then night, and no raid had come, but the delegates were warned
    their danger, the grounds committee advised everyone to leave and thi
    records, private papers, etc., were buried in the hole already prepared fo
    such an emergency. But there was no train they could take from Br idem*
    before morning so many of the delegates decided to stay in the grove Dur
    ing the night several made their way carefully out of danger, and' in thl
    morning the officers gathered in those who were left.

    138]

    CHAPTER TWO

    In Political Fields

    1'iiHting political parties in the United States are more loosely organized

    vm before in their history. There is little party discipline and political

    initrmess which involves deliberate consideration of party principles is

    « ■iii-iit or at a low ebb. Therefore, political contests resolve themselves

    i i "rial contests, and the tendency is towards a government of men

    i 1 1 mil government of laws. Many causes have contributed to bring

    I iIiIh state of affairs but there has been no more potent one than that of

    | iifiiinunist-radical movement itself. The objective is best illustrated

    1 ilt present political situation in England, where party lines are more or

    unpletely obliterated and there has risen a workers' party, controlled by

    i" ily organized minority, with Moscow always in the background giving

    i <iil and financial assistance. In other words, the realignment has

    li ilong class lines. In the development

  3. i ” linn 4 the name by which the movement should be designated, and that
    I I’f.if is itself built up on class lines, is not an accident but the best
    ire of design.

    Until that time has arrived when a workers’ or labor party has been

    i mli up with sufficient strength to carry elections under its own name, the

    1 1 ilisappearance of the Tegular party lines may be expected* It is a

    inn which presents very little natural opposition to those who would

    I he machinery of party government for subversive purposes. In fact,

    [39]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    it favors the entrance of radicals into the political field through regularly]
    established channels. The radicals have a positive program as opposed to
    those more conservative who either have no program or one that is manj|
    or less neutral. They have a positive advantage which is difficult to over*.
    come, and all of which is quite in harmony with recognized psychological]
    laws.

    When a radical, having received the approval of the Republican on
    Democratic party machinery* is presented to the electorate, the citizen must
    vote in the last analysis for or against the Flag which in times past has stood ‘
    for certain definite principles. There is no middle ground. The choice ili
    usually made with no such thought in mind, for to make it a conscious thought,
    there would be required a knowledge of men and events, a grasp of the]
    principles and science of government and the use of careful analytical power!]
    such as few possess. Consequently, mere inaptitude for political thought]
    which is a common characteristic, favors the election of the more dramatio]
    figure or that one which has a positive program no matter how fantastic or ]
    opposed to sound principles that program may be.

    The Communist party of America has presented candidates for office]
    many times to different electorates, under the legal emblem of the open polit-1
    ical organization known as the Workers’ party. In the raid upon the illegal!
    convention at Bridgman, William F. Dunne who at that very time was a candUl
    date of the Workers’ party for the governorship of New York State, wail
    arrested. He was a member of the Central Executive Committee of the]
    Communist party of America, and by virtue of such membership, he was!
    one of ten who controlled the Communist movement in this country under!
    direct orders from the Executive Committee of the Third International aJ
    Moscow. He is still (1924) a member of the Executive Committee of the!
    Workers’ party. It is not at all likely that Dunne could ever be elected all
    governor of New York on any ticket. The Communist party of Americal
    does not number more than 30,000 persons throughout the whole of thai
    United States, and a majority or more are aliens not naturalized. To hopel
    that as a party with this numerical strength the Communists could carry!
    an election is fatuitous even to them. The danger does not lie in this direc-
    tion. A proper conception of the strength of the Communist party in thf
    political field can be attained only by recognizing the fact that a large numbej
    of people and their political leaders are believers in political and economic
    projects which are a part of the Communist party program, developed bi
    the Third International at Moscow but which in detail are not recognizee
    by them as a part of a definite and inclusive program. It is not permfssibh
    to call such persons “Communists ” no matter how closely their ideals ap
    proximate those of the Communist party. One may include them within th<
    definition of the word "radical'' but that word in reality means little. Th<
    meaning of "progressive" has been utterly perverted, and its use to cove]
    a socialistic-communistic political movement can best be expressed "by
    shorter and uglier word" familiar to evervbodv.

    tar to everybody.

    I In- objective of the Communist party is political and economic control
    | till oountry through manipulation of an uneducated minority, using the
    |l « ol communism as a means to an end. Those who are cleverly directing
    I policies are certainly aware of the fact that all history shows the futility

    1 ■ unism as a political system, and this raises immediately the ques-

    m to their sincerity. But in the accomplishment of this objective, the
    i ii ate quite ready to use many things and people at this time which,
    'in | Jans develop, would be of little or no use to them later. To the

    ihmhEs, present usefulness of a project might depend on many factors

    '» mi the simple tendency to upset established customs or institutions,

    I possibilities or value for agitation or the promotion of unrest,

    i iu'c ii iid crime, the breaking down of family life, or the decrease of the

    11 iniive influence of religion. All or any would contribute to a state

    I IIiik or an instability of which world revolutionaries would take full

    1 "''. The time for radical change in anything is not now.

    Therefore, the political influence of the Communist party extends far

    PI I lite confines of its own membership, permeating the minds and con-

    I I In.;; the thought of large numbers who would violently resent the impli-

    that they were Communists. The subversiveness of the Communist

    does not lie so much in the violence which it threatens but in the
    inlion of ideals and ideas which are undermining our representative
    h|miUm,uj form of government. When these facts are taken into considera-
    ble .strength of the Communist party in political fields immediately

    ;i tremendous aspect. Under our present definition of the word

    lllillnil" we are justified in regarding radicals as conscious or unconscious
    l ill' the Communist party, helping in the cause of world revolution,
    ) – 1. Imm", aside the question as to the willingness with which the tools might
    i i ' inrh a designation.

    The warning has gone forth from the headquarters of both major

    il parties that there is danger of radicalism in their respective ranks.

    II" winning was entirely justified. The voter has no protection against

    | luniiiuation of personages on political tickets whose ideals do not

    with those who were the founders of the Republic. Insinuations

    l i Inn sort* operating through the formation of nuclei, are not confined

    llin political field. Agents are planted in labor unions, social and

    pldly circles, and in eleemosynary organizations for the purpose of

    Iii'illy securing the adhesion of dissatisfied individuals and factions

    | i In- support of the Communist cause or at least to secure the non-

    Hjtjnifiilion of the more conservative. This is done concisely and with de-

    n part of a plan. Again, in the field of politics, some candidates

    1 i iiIIht running on "regular" tickets have the direct and secret support of

    1 •miiiunist party and its friends* the backing of whom results from

    promises. Other candidates, however, be it said to their credit,

    I ni|narely for honest Americanism and against the cohorts under the

    1 i I. umcr which would destroy the American Government, home and
    i Ii

    [40]

    [41]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    In formulating a judgment as to the activities of the Conference foj
    Progressive Political Action, due regard must be paid to ail that has beeri
    presented above. As an organization, it has chosen to assume a nairJ
    which misrepresents its political objective. It has made the gesture ol
    refusing to seat delegates from the Workers' party which is the legal brancfl
    of the illegal Communist party. Its political program parallels that laicffl
    down by the. Moscow overlords in the "next tasks of the Communi&t party
    of America" (Appendix F), and carried to its logical conclusion, woulcl
    lead to "workers' control." The program, therefore, is simply a means to
    an end. Even the Executive Committee of the Third International at
    Moscow, has no word of criticism for the Conference for Progressiva
    Political Action, for in discussing this organization in its thesis ol
    the "Workers' party on the United Front" (Appendix E), it says in effects
    that in the field of general politics now covered by the Conference, the!
    methods used are not applicable in the field of labor. From a technicaH
    standpoint it may not be possible to designate the Conference fori
    Progressive Political Action as an important "front" for the Communist
    party, or to place it along with the Friends of Soviet Russia as an openi
    legal branch of the Communist party of America. As a matter of fact, thin
    "Conference" is doing exactly the work which the Communist leaders jiI
    Moscow have evidently allocated to it, whether the personnel of tin*
    "Conference" is aware of that fact or not.

    To call it a socialist organization as opposed to communist is specious,
    for in a thesis on tactics adopted by the Third International, the Moscow!
    group rightly say: "the realization of socialism is the first step towards thfl
    communist commonwealth."

    Following is something of the history and personnel of the Conference!
    for Progressive Political Action, which has succeeded in attracting tho
    adherence of a part of the following of the late Theodore Roosevelt.

    Townley and the Non-Partisan League, having stolen the machiner*
    of the Republican party in North Dakota, were finally driven from poweji
    through operations of the recall. In July 1921, Non-Partisan leaders left J
    over from this defeat and Socialist party leaders of the more radical types,
    met in Detroit and passed the following resolution:

    "Be it Resolved; That the incoming national executive committee be in- I

    strutted to make a careful survey of all radical and labor organizations in J

    this country with a view of ascertaining their strength, disposition and J

    readiness to cooperate with the socialist movement on a platform not incon- J
    sigtent with that of the party."

    "This survey was made and it was found, as every one knows, th.
    there was a vast amount of unrest, distrust, ill feeling and class consciott.
    ness; that the farmers were disgruntled at the fall in prices; that the work
    men were sore at the cut in wages; that the consumer was of the helid
    that somewhere along the line he was not getting a square deal; that busL
    ness was in a bad way; that the persistent use of the term profiteer had
    caused the people to believe every business man dishonest and unfair; thai
    the railroads, after being returned to their owners, were having a hard
    struggle to function properly; that money was tight, etc. In other wordd

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    r

    d

    Ihl | n<l the very foundation upon which they hoped to lay their cam-

    : ■ for political control most favorable. The only question was how

    U | iced to gain that political control." 1

    Committee meetings were held in November, 1921, and it was agreed
    |h .1 -my conference of all radicals called by the socialist party would fail

    f lti purpose. In consequence the call was not issued at the instigation of
    | lilt* <l leaders of some labor organizations, which had been drafted into

    1 – lent socialist scheme to nationalize the railroads of the United States,
    lllti h i the name of the Plumb Plan, The actual call was Jieaded by William

    ■ liiMiuii of the International Machinists' Union, the leading union in the

    1 railroad strike and bore the name of LaFollette's organization, the
    ij|i]m'h Legislative Service of Washington; of which Johnston is secre-
    ii.»\ mid treasurer. Johnston is a socialist and an ardent advocate of the
    nl Kussian form of government."

    1 1 i« obvious that, to be effective, the interest of the radical farmer
    III i Im aroused. To this end, it was no accident that Ben Marsh working
    • ■ H l< I'd wnley from the latter's headquarters in Washington on the day
    1 1 mi fohnston sent out his call for delegates from all radical movements to
    <"<' in Chicago, Feb. 20 and 21, 1922, sent out a call to the known rad-
    ImI dinner movements to have delegates meet in Chicago on Saturday,
    ' linmry 18, 1922.

    Doth conferences met according to plan. Townley with his Non-Partisan

    Inline, the LaFolIette organization of farmers in Wisconsin, Marsh's organ-

    I hni known as the Farmers' National Council, and a few radical Granges

    ■ I ((Miners' union, had delegates present. Marsh and Townley dominated
    1 mwting. "They proceeded with the usual socialist harangue of damn-

    nipilafism, and charged all defects in farming from short crops to

    r "I nippers to Wall Street. The socialist scheme of stealing party organ-

    Ituim was endorsed. The name adopted for the amalgamation of all

    lllluil farmer movements was The United Farmers National Bloc. A

    lliMiiniiiced radical was made president, and the present vice-president of

    Non-Partisan League made vice-president. Then the delegates to this

    • -nl ion in body moved over Monday, to the radical convention called

    |f Jdliimton, in keeping with the socialist resolution to which reference has

    ■ i iniide. 2

    "In this Monday convention, February 20, 1922, were to be found dele-

    JUlnn from every radical movement in the United States, and while the

    MTipnper reports said the L W. W. and the Communist were excluded, yet

    wmiM appear from later articles in the New York Call, the leading

    Socialist paper in this country, that they were not excluded, but were

    ■ HE.

    "Here again the system employed in the alleged farmers' meeting was

    fcil. Fiery speeches were made by radicals of all kinds. Capitalism

    *«i W.imcd for all human ills. Soviet Russia was lauded. The man who

    [423

    il It. Marvin, "My Country, 'tis of Thee'
    vln— vide supra.

    [43]

    (Beckwith) p. 8.

    REDS IN AMERICA

    The Red Napoleon

    pays the wages was condemned as tyrannical. The plan of the socialists
    to unite under one common head all Tadical movements in the land was
    approved. But no party name was adopted since it was not proposed toj
    act as a party, but rather to adopt the Townley scheme of 'stealing* partyfl
    names through going into the primaries of one of the old parties — the plan
    bo successfully employed in North Dakota and Wisconsin. The names
    'radical,' 'socialist,' 'labor/ 'farmer,' 'industrial,' etc., which had been!
    used in the past were dropped, and there emerged an organization!
    known as The Conference for Progressive Political Action/ to he directed]
    until the next convention to be held after election this fall, by a committee
    of fifteen.

    "This conference agreed that in the States which were to be attacked
    through this system of stealing party names, local conditions should govern!
    action — that is, in one State it might be the Democratic party, in another it
    might be the Republican party; in one State it might operate under the namaj
    of The People's Reconstruction League* and in another under some other]
    name, or it might operate without any accepted name—just work to 'steal 1 !
    one of the party names."

    'This is the organization that J3, today, directing socialist and radical
    activities in a large number of states, including Colorado. The dropping]
    of every name employed in the past and adopting the term progressive, iaj
    deceiving a large number of loyal persons. * * »

    "That the movement is of radical origin and not for the good of tho
    people, the State or the nation, is clear. First, referring back to the reso-
    lution adopted by the socialist convention upon which resolution the call for!
    the conference that formed the Conference for Progressive Action was
    based — and remember a similar call in 1907 by the same elements resulted
    in the formation of the I, W. W. Further, from the time of the issuance <-l'
    this call socialist and radical papers had much to say of the good that wouldj
    result. Johnston was lauded in the socialist papers for his action and thd
    purpose was unanimously endorsed. For several weeks preceding the con«l
    vention, the New York Call, at that time the leading socialist paper in thai
    country, contained much laudatory comment of the proposed gathering.'!

    At that time the confederation known as the Conference for Progressive
    Political Action consisted of the following organizations:

    1. The "Big Four" Railroad Brotherhoods,

    2. Railroad crafts which are a part of the American Federation of
    Labor and which include the United Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way
    Employees and Railway Shop Laborers, the International Association of
    Machinists, the International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths and Helpers, the
    Sheet Metal Workers, the Brotherhood of Railway Electrical 'Workers, the
    Brotherhood of Railway Car Men, the International Brotherhood of Boiler-
    makers, the Order of Railroad Telegraphers, the Brotherhood of Railway
    Clerks, the International Brotherhood of Stationary Firemen and Oilers, and
    the Brotherhood of Railroad Signal Men.

    3. The United Mine Workers, affiliated with the American Federation
    of Labor,

    4. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, an open, legal branch of the
    Communist party.

    Joseph Pogany, known in the
    Hungarian Communist party 'as
    Schwartz, his alias in the United
    States being John Pepper and his
    American party name, Joseph Lang-,
    Is the representative of the Third
    (Communist) International of Mos-
    cow on the Executive Committee
    of the Communist party of Amer-
    ica. He was present at the illegal
    convention of the Communist party
    tit Brifigman, Mich., but succeeded
    in escaping: capture. A check for
    $25.00 signed by Bishop William
    M, Brown of Gallon, Ohio (Epis-
    copal ) made payable to "Joseph
    Lang-" and similarly endorsed was
    found on the grounds after the
    raid.

    Pogany was originally an Hun-
    garian journalist, and has a long
    career in promoting: world revolu-
    tion to his credit. The loll owing
    has been written of him by an
    eye witness- "He is still suspected
    of having been the ringleader of
    the gang which murdered Count
    Stephen Tisza ; he was responsible
    for the agitation which, daring the
    Karolyi regime, made the reorgan-
    ization of the army impossible; and
    it was he who led the demonstra-
    tion against the "War Ministers,

    |iy»tetich and Earta, which ended in the resignation at those 'last shadows of

    I. hi regime. 1 It was Pogany who protested against the proposed preventive

    …,! against the Communists in February and March, 1919; and it was he who

    ||n 'naval' detachment when it liberated Eela Kun-Cohen from his confinement

    I barracks of the First Honved Regiment in UU51-ut, and who later on, after

    I Contl-utca, helped to prepare the way, both actively and passively, for

    il 'triumph' of March 21. His share in the work of demoralizing the army
    i< I him for the post which he obtained, that of Commissar for War."

    !,-r Bela Kun- Cohen's regime, Pogany in the space of four short months

    in '.Tssively Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Commander-in-chief of the Red

    i mid Commissar of Education. He was known to be heartily in sympathy with

    ■ – – ■ i or terror as instituted and maintained by Szamuelly and his army of

    uiVS."

    I 'in' Ing this period,, there was an enforced production of Pogany' s play

    i " in Budapest. This with his ponderous physiognomy and nimble mentality

    hi tin il lor him the sobriquet of the H 'Red Napoleon" or the "Bolshevik Napoleon."
    I n Hungary was finally liberated from alien rule, Pogany escaped to Russia and
    in. Hi in Kun-Cohen presumably remained there for the following two years.

    l»OBfi.ny-Schwartz- Pepper-Lang was known to have arrived in America a few

    • hi. before the Bridgman Convention, with orders from, Moscow for American

    ^Blinlftts and with instructions to take charge of the revolutionary forces in this

    I. How he entered is not known, and for that reason his presence here is

    i in alien revolutionary. His first appearance was at a meeting', of a radical

    klcli I'Yderatioii in the Bronx from which there was a hasty exit. It appears

    1 lin 'Intf this secret meeting, a blundering policeman entered the hallway of the

    I n mid began to ask innocent questions. The Janitor, knowing what was going

    tfiiv<< the alarm and those present disappeared down the Are escapes to meet

    in another place. . After the Bridgman raid Pogany disappeared, but was

    iwii in be. in correspondence with Communists as late as December, 1923, when

    -■ variously stated, that he was in Canada with Bel a Kun-Cohen or in Chicago.

    i ■ :iny speaks Hungarian, German and Russian but no English. His articles

    I llir romnumist party publications are forceful and it has been said that when

    »iii«'ii, Li. is with an authority and knowledge of the technique of revolution and

    .. i-yti single to future events that is not equaled. A critical examination of

    i rni'y work gives plain evidence that it is usually deleted of its more radical

    ^HM lu avoid conflict with the authorities

    [44]

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    5. The Non-Partisan League, composed largely of farmers in the North-
    western States, which has received the sympathetic endorsement of the
    < unununist party of America.

    6. The Farmers' National Council.

    7. The Farm Labor party, later merging into the Federated Farm-Labor
    puty,

    8. Women's Trade Union League.

    Of the original National Committee of the Conference for Progressive

    1 J'l Action, William H. Johnston was the chairman and Warren S,

    i lie treasurer. Some of the personal histories and connections of the
    I iiMiinittee are here given: 1

    William H. Johnston. Washington ; president. International Association
    ■ ■I Machinists; lecturer, Rand School of Social Science; National Advisory
    Committee, National Labor Alliance for Trade Relations with and Recog-
    liiiinii of Russia; National Council, League for Industrial Democracy;
    •ii'cretary-treasurer and member of the Executive Committee of LaFollette
    People's Legislative Service; vice-president, People's Reconstruction League;
    Board of Directors, Labor Publication Society; Executive Committee Amer-
    itiLii Civil Liberties Union. Has been accused of saying that he "sees
    great advantage in the establishment of a soviet government in the United
    Mates."

    Warren S. Stone, grand chief, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers;
    mniiber of the National Council, People's Legislative Service; member of
    Committee on Primaries of same organization; organizer of Labor Banks
    hi Cleveland and New York, As grand chief of the Brotherhood, he is
    roiponsible for the political activities of its official journal and its ultra-
    rmtical editor, Albert F. Coyle.

    William Green, Indianapolis; secretary, United Mine Workers of
    America.

    Sidney Hillman, New York; president of the Amalgamated Clothing
    Workers; has visited Soviet Russia and obtained concessions for the re-
    . ii;i]iEishment of the clothing industry in that country, capitalizing this by
    Moiling stock to workers in this country; Defence Committee I. W, W. The

    A mnlgiimated has been shown to be an open, legal branch of the Communist
    imrty of America. Of the documents seized at Bridgman, there was a report
    In Moscow of the work of organizing nuclei in trades unions by the Com-
    munists in which it was stated: "At best the prospects of our influencing
    ilir Ittbor movement (in the United States) are mainly in the predominantly
    fewish organizations like the International Ladies' Garment Workers,
    Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers, etc."
    p. 136.)
    Joseph A. Franklin, Kansas City, Kansas; president, International
    Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders and Helpers of America;
    member, National Council, People's Legislative Service; member, Execu-
    tive Committee, People's Reconstructive Service.

    E. J. Manion, St. Louis, Mo. ; president, Order of Railroad Telegraph-
    chairman, Nominations Committee, Conference for Progressive Po-
    lllical Action; member, National Council, People's Legislative Service.

    Edward Keating, Washington, D. C; editor, Labor, official organ of
    tin- Conference for Progressive Political Action; former member of Congress
    lmm Colorado. Of Labor, it has been said: "It is one of the most radical
    mid untruthful publications published. Its advocacy of violence is persist-
    rut. There is nothing too scurrilous and even defamatory for it to print
    regarding public officials and even the President of the United States. Its
    untruthful campaign against the Supreme Court could not be equalled even

    llMllway Review (Chicago), January 27, 1923.

    [45]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    if openly presented by the Communist International and its well trained
    corps of propagandists. Indeed, the language appearing in Labor and in
    foreign Communist papers, impels one to believe the writing is that of one
    and tile same person." * Keating was formerly Plumb Plan manager.

    Morris Hillquit (Misca Hilkowitz), New York; national secretary,
    Socialist party of America; joint publisher of the New York Call, Socialist
    and pro-Soviet daily paper, now defunct; instructor and lecturer, Rand
    School of Social Science; national council, League for Industrial Democ-
    racy; National Committee, American Civil Liberties Union; one of the
    original founders of the Intercollegiate Socialist League ; contributing editor,
    Labor Age; chairman, Committee on Organization and Finance, Conference
    for Progressive Political Action. (Vide also Lusk Committee Report.)

    Benjamin C- Marsh, Washington, D. C; managing director, Farmers 1,
    National Council; managing director, People's Reconstruction League;
    publicity representative. Plumb Plan League; advocate of Single Tax, and
    nationalization of public utilities.

    Jay G. Brown, Chicago; national secretary, Farm-Labor party; formerly
    secretary of the National Committee for Organizing Iron and Steel Workers,
    a position once held by William Z. Foster. He was also a former I.W.W.
    organizer and was a director in Foster's Trade Union Educational Leaguej
    a branch of the Communist party of America; Friends of Soviet Russia,
    legal branch of the Communist party of America.

    George H, Griffiths, Minneapolis; National Non-Partisan League.

    Fred C. Howe, New York City; National Committee, American Civil
    Liberties Union; special writer, Federated Press; Board of Directors, Co-
    operative League of America; former Commissioner of" Immigration (under
    President Wilson) at the port of New York, "a position from which he
    resigned following a congressional investigation into his alleged neglect of
    duty and radical activities because of his unauthorized action in releasing
    alien radicals held for deportation by the Department of Justice (Congres-
    sional Record of 66th Congress, pages 1522, 1523) ;" chairman, Committee
    on resolutions and member of National Council, People's Legislative Ser-
    vice; contributing editor, Labor Age; Defense Committee, I. W. W.; organ-
    izer, School of Thought, Siasconset, Nantucket, Mass.

    Miss Agnes Nestor, Chicago, Women*a Trade Union. League, an organ-
    ization which is regarded by the Communist party of America as a part of
    its united open front against capitalism; assistant director, Bryn Mawr
    Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, Bryn Mawr College;
    Advisory Committee, Workers' Education Bureau of America. Among her
    other radical activities during the past twenty or more years, Miss Nestor
    with Mrs. Raymond Robins organized an agitative parade in Chicago-*
    designed to stimulate public interest in the release of Big Bill Hayward,
    on trial for murder. The Chicago Tribune at the time called it an "anar-
    chist parade."

    Basil M. Manly, Washington^ D. C; for many years a radical lobbyist;
    director, People's Legislative Service; author of publications distributed
    by the Rand School of Social Science; contributing editor, Labor Age, a
    weekly radical paper which is the successor of the Socialist Review, official
    organ of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society; former member of the War
    Labor Board and of the National Industrial Conference Board under Pres-
    ident Taft; Defense Committee, I. W. W.

    The above list comprises the names of those who directed the destiniel
    of the Conference for Progressive Political Action as originally made upj
    There have been some resignations among those who regard themselves]

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    1 The "Searchlight Department'
    Fred Marvin, January 4, 1924,

    editorial page of the "New York Commercial'

    [46]

    inng the more conservative, and the following ones have been added:

    D. B. Robertson, Ohio; president, Brotherhood Locomotive Firemen
    j ■ i*<l Enginemen; member Committee on Resolutions, People's Legislative
    Sendee.

    James H. Maurer, Harrisburg, Pa.; president, Pennsylvania State Feder-
    ntton of Labor; president, Labor Publication Society of Chicago, publisher
    <if Labor Age; member, National Executive Committee, Socialist party,
    IU21-1922; chairman, Workers' Education Bureau of America; member,
    Njitional Advisory Committee, National Labor Alliance for Trade Relations
    with and Recognition of Russia; lecturer, Rand School of Social Science;
    member. National Committee, American Civil Liberties Union; member,
    (alternate) Board of Directors, Co-operative League of America.

    Benjamin Schlessinger, New York ; president, International Ladies'
    Garment Workers of America, subsidiary to the Amalgamated Clothing
    Workers, open, legal branch of the Communist party of America.
    H. F. Samuels, Idaho; farmer and merchant.

    D. C- Dorman, Montana; farmer; member, National Council, People's
    Legislative Service; member, Executive Committee, People's Reconstruc-
    tion League; national manager, Non-Partisan League; secretary -treasurer
    of the Montana State organization of the C. P. P. A. "Dorman swore that
    lit- did not believe in the Constitution and was opposed to the Flag of the
    United States; that the Flag was nothing but a rag, or words to that effect,
    ntid that the Government was no Government at all and should be des-
    n lived." Affidavit of Judge L. J. Palda, case of Ray McKaig vs. Frank
    Gooding, New York Commercial, Oct. 20, 1923.

    J. B. Laughlin, Boxchito, Okla.; president, Oklahoma Farm Labor
    1 In ion of America.

    Alice Lorraine Daly, South Dakota; Non-Partisan League.
    John M. Baer, Washington, D. C; former member of Congress from
    North Dakota; cartoonist for Labor and other radical publications; member
    National Council, People's Legislative Service.

    [ere, then, is a group of people, some of whom are known Communists

    ml if not in fact, others having direct connection with the Communist

    nf America both through personal contact and by virtue of their

    i hip m organizations, recognized as a part of the united front of the

    nw cohorts in the United States. The constituent organizations of the

    I'iriice for Progressive Action comprise a membership of about two

    i mi members, it is claimed, and it is certain that Labor, its official organ,

    ir*n readers to the number of approximately a million and a half. That

    hi II financed is shown by the fact that, as a paper, Labor costs much

    fli;m it brings in, that the Washington office employees of the Confer-

    ninnbcr more persons than are employed in the headquarters of either

    [tpublican or Democratic National Committees, and that it has just

    i ««<[ a plot of ground in Washington on which to erect a four story

    l
    organization of whatever party happens to be the strongest locally. In
    states that are Republican, because most of the voters have the Republican
    habit, this organization seeks to control Republican nominations. In statjl
    where the Democratic habit prevails, the aim is to make the nomination*
    radical* In short, the words “Republican” and “Democratic” have no
    significance to these political pirates. For instance, in counties, conserva-
    tives are satisfied with nominations for strictly local offices and give
    in trade for such support help to radical candidates for Congress and other
    legislative positions.

    The method of organization is about as follows: a county chairman
    is selected in each county, being picked because of his ability to organizo
    a spread propaganda. The choice is made by the leaders and not by tho
    local members of the organization. This chairman then selects four vice-
    chairmen, one a wage-earner, one a farmer, one an ex-service man, and ono
    a woman* If the county is strongly unionized, then the first vice-chairmaffl|
    must be a member of a labor organization that has in no wise antagonized
    the people. The ex-service man is to be a member of the Legion if pos-
    sible, and if not possible, one is picked from the Spanish-American War
    Veterans.

    The farmer vice-chairman is selected from the leading organization of
    farmers. If the Farm Bureau is the most influential, then he is select!
    from this. If he has been prominent in the dominant political party, thai
    fact is an added qualification in considering his fitness. If he has been
    prominent in the opposite, party, be can give as a reason for change tht
    fact that he has no hope for the salvation of the farmer through the action
    of the party that he is leaving. The fourth vice-president is always I
    woman, preferably some one prominent in lodge or church work with
    extensive acquaintance and organizing ability. She must be intelligent
    enough to grasp a talking acquaintance with the slogans of the Conference
    one who can make a handy speech and who because of her personality ann
    activity has a personal following.

    In the two years of its existence, the Conference for Progressive Po-
    litical Action, with frankly communistic connections and with a program
    which parallels in many respects that of the Communist party of America, !
    has succeeded in accomplishing this:

    It has crystallized the small amount of radical sentiment to be found
    in the national legislature at all times; furnished this nucleus with aid
    and comfort; given it a standing by forcing upon it a positive programt \
    disciplined it, thereby giving it advantages which are to accrue from such
    measures.

    It has backed this element in its home districts and secured reelectionSm
    added to its strength by influencing the election of other radicals ami
    brought the whole group to a point where by voting EN BLOC on certain

    falters, it exercises the functions of a majority party notwithstanding the
    Mi | that its members were elected (with two exceptions) on regular party
    i u.

    In 1922, the Conference for Progressive Political Action en-
    ihu Hi’d among others for senatorships, the following:

    McKellar of Tennessee Ralston of Indiana

    Frazier of North Dakota Swanson of Virginia

    Kendrick of Wyoming Howell of Nebraska

    In 1923, the Conference endorsed

    Dill of Washington
    Wheeler of Montana
    Ashurst of Arizona

    La Follette of Wisconsin
    Brookhart of Iowa
    Norris of Nebraska

    ^Democrats

    j

    (Republicans

    I Farm-Labor party

    Shipstead of Minnesota
    Johnson of Minnesota
    AH of the above named were elected. In addition the Confer-

    < laims to have secured the election of Gov, Sweet of Colorado

    «m.i y the servants of this oligarchy in both the dominant parties; all
    us their direct obj,ect the establishment of an absolue tyranny and
    i l ralic dictatorship within these United States. Life, liberty and hap-
    all have been sacrificed upon the altar of greed. To prove this let
    | •■ 1 ■ lie submitted to a candid world.

    “They have stifled free speech, throttled free press, and denied the sacred

    III • f assembly. They have used the Federal Reserve System, controlling

    i Mood of the nation’s credit, as an instrument to deflate and crush

    [4*3

    [49]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    farmers and independent business men and cause nation-wide unemployment,
    They have obstructed every honest effort to relieve the distress of agriculture
    thus caused and have used every influence to secure betrayal of the farmers’
    interests*

    “They have conscripted 4,000,000 men and boys while they permitted
    corporations and individuals to extort unconscionable war profits and havfl
    sacrificed the soldiers’ just demands for equitable compensation to the dil
    tates of Mellonism and the selfish interests of tax-dodging capitalists and 1
    profiteers. They have abolished the taxes upon excess profits of corpora.
    tions and have reduced the taxes upon incomes of millionaires. They have
    used the army and the troops and police forces of Stales and cities to crush
    labor in its struggles to secure rights guaranteed by the Constitution.”

    Playing directly into the hands of the Communists in agitating radical
    legislation, the Conference for Progressive Political Action puts forward
    as its platform startling proposals affecting taxation, court proceedings anfl
    Government ownership which are worthy of the efforts of the cleverly tricky
    Communists, whose method of procedure is to advance any kind of theory
    to effect changes, in the belief that the more changes made, the easier it will
    be to bring about the great change, the establishment of the Dictatorship of
    the Proletariat. Among the proposals in this remarkable platform is ono
    providing that any decision of the Supreme Court of the United States may
    be reversed by a vote of Congress. Thus, distasteful court decisions may
    be nullified as soon as the Radicals can get control of Congress — and tho
    fight for this is now being waged.

    Another provision is that all dwellings, farmhouses, farm machinery,
    farm improvements, household furniture and tangible personal property be
    exempted from State and local taxation, and that all funds he raised by
    taxes levied on incomes above a certain amount, business profits and cor

  4. Another provision is that all dwellings, farmhouses, farm machinery,
    farm improvements, household furniture and tangible personal property be
    exempted from State and local taxation, and that all funds he raised by
    taxes levied on incomes above a certain amount, business profits and cor
    porations. Unemployment and old age pensions and a Federal workmen**
    compensation insurance fund are also advocated. This would result, they
    believe, as do the Communists, in breaking up what they love to call thn
    “capitalist State.” The Plumb plan of Government ownership of railroad*
    and other public utilities i@ naturally included in the platform and tho
    Conference is now practically the only source of propaganda in this country
    for nationalizing of the railroads.

    Not satisfied with the plan to nullify decisions of the Supreme Coufl
    by vote of Congress, the platform of this group of radicals advocates Stata
    legislation providing that no act of any State Legislature shall be declared J
    unconstitutional if any one member of the Supreme Court casts his vote in]
    favor of the constitutionality of the measure. This, of course, would tend toj
    weaken the safeguard that the courts of the country give to all citizens and I
    would bring the entire judicial system of the country into disrepute, so that
    the coming of the proletarian dictatorship would be made more easy. New 1
    banking features are also advocated which would tend to concentrate tho!
    savings of workers in a way which would permit of their being used morel
    readily and in greater amounts for the provocation of unrest and other]
    unwise purposes. This is included in the proposal advanced for the organ-!

    [50]

    i “in ider government charter of cooperative banks with full banking

    ttmvtiri designed especially to enable farmers and factory workers to mobil-
    i – iln-ii- own resources.

    A provision is also advocated that laws be enacted prohibiting inter-

    ii-inc by Congress either with injunctions or in any other way with the

    hi nf labor to organize, strike, picket, boycott and otherwise “to carry on

    Mil tint rial controversy by peaceful means.” The Communists include vio-

    I in strikes as a cardinal principle, and now this alleged Conference for

    i naive Political Action seeks to restrain the Government from the use
    U| tlin only judicial means of preventing violence in labor warfare aimed at
    |ln i rovornment.

    Constitutional amendments in all States and Federal legislation are also
    lllvortilcd permitting cities and other units of Government to own and oper-
    |ll ill classes of public utilities, including markets, cold storage plants, coal
    ||)i I food supplies; and authorizing cities, counties and other units of Gov-
    • iihik ill to issue bonds to raise the money to purchase these public utilities
    i mpplies. This is just what the Communists are working for in their
    ilhf.nl political organizations as a preliminary step to the overthrow of the
    i iniicnt by force of arms.

    The next step taken by this group of radicals is to catechize every nom-
    • to Congress. A questionnaire is prepared and sent to all candidates

    gressionai election without regard to party affiliations before each

    [l . lion. A copy of this questionnaire is sent to every labor union member
    nl i very other person in sympathy with the labor union and radical move-
    1 1, with the request that the local unions and all local radical and so-
    il” I progressive organizations take the matter up in their meetings and
    lii’urf.c the congressional nominees with the questions. These questionnaires
    ■tr licuded with the peremptory demand, “Answer must be Yes or No I”
    i” ubfltnnce, they read as follows:

    1. If elected to Congress will you work and vote to repeal the Esch-
    Cummins railroad law?

    2. If elected to Congress will you work and vote against the ship sub-
    sidy and subsidies of all other special interests?

    3- Do you believe that five men on the Supreme Bench who have not
    Ih-cii elected by the people, and who cannot he rejected by the people, should
    he permitted to nullify the will of the people as expressed by their repre-
    i -unlives in Congress and the Executive in the White House?

    4. If elected, will you work and vote for a constitutional amendment
    restricting the power of the Supreme Court to nullify acts of Congress?

    5. If elected, will you work and vote against compulsory arbitration
    mid all attempts to destroy and restrict the rights of labor to organize,
    bargain collectively, and strike?

    6. Will you work and vote for a clean-cut Federal statute prohibiting
    Federal judges from issuing injunctions in industrial disputes?

    7. Will you work and vote to reinstate the taxes on excess profits and
    ui/iintain the taxes on big incomes?

    8. Will you work and vote against a sales tax on the food and neces-
    cs of the poor?

    9. Will you work and vote to reduce appropriations for the Army and
    Ntivy to a pre-war basis?

    10. Will you favor increased Federal appropriations for education?

    [511

    REDS IN AMERICA

    IN POLITICAL FIELDS

    11. Will you waik and vote for a special tax on war grafters and
    profiteers to pay the soldiers a just compensation?

    12. Will you work and vote for a law to take the profit out of war by
    manufacturing battleships, munitions and other implements of war in Gov-
    ernment plants only?

    13. Will yoq work and vote for a clean-cut corrupt practices act which
    will put an end to Newberryism?

    14. Will you work and vote for the abolition of child labor and a con-
    stitutional amendment for that purpose if necessary?

    The public exposure of the Workers 1 ‘ Party of America as a branch of
    the Communist Party resulted in the refusal of this Council to seat delegate!
    from the Workers’ Party in the Cleveland convention (1922) but the Coun-
    cil’s work is greatly favored by the Communists because of its efforts lo
    disturb the functioning of the Government.

    It is frequently difficult to link individuals and organizations with the
    actual illegal Communist machine, but it is known that many members of
    the various labor unions, as well as of the American Federation of Labor,
    are members of the Communist party. The Brotherhood of Locomotivfl
    Engineers, whose president, Warren S. Stone, is treasurer of the Conference
    for Progressive Political Action, issue from its headquarters at Cleveland,
    0., a publication called “Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers Journal,”
    of which Albert F, Coyle is “acting editor and publicity manager.” On
    July IS, 1922 f Coyle, who is a Yale man, wrote to Robert Minor, at present
    a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Communist party of
    America, a letter beginning “Dear Comrade Minor,” in which he states that
    he is trying to make the Journal “a real voice of the producing classes, in-
    terpreting to them the big social, political and economic movements ol til
    day,” and refers to a meeting with Minor at the 1920 Convention of t?w
    Intercollegiate Socialist Society.

    This is but one of many such connections that unite individuall
    prominent in labor union circles with the Communists. The principles of
    many of the union leaders, as expressed in their public and private statu*
    ments, coincide with remarkable fidelity with the principles of Communism,
    It is, indeed, no secret that the radical wing of the American Federation of^j
    Labor, led by William Z. Foster, is allied with the Communist party of]
    America and is controlled by the ”underground” or illegal organization oil
    that party. The fight between Samuel Gompers and Foster for leadership
    of the American Federation of Labor is the reason ascribed hy many for
    Gompers’ alleged conservatism— the only means hy which he could retain’]
    personal independence by combating the pronounced radicalism of Foster, j
    The latter’s Trade Union Educational League agencies through which tlin
    illegal party works is controlled absolutely by the Communists.

    Directly associated with these organizations comprising the Coiiferen<M
    for Progressive Political Action is the National Federation of Federal Em-
    ployees, which is affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and in
    which are a number of Communists. These Communists are keeping welll
    under cover and their membership in the Communist party is not known tol
    the rank and file of the Federal Employees' organization. This federation]

    [52]

    1* imnposed of various unions made up exclusively of Federal employees

    – I e members of the American Federation of Labor. It is their boast that

    omber of Gongress dares go against the wishes of the Federation if

    '• (Inn ires to hold his position in Congress.

    These unions are composed not only of postal clerks, rural letter car-
    mcl railway mail clerks, which are the best known of Federal employees*

    i, but they have organized county agents, engaged in agricultural exten-

    ■ in, nil employees in public land offices, employees in irrigation, reclama-
    ■ li forestry and like work, all those connected with Indian work, particu-
    l ii I v with Indian schools, and every other line of activity in which Govern-

    i employees are interested.

    The Federation of Federal Employees has shown its strength and influ-

    "ii more than one occasion* It is even a hit boastful of its power with

    i ■ mss and it was this boastftilness that attracted the attention of the

    i "111111110151 party and led to the "planting" of Communists in Federal

    ||i|ilny for the purpose of getting control of the organization. The Federa-
    ttitn luis successfully resisted all attempts at any reorganization of Federal
    1 mi ins that would result in the decrease of the number of employees. It

    <'<led in forcing the House of Representatives to reject a report by the

    miltee on Appropriations against the continuation of a $240 annual

    1 lo Government employees. This bonus was first allowed employees

    1 ,• the war to offset the increased cost of living. The Appropriations

    * njllee reported in 1922 in favor of a reduction of this bonus upon the

    l- ml that the cost of living was lower and there was no longer a need of

    " employees a bonus over and above their fixed salary. The American
    PNli't'iilion of Labor immediately got behind the Federation of Federal
    JtlM|ilnyces and succeeded in forcing the House to reject this attempted econ-
    V, restoring the bonus for the fiscal year and appropriating for it $36,-

    Kooo.

    Miiny bodies which appeal to "forward looking" individuals, or to

    Itlitliinlliropists, or to the sympathies of right-thinking people, are in the

    III indorsing candidates for office. Ostensibly their purpose is to aid suf-

    ii • Lo uplift the down-trodden: but in reality their work is in further-

    ul' the work of the Communist party in America. Among them are

    ini/.alions with high-sounding names like the All America National Coun-

    lliti Non-Partisan Relief Committee, the Society for Medical Aid to

    .miii, the League for Industrial Democracy, the American League to Limit

    mrtits, and the American Union Against Militarism, All the openly

    n 'ti I organizations, which sponsor such movements as "No More War

    nnd which are trying to influence congressmen and candidates for

    1 hfiir :', are directly or indirectly branches of the illegal Communist party

    heir work is being controlled, though some of them may not know it,

    ili.«M may have great influence. In one college recently some of the

    1 “it made a demonstration when a radical professor was dropped from

    bottlty. . . . Never having worked with his hands 3 nor mingled wiLh

    uniers, nor been creative or constructive in any way himself, the in-

    liuil radical sees nothing difficult in the revolutionary “program of “first

    ■ everything down and then building from the ground up, entirely

    In a Los Angeles High School one of the teachers constantly taught

    ‘ ,,( ca P ltal and took the side of labor in a definite attempt to instill in

    minds of her pupils the propriety of such hatred Finally, when she

    declared that the United States was behind Russia, Germany and

    progressive countries, one of the pupils publicly protested, because,

    | pointed out, “there is revolution or civil war in each of these coun-

    But that teacher continued for sunie lime after this incident ex-

    UlMling her theories to the youth under her charge.

    I Ik- Hpreading of propaganda in rural districts has been a subject of
    i I’v the Communists since the organization of the party. In certain
    I ..I the country where there are colonies of foreigners gathered under

    itiriistic influence radical plays are put on in school houses by amateur,

    I Ulcnt performers. Occasionally trouble arises when a patriotic

    ” leacher discovers that meetings of what had been thought to be clubs,

    Inlies for social intercourse, were in reality Communist meetings under

    illusion of the Third International through the Communist party of

    it. One such incident may be cited as an example.

    \ colony of Finns, thirty-three families in all, of whom only three

    ere American citizens, is located about twelve miles north of Deer

    Minn. The company which located this colony confined its efforts

    to Finns and made particularly attractive offers to the colonists.

    Inllm-s secured a farm for each family and subsequent payments were

    linal. The thirty non-American families are Communists and they

    k to give ai play at the rural schonlhouse for the benefit of the Friends

    IVlrl Itussia. The teacher, Mrs. G. M. Smith, learned of the nature of
    |r| ■iiiiizntion, called the Suoma Raatagen Club, under the auspices of

    [57]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    which the play was to be given. She discovered that the play was simp
    Red radical propaganda and refused to assent to the use of the schoolhoi
    for that purpose; but the Finns over-rode her by getting permission fr
    the county school superintendent, Mrs. Smith attended the entertainni”
    and forcibly prevented the giving of the Red play orUaking up a collect im.
    for t(he Friends of Soviet Russia. Singlehanded she drove them from ut
    schoolhouse when they began to shout, “We are Reds! We ‘are Bolshevik*

    The Communists are constantly grooming some of their shining stl
    for positions in the faculties of our colleges. The pay of the teachers II
    all parts of the country, both in public and private institutions, is so si
    that many able men are unable to accept positions as teachers* But in
    small salary is no deterrent to the Communist, or the radical of any strips
    who joyfully accepts places where he may elaborate his views and tea
    real radicalism to the impressionable youth in his classes. His salary is f
    quently supplemented by funds from the Communist treasury, sometitin
    camouflaged under the cloak of “contributions” as a testimonial to his i I”
    thinking as expressed in his lectures.

    The dissemination of radical, or as they term it, liberal propaganda til
    institutions of learning, particularly in universities and women’s collegfl
    has been a pet scheme of the radicals and their friends for years. There It
    hardly any university of size in the country today which does not have 1
    least a branch of the National Student Forum, or its predecessor, the Inl*t«
    collegiate Liberal League, or the League for Industrial Democracy. Thru
    are direct descendants of the Intercollegiate Socialist League which w«l
    out of existence when “Socialism” became too mild a term to satisfy
    radical tendencies of many members. The frequent changes in name
    characteristic of all organizations affiliated with the Communists, who a]
    their names and addressee in an effort to hoodwink the authorities, and f<
    the public, a proceeding in strict accord with the orders of Nicolai Lenin
    The Intercollegiate Liberal League was born at Harvard, April 2 7 1921, and
    it was a result of the activities of the Socialist and later the Liberal L
    that developed the "modern intellectuals," or as they are better known, tin
    "parlor Bolsheviki." There is so much in the teaching of radicalism
    appeals to the mental processes which invariably accompany certain pi
    in the life of every student, that it is not surprising that the Comrm^B
    party, as a business proposition, and the many inconspicuous indivulntil
    who are satisfied that they should be leaders and have no better me.
    attaining notoriety, have grasped the opportunities offered, as the Sor
    did before them. Many are really capitalists, while others are plain parasltB

    It is safe to say that no institution of learning in the country has bod
    so thoroughly saturated with the "liberal" activity as Harvard Unrverajjl
    This institution has stimulated such a spirit of democracy among the
    dents of the past generation that the radicals have had a more fertile null
    in which to work at Harvard than in a less liberal establishment, I N
    professors themselves have not been inactive in the encouragement of lit*
    movement, and the names of several of them appear prominently in 1 1« ■
    roster roll of American liberals and are known in the "illegal" circles of ill*

    li

    iihimhI party of America, These professors, as well as the professors

    iiij other colleges, number known Communists among their personal

    nil are frequently found speaking from the same platform even with

    ' < «»f the Central Executive Committee of the Communist party of

    hi. 1 1 is impossible that men of their intelligence should not know

    1 il iln-v are advocating what the Communist party desires but cannot use

    i hlilir propaganda because their own words would be discounted* Prom-

    ndieal speakers have been brought to speak at meetings of the Har-

    1 II horn Is from all sorts of organizations, among them men who are actu-
    imld agents of the Communist party,

    F toent in ilie organization of the Intercollegiate Liberal League

    m- n notorious as radicals, as well as men whose patriotism, and
    nuism cannot be questioned. The latter of course, did not realize

    I I they were lending their aid. It is inconceivable that Dean Briggs
    iMiilil in any way permit himself to be identified with a movement the chief
    I I- ■ i of which is to overthrow the Government of the United States by force

    linn And yet Dean Briggs was one of the speakers at the meeting to

    r the Intercollegiate Liberal League, in which the Communists were

    ►l»ii-*lrd. Roger N. Baldwin, head of the American Civil Liberties Bu-

    ■ on&cientious objector" who served a prison term as a "draft dodger"

    Itlhjt (he war, and intimate friend of the most radical of Communists, was

    i l he organizers. Another was the Rev. John Haynes Holmes, whose

    • \..i, rirun activities during the European War were so pronounced that

    ■w York church had to be watched by officers of the Government,

    i Ihi « writings were used by the Germans as propaganda with which

    might to break down the morale of the Allied soldiers.

    I I mi') \V. L. Dana, known in Communist circles as one of the most
    I'm radical agitators, was also active in the organization of the Inter

    late Liberal League. Professor Dana, who was dismissed from Colum-

    I nlvorsity because of his radicalism, said as far back as 1918 that he

    i bo tflad to aid however he could in furthering the cause of Soviet

    America, and from that time on has been issuing pronouncements

    "olass war." Yet he is considered a leader in the radical collegiate

    P||i. Among the others participating in the organization of this league

    Augustus Dill, of The Crisis; Francis Neilson and Walter Fuller, of The

    Donald Winston, of Young Democracy, and representatives from

    I i of other colleges. Dean Briggs and President H. N, MacCracken

    il College were among the speakers, and by their presence lent aid

    I movement. The Rev. John Haynes Holmes, in his speech on that

    I '"ged tihe students to "identify themselves with the labor world

    1 lln-ir lo martyr themselves by preaching the gospel of free souls and
    • tin' rule of life." He predicted a revolutionj and said: "If you want

    ' the side of fundamental right you have got to line up on the side

    1 "i .

    Inonling to the Literary Digest there were, in 1921, organizations of

    liiii'irnllftgiate Liberal League in 250 colleges and universities in this

    At about the time when the Harvard Liberal Club's application

    [58]

    [59]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    for membership in the Associated Harvard Clubs was rejected becau
    its radicalism, a thorough investigation of the club and the league was in
    In the report it was shown that some outside agency was financing tl
    establishment of the league and the various clubs and their activilli
    From the report of this investigation it is possible to quote one paragi'Hii
    which reads as follows:

    "It would appear that the Harvard Liberal Club, Harvard StudnnI
    Liberal Club and the Intercollegiate Liberal League may be the «»<
    devised and about to he used as propaganda agencies by radical moveiiinittl
    not yet disclosed, The Russian theory of instilling sympathetic ideas in ill
    younger generation while they are still an school is well known, and 11II01
    a brief examination … it appears more than likely that the synllfl
    is being put into execution among college students in this country. Sui'li I
    plan of radical activity is most patently dangerous, as the students al H.
    age, while mentally keen, active and alert, have not yet formed their ,
    manent characters and are at a formative period in their mental development
    during which they are particularly susceptible to the influence of ulili
    minds, especially those of their masters whom they are accustomed to
    up to as fountains of authority, wisdom and guidance. Under those cinum
    stances, with men like Felix Frankfurter, Roger Baldwin and others hdilM
    such a movement, its potentialities for evil at once appear to be tremendimi '

    The retention of Professor Frankfurter at Harvard has called forlli I
    great deal of criticism from men in public affairs, Harvard graduates «
    others. When he was counsel for President Wilson's Mediation CommisoM
    in the Mooney case, in California, he had the temerity to try to influcn
    Theodore Roosevelt in the work he was doing in the endeavor to aid Moiyi«?
    This drew from the ex-president, whose Americanism has never been qufl
    tioned by friend or foe, the following letter, the existence of which fM
    people know:

    "I thank you for your frank letter. I answer it at length because jfl
    have taken and are taking … an attitude which seems to me loT
    fundamentally that of Trotsky and the other Bolsheviki leaders in Ru
    an attitude which may be fraught with mischief to this country.

    "As for the conduct of the trial, it seems to me that Judge Dumifl'j
    statement which I quoted in my published letter covers it. I have not bfl
    able to find anyone who seriously questions Mr. Dunne's character, juriirlil
    fitness and ability, or standing. Moreover, it seems to me that your ;ir menace to this Republic, but at this moment it is the I, W. W.

    Unarmed Socialists, the anarchists, the foolish creatures who always

    I i”,;iiiist the suppression of crime, the pacifists and the like, under the

    i llro Hearsts and La Follettes, and Bergers, and Hillquits, the Fremont

    m.l Amos Pinchots and Rudolph Spreckels who are the really grave

    These are the Bolsheviki of America, and the Bolsheviki are just as

    the Romanoffs, and are at the moment a greater menace to orderly

    Robespierre and Danton and Marat and Herbert were just as

    I ‘li– worst tyrants of the old regime, and from 1791 to 1794 they were

    i dangerous enemies to liberty that the world contained. When you

    |in ii’iiiing President Wilson, find yourself obliged to champion men

    lump you ought, by unequivocal affirmative action, to make it evident

    ill nre sternly against their general and habitual line of conduct.

    i have just received your report on the Bisbee deportation. One of

    1 I i»cnt leaders in that deportation was my old friend Jack Green-

    has just been commissioned a major in the Army by President
    Vocir report is as thoroughly misleading a document as could be

    l Lhe subject. No official writing on behalf of the President

    j lin excused for failure* to know, and clearly to set forth that the

    I W. is a criminal organization. To ignore the fact that a move-

    • an its members made into Bisbee is made with criminal intent

    I I v as foolish as for a New York policeman to ignore the fact

    ,,ie Whyo gang assembles with guns and knives it is with crim-

    [61]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    inal intent. The President is not to be excused if he ignores this In’
    for of course he knows all about it. No human being in his scnw
    doubts that the men deported from Bisbee were bent on destruction
    murder. If the President through you or anyone else had any riftlil
    to look into the matter, this very fact shows that he had been rciul
    in his clear duty to provide against the very grave danger in advarin
    When no efficient means are employed to guard honest, upright and m\\
    behaved citizens from the most brutal kind of lawlessness it is inevitubl
    that these citizens shall try to protect themselves. That is as true wliofl
    the President fails to do his duty about the I. W. W. as when the pnllri
    fail to do their duty about gangs like the Whyo gang; and when eillml
    the President or the police, personally or by representative; rebuke |||
    men who defend themselves from criminal assault, it is necessary shai|ih
    to point out that far heavier blame attaches to the authorities who I
    to give the needed protection, and to the investigators who fail to poinl iit||
    the criminal character of the anarchistic organization against which ill”
    decent citizens have taken action.

    “Here again you are engaged in excusing men precisely like tfe
    Bolsheviki in Russia, who are murderers and encouragers of murder, will
    are traitors to their allies, to democracy and to civilization, as wt»l|
    as to the United States, and whose acts are nevertheless apologized I ■
    on grounds, my dear Mr. Frankfurter, substantially like those which yo|
    allege. In times of danger nothing is more common and nothing nia
    dangerous to the Republic than for men to avoid condemning the cruninflj
    who are really public enemies by making their entire assault on the sliodj
    comings of the good citizens who have been the victims or opponents i
    the criminals. This was done not only by Danton and Robespierre, bul jj
    many of their ordinarily honest associates in connection with, for inslaiii
    the ‘September massacres*’ It is not the kind of thing I care to sec «-‘■
    meaning men do in this country.

    “Sincerely yours,

    ‘Theodore Roosevelt. 1 !

    The writings of Lenin, Trotsky or other high priests of Commumiii
    as well as those of Marx and Engel, have been and undoubtedly still r
    used as text-books, or as prescribed reading, in classes or clubs in WellHu)
    Vassar, Smith, Yale and many other colleges, and trouble is conslujjiB
    occurring in various State universities in the West where radicalism is hclHj
    taught, or studied. In all these colleges, also, Communist propaganda |ii
    pared with a view to being placed in the hands of students, is secret!) ■ I
    culated among the students. From time to time this secret work of t
    Communists becomes known publicly through the indignation of aofl
    thoroughly American student into whose hands the propaganda falli
    mistake. However, this does not often happen, for the Communists
    very careful to place such literature only in “safe” hands.

    “Upton Sinclair made, in 1922, a tour of the United States, lecliirln|
    wherever he could on radicalism, ostensibly gathering material for

    1 ducation. Before his departure from his home in Pasadena, Calif

    riilnrtauied as guest of honor at a dinner given by Mrs. Kate Crane

    RDd Lrince Hopkins, known as radicals, although standing high in

    id. mm society. Representatives were present of all classes of radicalism

    -“”i’mmism to theoretical Socialism, society men and women, and

    h picture stars and producers. It was entirely radical in its personnel
    » tiM.-nded to be. In telling of his then projected trip, Sinclair said
    I More were capitalist spies” in practically every school and college
    \w country reporting any teacher expressing liberal thought “This
    Ml.-rl network of spies,” he said, “has created such a fear among school
    I university teachers” that nearly all his letters of inquiry remained
    • Wared, thus forcing him to visit the institutions in person in order
    ‘ Information for his book in which he proposed to tell all about the
    ‘ Influence and domination of the reactionaries and of Wall Street
    ■ – «nd capital over the educational system of this country The
    I present appeared to believe all that Sinclair told them and there
    much indignation expressed because objection was being made to the
    Miliitf of radicalism in the schools of the United States. And yet this
    (III. “I tn.clnng is backed by the illegal Communist party of America and
    lh« liiissian Soviet Government of Moscow.
    fudge J. H. Ryckman was another speaker. He dwelt upon the “ter-
    11 iHTHecution” of the I. W. W. radicals in California and said that
    ror the assistance given by some wealthy radicals, mentioning Miss
    HHiv HJxby bpencer and Miss Esther Yarnell, well known in California
    who have given bail for many of the radicals arrested in the
    Uifl syndicalist movement, sponsored by the Communists, would have
    flped out m that State. Gaylord Wilshire, a prominent Los Angeles
    who boasts of his connections with the Communist movement,
    Nrccl an ultra-radical speech, full of sarcastic and scathing vindictive-
    > NMinnBt American democracy, saying that a mixture of syndicalistic
    Mitph-H and Communist tactics was the only salvation for this country
    takers are mentioned for the reason that this was the ammunition
    I lined by Upton Sinclair on his tour of American colleges in makin-
    ■h*«<i4 to students. b

    Uler Sinclair had started his tour he wrote friends from San
    ■co saying that Hears? s Magazine had accepted his latest novel
    Hind, and ascribing this good fortune to the fact that Norman
    100(1, known for his radical tendencies, and connected with the American
    Ihorties Union had shortly before been made editor of that magazine
    ■•y 21, 192?, a small private meeting of a number of radical and
    hivc public school teachers of Pasadena was held, at which letters
    Hliclair were discussed. He had written from Chicago that at Madison
    M was received in a very friendly spirit and had held several suc-

    " iet ™&- , At the University of Chicago, he wrote, he had been

    ■ mail auditorium in which to lecture, and so many students could

    hi to hear him that the meeting was adjourned to out-of-doors so

    m.I I nmld hear. "Generally speaking," he wrote, "I am very much

    [62]

    [63]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    pleased to find so many Socialists and adherents of other anti-capitnlUll
    systems among the college professors, and I am quite sure that il
    could only make these men feel reasonably sure of economic indepernl
    versity of Washington, was very active as a member of a numbei
    local radical organizations. These two worked together in college i
    and left together for Minneapolis, where Borgeson said he was to ll
    employed as an instructor at the University of Minnesota, and whfl
    Miss Reiseroff was to engage actively in organization work for the YojH
    Workers’ League.

    The Communists have not been slow to seize upon the fact that \>\
    tically no efforts are made, outside of the public school system, *■
    its more or less lax laws relating to attendance at certain ages, to furnjfl
    children of foreign birth and children of the working class with «4|
    cational facilities. This lack of attention on the part of the AmerfS
    public has given the Communist an excellent opportunity to organize njfl
    schools for the teaching of Communism. Among the documents foil

    [64]

    man, Mich., were many referring to the work on the education and
    Miming of the youth on Communistic lines. Much of this work
    1 1) I lie Young Workers’ League^ which has been organized all over
    mtry in a remarkably short time.

    ngle example of how the Communists work in the schools and col-
    li I suffice to explain many recent activities in such institutions,
    nxty-five Russian men and women applied for admission to the
    illttl Slides from Mexico as students. They said they wished to matricu-
    University of California for study. The United States Govern-
    initted them to enter, believing them anxious to attend the University
    I iilllornia for educational purposes only. As a matter of fact the
    In i were sent by the Russian Soviet Government to Mexico to facilitate

    nice to this country. They were financed by the Communists in

    i nd carried on a well organized Communist propaganda on the

    Hi! I riKist under direction of the Third International of Moscow. They

    nil’ m number of converts among the students of the University, according

    II informed visitor to the Coast. They also acted as advisers to

    iHiiMiiizers of the Young Workers’ League in Pacific Coast States,

    Tl” 1 You ng Workers* League is an outgrowth of the Young People’s

    mini League and the Young People’s Socialist League, and was.or-

    l for “legal” propaganda purposes. The re-organization was ef-

    ■ImI |>y the Executive Committee of the Workers’ party and the instal-

    ijiili ill the various circles was in charge of the National Secretary,

    i.i Carlson, alias E. Connelly, alias Edwards. He is a member of

    I iiniminist party of America, of which the Workers* party is the

    i Ir^aT’ political branch. The purpose of the Young Workers’

    tL to educate the members,, the young workers, to understand

    iiion in capitalist society, to show them the stupidity of seeking

    lintli higher, and to map a course of action for their emancipation.”

    i ilir organizers of the League were such persons as Walter Bronstrup,

    arct Prevy, Mrs. Sadie Amter, Max Kaminsky and D, E. Early,
    [ well known in Communist circles.

    i li headquarters of this League is, at the time of this writing, at
    (HI East Twelfth Street, New York, and the country is divided into

    I I with an organizer in each district. Classes are held in many
    ■ for the instruction of the young people. ajfd\thgir eldew along

    ii iii- lines; The ‘following is Quoted, as an example, trom a
    Etui ..|’ the organization in Roxbury, Mass.:

    “Mrrtings are held every Sunday evening. Classes have been opened
    mica and psychology and are attended* Harry W. L. Dana and
    Antoinette F. Konikow, of No. 52 Chambers Street, Boston, are
    (llit’in at these classes. Leo Golosov, of Dorchester, was formerly in
    Km nl’ the organization and he has since been in Russia. Louis Marks,
    lirsler, is now at the head. Recently copies of Youth, a Com-
    biner, were distributed at one of the meetings.”
    Till* is only a sample of the work done in many localities in ad-
    the work among the children. The Communists are using the

    [653

    REDS IN AMERICA

  5. the work among the children. The Communists are using the

    [653

    REDS IN AMERICA

    schools regularly as places of meeting for older students of Commnnl
    as well as for children of tender years. In the classes such sludl
    as the “A. B, C. of Communism,” “Fundamental Principles of Commit m
    “Theses and Resolutions of the Communist International” are read n
    studied. Youth, the publication just mentioned, was the official oi
    of the League until March, 1922, when the Young Worker became
    official organ.

    From a convention call issued by the national secretary of the
    Workers’ League, the aim of the organization is given in the foil
    words: {( 0ur aim is to be the abolition of capitalism by means of
    Workers’ Itepubliu t a government functioning through the power of l
    proletariat to the exclusion of all other classes, as the first step I.
    the establishment of an international classless society, free from all |i
    ical and economic slavery.” International Liebknecht Day was first mil
    brated by the Young Workers’ League of America in January, 1922,
    international meetings were held in almost every important city of i
    United States. A joint convention was held in New York in April.
    was announced that all organizations subscribing to the convention call ||
    sending delegates, must agree to merge into the Young Workers’ Li’ii
    Conventions were also held in Brooklyn in May, and in Chicago in I
    of the same year.

    Bearing in mind that this organization is chiefly interested in educn
    first the young and then their elders in Communistic lines of thought,
    that an effort has been made to lead the public to believe that
    Young Workers’ League is not connected with the Communist movoi
    it is interesting to read the following communication, dated Moscow,
    27, 1922, and addressed “to the National Executive Committees of
    Communist pailies,” whiuh waa found with uLher documents at British
    Mich., when the Communist party convention was raided:

    “Dear Comrades: In agreement with the Executive Committee of I
    Comintern, the Executive Committee of the Young Communist Internatim
    decided to launch an energetic campaign of the youth for the u
    front of the proletariat. For this purpose it decided to convi
    World Congress of Juvenile Labor*

    “In order to prepare the proletarian youth for our campaign, ll
    of utmost importance that the Communist parties with their press suppj
    us in the most extensive manner. This is especially necessary Li-
    the whole action is closely connected with the united front poli< .
    the Comintern in the next (near?) future.

    "We have already informed the National Executives of our 1- ■
    in order that the editors of the party organs may support us. With coflfl
    eration to the immense significance of this forthcoming action and its nfl
    on the Social Democrats and Centrists, we ask you, the National Executfl
    Committees, to instruct the editors of your organs to grant su!U<
    space to the publications of the National Leagues as well as to the iiilfl

    [66]

    urotip of Communist publications in the United States. Soviet Russia, The
    raid, unci The Young Worker, on the right William Z. Poster of Chicago;
    ft, Robert lliner.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    lonal publications. With Communist greetings of the Executive Corn-
    Inn of the Young Communist International."

    fn a circular marked "strictly confidential," sent from Moscow June

    L922, the National Executive Committees of the Communist parties
    ihi' various countries of the world were told that "recent events in the
    -i national labor movement render necessary a revision of our tactics
    iln- problem of 'the proletarian united front and juvenile labor. 1 " It
    lirn stated that the youth must not be made to carry on their fight

    I lie united front alone but that all branches of the Communist party
    ||oh country must work together for the united front under the direction
    ilic National Executive Committee of the Communist Party. "The slogan
    In* united front will for a long time," the circular says, "be the underlined
    Miplc of all activities."

    The "recent events in the international labor movement" refers to

    ir-fusal of the Socialist Internationals to surrender to the Commu-
    « in the matter of calling a world labor congress, to insist upon all
    If working with the united front movement for the establishment of

    proletarian government of the world. Because of this opposition the
    Inr was dropped for the time and the Executive Committee of the Young
    nmists League, in Moscow, upon direction from their superiors in

    Soviet Government, shifted the movement to the various national
    imitations instead of trying to make it a solid world movement.

    1 1 is interesting to note the care with which this work in America,

    I Mir case in all other countries, is mapped out in Moscow* One of
    ip ilnruments found at Bridgman contains the proceedings of the Young

    mist International at Moscow, when, under the leadership of Zin-

    iImII. programs for the future were arranged and the work specified for
    • In (inches all over the world. Iir each cuuiiLry the youngsters must
    litnlriicted as to the form of government in that country and given
    Ml* Tor argument against its maintenance. Care must be taken that the
    arid work shall be interesting to the youth. A few paragraphs of
    n proceedings will be illuminating,

    "In view of the fact that almost all of the practical arrangements

    llir Leagues have an educational character (evenings of groups,
    llir™, discussions and entertainment evenings* excursions, etc.) and that
    ill niher departments of work an increase of the educational endeavors
    RwrcMary (training of officials), the systematic improvement of this
    |irrt of activities must be paid great attention to. The organization of

    tVOrlc (elaboration of plans, discussion of the active workers providing
    new force? and material) must in any case be transferred to a special
    ■ ■•■inn-lit of the Executive Committee and the branch committees.

    "The performance of the task imposed by the Second Congress— that
    tinning educational work on the problems of the day — is only possible
    dm unlive members of the leagues know the elementary principles of

    Marxian theory- In order to enable the members to acquire this
    , political elementary instruction must be given. All young

    E67]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    workers entering the Leagues must as far as possible during the first
    of their membership be provided with elementary political knowledg

    Then the work is mapped out in detail, taking them through gi
    much as is done in our public school system, until they are devolo
    full Communists when they are admitted to active membership in the |-
    and assigned to work. A part of this future work is given as "agiUll
    and propaganda" among youth not of Communist families.

    "The patient, persistent and systematic enlightenment of the hi
    masses of juvenile labor on the character of our opponents, along the ti
    tical lines of their daily activities, must become the basis of this agfl
    and propaganda work," reads a portion of the proceedings, "So fin
    the bourgeois youth organizations are concerned, it is the task of the Yd
    Communist Leagues to expose their class character, to fight the Churrli
    carry on a strong, elastic anti-religious propaganda, to lead a nitli
    fight against militarism and to unveil not less ruthlessly pacifism
    political neutrality. They must, furthermore, be able to sharpen the e
    antagonism in these organizations where proletarian and semi-prolelai
    elements are organized."

    In the resolutions adopted by the first national convention oi
    Young Workers' League of America, organized by the Young Commu
    League pursuant to instructions from Moscow, and which was held
    May, 1922, it is distinctly stated that "in the struggle of the working c
    against the capitalist class the laboring youth does not hold any sp«
    position; the class struggle is a conflict between but two classei
    working class and the capitalist class." The resolutions at this convcni
    endorsed Soviet Russia and "demanded" its recognition by the Ilh
    States, approved the stand of the World War Veterans against "the avm
    foe of the working class, the American Legion," and endorsed the fiifl
    of. Soviet Russia and all other Communist branches and efforts.

    The call for this convention was officially endorsed by four brain
    of the Young Women's League, Chicago, Detroit, Boston and New Y<
    A single paragraph from the resolution on education, adopted by the Yoi
    Communist International and approved by the convention in America, t
    the extent of the work of this organization:

    "With the change in the character and intensity of the class struj
    must come about a change in our method of agitation. This field n
    be subdivided .under these two headings: first, education within
    organization; second, propaganda and education among the masses."

    It has been seen that the machinery of the Communists for gain
    converts and trained workers embraces all stages and degrees of 1
    cation from the poor youngster who has to work selling papers, runB

    errands, or in any way, through the night Communist schools, the |
    lie schools, colleges and universities, even to professorial chairs in
    higher institutions. In addition to this, the names of all radicals who
    word or deed, lend encouragement or endorsement to the Communist IQ
    ment, are used in the propaganda work of gaining recruits to the Commtl

    Whenever a college professor, a Government official, a big business

    any individual whose name carries distinction in any line of

    I, rarelessly or with intent expresses an opinion which can be

    lined as favoring, even in a limited sense, the aims of the Communists,

    1 words are seized upon and used for propaganda purposes, especially

    niiilfjivoring to win over young men and women, in college or out, to

    1 munist party. Thus it is that correspondence between the late

    l\ SteinmetZj the electrical genius, and Lenin was broadcasted

    1 I i the English speaking world and was translated into many

    Tor propaganda purposes. It was given out by Lenin,

    inmetz, who had for many years been known as an enthusiastic in-

    li-rliiii) socialist, expressed to Lenin his admiration of the Russian Soviet

    iiHiirut in "the building up of socialism and economic reconstruction"

    I -11 -ring his services "to assist Russia in the technical sphere and

    1 1 uly in the matter of electrification in a practical way and with

    M*'n. M Lenin's reply was a studied attempt to furnish material for

    •mil, writing of "the necessity and the inevitability of supplanting

    l' in by a new social order" and using other hackneyed phrases

    Mllltn to those who study revolutionary literature. Lenin also took

    mlon to refer to the lack of recognition of the Soviet government by

    I Hutted States as a prime difficulty in the path of accepting the Steinmetz

    – ill assistance.

    [68]

    L69J

    bi<llnf< English, and imported into the United States in large quantities,

    | well as forty-two papers published in Argentine, Canada, Chile, Cuba,

    li i». Porto Rico and Uruguay, which are brought in increasingly large

    1 n to this country to aid in the drive of radical propaganda. This

    m tulnl of 611 periodicals known to be circulated among the people

    f llm United States, directly or indirectly aimed at the overthrow of this

    minment.

    bi addition to the daily papers, weekly magazines and monthly reviews,

    -I in the above list, hooks are published and circulated for children

    i ■ IhIIh, all of them very cleverly presenting propaganda for the purpose

    Infilling Communism in the minds of the readers. Most of these books

    I ID [Mired in Russia and many of them are printed abroad, being brought

    | United States by smugglers. Picture post cards, some of them of

    I irliHtic merit, are also secretly brought to this country and efforts

    Bnimtuntly being made to give them wide distribution; but as these

    – |r«lfl are unmailable, under the laws of the country, they are usually

    id. No attempt is made, however, to distribute the books except

    ion li.iiid to hand, and through the underground organizations of the

    -niir party. The subtlety and excellence of these books are worthy

    ni'iidation but for the message they bear — that the Government of

    1'itiii'd States must be overthrown and the dictatorship of the prole-

    || nutnblished. Several difFerent volumes of fables, imitating the Aesop

    C pecially designed for little folks, are widely read by Communist

    !m.i nnd the children of radicals of other stripes.

    M.Miv of the Communist books, also, may be obtained at public book

    [71]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    RADICAL PUBLICATIONS AND LITERATURE

    stores. Care is taken in the preparation of these books — this refers boIi
    to the reading matter for mature people — to male them accord wilh U
    laws of the United States so that the propaganda may be more wi
    in this country were crude affairs, frequently printed on coarse, bmui,
    paper, and typographically barbarous. But today these papers are exortli.
    lently printed, many of them on better print paper than is used by imi
    metropolitan newspapers, and the make-up and typography of a nuliiil
    that would please the most exacting Journalist, Colors are freqimiilll
    used— though this applies exclusively, perhaps, to magazines and pfliw
    phlets. And whereas the reading matter in the early publications
    crudely put together, usually nothing but the most blatant excoriation fl
    government and praise of the Soviet regime, and almost invariably showtii
    ignorance of composition and of English, the present publication
    excellently written in blameless diction, and present their propaganda ||
    far more insidious and interesting style. In fact, some of their newspapti
    and magazines are fascinating in their cleverness. The chief propap
    articles are logically constructed (on false premises, to he sure) ami ill)

    best American in the world would have to be on his guard to keep fi

    falling into agreement with the writer. These publications are wcl
    lustrated with cartoons and photographic reproductions and have v
    departments, even columnists and jokes, all carefully built to fi
    Communist propaganda.

    One excellent series of pamphlets is entitled “Children’s Storir i
    Soviet Russia” and is issued by “Friends of Soviet Russia Famine
    Clubs of America.” This is patently an effort to make use of the ]>ojl
    and girls* scout organizations and the pamphlet is purely a Comrmml |
    organ for the dissemination of Communist propaganda through the CqjJ
    munist “legal” branch known as Friends of Soviet Russia. It is profn 1 1
    illustrated, with covers in colors, and contains a number of stories aljfl
    and for children. The blow at capitalism is struck at the outset i
    following paragraph, as a preface to the stories:

    “The rich capitalists all over the world tried to crush the govermtM
    of the Russian workers and farmers. They blockaded Russia, T^fl
    crippled her factories and destroyed her farming machinery and mtm
    Russia fight for her life at a time when she was beginning to mak< llfj
    happy and free for all workers and their children. Then came drmjB
    starvation and death for millions."

    Radical periodicals are published from Boston to Los Angeles, ffl
    Seattle to Florida, The place of publication of the most radical is unknowflB
    they simply appear. They are printed in many languages including

    [72]

    ilifn Ijiglish: Russian, Italian, Jewish, Ukrainian, Armenian, Bulgarian,

    I' I'nuitian, Esthonian, Finnish, German, Greek, Hungarian, Lithuanian,

    lUli Slovak, Spanish, Roumanian, Danish, Lettish, Slovenic and French.

    Many of the papers, such as The Communist, the official organ of

    1 nm munist party in America, are printed in various language editions.

    Pilitors of the different editions attend a regular round table at which

    illlm in-chief dictates the general policy to be followed in each article.

    (Mil icy is discussed by the polyglot circle and the translations are

    li I" conform, not in words, but in sentiment, to the policy dictated.

    nine is true of the books, pamphlets, circulars, posters and magazines,

    1 appear in many languages, directed to bringing about the one

    unit* result. This part of the Communist party work is thoroughly

    id and is progressing without a hitch. These publications are prac-

    tilj the reading matter the foreigner in the United States gets. They

    ■ if fully prepared to keep his mind alien to the interests of the United

    1 rind are devoted to inspiring and maintaining interest in the "class

    MKK' r '" which is preached to him continuously from the time of his

    Ivnl in America. His only companions, frequently his only associates,

    ins language, and here is a newspaper, a weekly and a monthly

    i nc, and even books in his native tongue. There is little in reading

    illi'i I hat falls into his hands to urge him to become American because

    tiling lie wants in the way of reading matter is furnished him in his

    linage. And therein lies the seriousness of the foreign press situation

    lid* United States. With few exceptions the reading matter that comes

    hi* luind in his own language preaches either openly or by innuendo

    essity" for the violent overthrow of the United States Government.

    I hi 1 radical press was largely concerned with the strikes of 1922,

    w.in lo be supposed. The radical and labor press was interested in the

    ilml iif unrest as an example of the larger, broader fight between capital

    i i I -i of which the strikes were regarded as but preliminary, although

    port ant, battles. Characteristic is the sentiment expressed: "Capital

    ■ i in!': Labor is on the defensive." Not in part alone the fault of

    in una and operators, according to this press, but the coal and rail

    ivne entirely so — an unprovoked assault upon the living rights of

    Iters, Hence, also, the almost universal plea for the united front,

    Kttiei al strike, as the only hope against the unity of purpose and power

    il * niy, the ultimate end, of course, being "the complete abolition of

    li ih in." Certain of the editorials in recent numbers of the Communist

    i radical press on the strike situation are very bitter, "If they do

    i In nit u al words urge measures of direct action, words are scarcely

    hIihI in llie light of the inflammatory picture painted. To assert, as one

    Itn in dues, that "the bourgeoisie stands in a fighting line — ready to shoot

    i pVwn like dogs", and then add that "To give in means — Death! To

    ||l means- — Life! Struggle!" does not require more in the way of

    .i in forcible resistance.

    Iosco w is the headquarters of the entire Communistic movement,

    [73]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    wnil

    all important orders affecting Communism throughout the entire
    come from that city. Berlin is one of the chief, if not the chief sulmNJ
    nate headquarters, for it is in the latter city, that the governing hody of ||
    parties in Western Europe and America sits and directs the work d
    those two important sections of the world. The propaganda work iii
    United States has its headquarters in Berlin, always, of course, undoi
    supreme authorities in Moscow. Early in the summer of 1922, Jay I
    stone, secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the Communist I"
    of America, brought from Berlin $35,000 for propaganda work in i
    country. Later, A, A. Heller 1 of New York, representative of the Supn
    Soviet of People's Economy in the United States, received $48,001) f
    Berlin for the same purpose. This latest consignment of gold vtt&
    work in connection with the drive of the Friends of Soviet Russia foi
    ditional funds, the major portion of which goes into Soviet coffoi
    Moscow.

    Bearing in mind that the United States, then, is fed with Comiini
    propaganda from Berlin, it is interesting to know that this propazin
    is prepared at the Berlin headquarters in English, printed on shw and is under the direction of Zinoviev, Dzierzinsky, Kamenev,

    |l*ky and others. Every foreign country has there its representative.

    Muif’ them there is the Englishman. MacLean, who was arrested recently

    i land during the demonstrations of the unemployed. The main and

    ■ I i it ‘s are indicated on the chart. Seven of them are connecting Mos-

    ilh the centres of Europe. [The United States comes directly under
    Author.]
    “Tho second place after Berlin is Prague. It is the connecting main
    i Moscow and Paris. The office in Milan is directing the Italian, the
    ilka mid the Yugoslav Districts. Offices of similar importance are situ-
    • I In Home, Zagreb, Belgrade, Sofia, Adrianople and Constantinople, all
    hlili are directed from Adrianople, Roumania is under special direc-
    ul Rukovsky in Kiev. The well -organized Western sections of Zurich
    I Minion under the management of Rubalsky are worthy of mention,
    ^A is a subdivision of the Paris seclfon and 3s receiving special atten-
    i-in Moscow. Toulouse is connected with Spain, while Belgium and
    M. M. I are connected with Paris.

    enormous organization could not be changed or overthrown in

    [75]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    RADICAL PUBLICATIONS AND LITERATURE

    a night. Changes of individuals might lake place but they could noi ||
    turb the entire structure. The organization of the Bolshevik props
    as outlined here is working for the only great goal for which it hn
    created, which is Universal Revolution.”

    While the Berlin organization, with the multitude of tentacles
    lined above, serves to direct the attitude of the papers of the United
    and various other countries as well, along lines for the general CommU
    movement, editors of the radical newspapers are permitted great frefli
    m handling their local situations and problems. Every strike, every n
    ical disturbance, every racial clash is seized upon to promote the caul
    radicalism and to serve as an agency for an attack upon the “capital!
    state and form of society. On these lines the radical press in the (Jim
    States leads the world, for the Communists abroad have passed the I
    of development where they have to be continuously aroused, The i
    eigner in the United States, dependent in large measure for his infom
    and almost entirely for his reading matter upon the radical press.
    to have his mind concentrated on his “wrongs” in order to keep him til ||
    proper pitch of rebellious feeling.

    Therefore, the radical press pursues its tireless course with steadily
    creasing skill in fastening upon those issues in the industrial and polill
    life of the United States which lend themselves, often neatly enough
    the cause of radicalism. The characteristic feature about this attitudi
    blame, contemptuous or ironic, as the case may he, is that never 1 ■
    chance is a fair or good word, even an extenuating word, said for the
    mg state of things. Never, by any chance, is an effort made, never
    a suggestion, to improve conditions that exist; the sole aim and obi
    utterly to destroy the present social system before considering the ».
    that will have to be made in effecting the establishment of the Dictator
    of the Proletariat in America. Everything that is, is wrong, they say]
    is black, and there is no relief or betterment in sight because relief
    betterment are not to be looked for in a cesspool of iniquity. Read
    press day after day and its influence will not be denied. A blatant o
    vinisrn might be proof against it. An intelligent appreciation of it, pro (
    con, is not to be found belittling it. How a full sympathy with it miml
    nourished and strengthened, it is disconcerting to think.

    The proletariat of the United States, the Communists and other ra
    leaders believe, has passed the stage where wild excitement is necess
    waken workers to appreciation of what they must do. Accordingly a (
    appears in their press. In 1920 the efforts of press and agitators
    devoted to exciting the workers to radicalism in thought and deed,
    most inflammatory appeals were printed and broadcasted by every means
    could be found in which the law could be evaded. But today the p
    gamda is far more insidious. The minds of the workers have been
    with the necessity of overthrowing the Government by violence and
    they are being trained to the work which is regarded solely as prelim
    to the great “mass action”. That is why the united front is being pre
    and stressed on every occasion. The Freiheit, the daily organ of the J

    [76]

    ‘ i if lor. of the Workers’ Party, the “legal” political branch of the Com-

    I>”‘y °* America, in discussing strikes editorially, said in the

    | i of 1922:

    *The “right to work* has no meaning to them [the employers] when
    look out the workers, reorganize the factories, have the work done

    I Idi (in order to deprive their own workers of work) and demand for

    [vw the right to discharge employees. The worker

  6. *The “right to work* has no meaning to them [the employers] when
    look out the workers, reorganize the factories, have the work done

    I Idi (in order to deprive their own workers of work) and demand for

    [vw the right to discharge employees. The worker is to them of

    • t value than a machine,

    I machine is not thrown out when there is not enough work to keep

    The worker, however, who creates all the wealth for his employer

    li I ho sweat of his brow is thrown out in the street when there is not

    work to keep him busy.

    ‘\W are not discussing this with the railroad companies or other era-

    We do not want to preach morals to them. We only want that

    kcrs themselves conceive fully the ‘sacred right to work.’

    “Tlic present crisis will not last forever, and not always will the pres-
    ilors have the upper hand. The time will come when the workers

    II rnnlize their power and will remind themselves of ‘the right to work 5 .
    “The workers will acquire the right to work with the abolishment of
    I liln of the employers over the industries and with the substitution of

    I dlthilinship of the masters with that of the workers*”

    A” mi example of the radical press’ efforts to keep the spirit of the
    iiltnx up to fighting pitch, a couple of paragraphs from a recent number
    Vj Elore, a Hungarian daily Communist paper of New York, will suffice,

    * btipor, in an editorial printed in September, 1922, shows the character-
    hope that out of the railroad and coal strikes, or any other similar

    ii. may grow the means to the great end, the triumph of Communism

    il’h the general strike. In part this editoral says:

    be new factor of the American labor movement is the spiritual

    ml w liifli fills with revolutionary solidarity the awakening masses. Soon

    Will appear, in every fight of the workers, that feeling of revolu-

    nolidarity which gives the masses participating in the fight a strong

    ill, which makes them feel that they no longer fight only for temporary

    ■ i is, not only to preserve the attained results, but that they enter the

    t On ;< wider basis, affecting the whole working class. The revolutionary

    lloiw Id the foreground.

    1 i Communist self-consciousness of the workers has become a power-

    poii against capitalism which is already shocked by this strength,

    Hjilifili ihe workers have not even used yet the weapon that has become
    1 in il (us steel} by solidarity. What is this weapon?
    ■•Tim (bought of a GENERAL STRIKE is this weapon which has be-

    lifest among broad ranks in spite of all the soothing efforts of the

    It- 1 ii pashas. The workers want to employ this weapon, they demand

    -I Ijm employed. . . The mass has issued the password that the terror

    , ■.,,-niment must be answered by a general strike."
    'I In- masses grow more and more in favor of the revolutionary fight
    imIi this they voluntarily accept Communist leadership. In trade

    [77]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    il,tw s the f T Uben T **«" ? h ; ead y that the bourgeoisie do not repress. ,|„.

    C deyern 3S o? g f h ^? ™ ol f °»«y n nger _ post towards vie,..,
    other Sfi^SuLii ^iffridv^. ' the r hm < C °— hl '

    more o^thJJ^hS^i^ST* r^"" ** 3 ^^ dove" ii

    i—to'ScSX^Szr^T t! T soIidarity and their cl ™M

    their oon S titu i nal righ ~ y S'do'lr r^ ,hem and ^ eak "'

    letaria. a certain amoC 5 letSo^ *" G ° Ve ™ alW the W

    of the upward of a hundred SoSXfn^pe™ nof f ^ ","
    weeklies, month ies, pamphlets and hnnlr. ew lPf p , ere \ ? ot to mention l|||

    defiance to the estabLhe'd 0" g ° ^ rnmLt fr^T^f f,^^' ,

    urging the workers to take the win, £ rt ™ . , mted Stal( "" "' '

    Russia, and establish £ longed^ S^T "' ™ ™ ^

    ltl evftrv fr-tiv i« +U~ …. .1 . r'

    servative" press. Unfortunatelv tUT ■ t ' 1S Called tlu "

    papers to he fair and permit S J3 T ° f m ° St metro P°litar,

    Hon with pntaUe ^Zt^^^CS^ '

    appeal to the so-called "intellectuals" who ^i?K Communlst PWpagaml
    serious, for the policy of th os nubl^o,* " ""f.PfP"*- This » nol
    They are classed as revolutionary an ™T ^'"l 7 BVident to '»'"
    ** ** are engaged, pertly ^^^££1^

    [78]

    Mir * y *-l;& %f^m

    ill

    EDITOR

    This cartoon, illustrating the anti- Christ! an character of the revnluttl
    movement in the United States, was first published in Max Eastmans ,£331
    Masses suppressed during the war and revived in the pSe Z.^ i

    SiS.S.«v-? iatal1 ^r 1 ?' Art Yo ™ ancl ™ optioned?" 'Hating their 'l
    SffffETS^fccS repr ° dUCed in the now *l in by the Communists here, who had a quiet laugh at the ease

    till which they effected an entrance to the bourgeois press. Narodny has

    mhI lime for counterfeiting, has long been and admits that he is an

    ii||u> revolutionist, working from Russia, and has had a career of crime

    I iiiln of which would fill a book.

    All the radical press of the United States are considered official organs

    ■ I In Communist party, for all the official orders from Moscow are given

    h li publication in order that the instructions may reach all members

    ‘ ‘In party. As an example of this there appeared a proclamation

    l liy the Executive Committee of the Communist International,

    fl •«■ • » I ni Moscow July 22, 1922, calling upon “The Workingmen and Work-

    iir.i-“inrn of All Countries” to keep up the fight for help for Russia. Re-

    ■ to the demands of the sane countries of the world that private

    i, he respected by the Soviet government before the question of

    b’lif’iiiliim will be considered, this proclamation says:

    regards the factories and mines . . . Soviet Russia faas

    M I “hat she will never and on no account return them, . . . The Rus-

    il-in iHolriariat will not return them, because otherwise the rivers of blood

    t’linh it has saved the revolution will have been spilled in vain. The

    1 . revolution which gave the factories and the estates into the hands

    lit** Nubian leaders, was the first step made by the international prole-

    |i i Inwards liberation from the capitalistic yoke. No backward step will

    rn, cost what it may.”

    Ilii- Communist and other radical papers not only have their own car-

    i “f whom Art Young is the most prolific and most effective, and

    mil paragraphers, whose ability cannot be questioned, but they have

    lilt moi press service in the Federated Press. This is in part a co-

    niiw association of labor and radical papers. Its aim has been to collect

    1 1 1 tribute all news pertaining to the labor and radical movements. It

    i .-led to get the sanction of the conservative labor organizations, but

    In ilism was too well known and in this the effort failed. The Com-

    i parly of America considers the Federated Press its own press ser-

    niization, and it is certain that several of the officials of the press

    ■ • . nre active members of the Communist party. Upwards of two hun-

    1 ip’-is in the United States are affiliated with the Federated Press.

    I T Lochner is European director and acting business manager, and

    office in Berlin, where he is in close touch with the International

    aula Bureau of the Communist International,

    [79]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    In order to facilitate the collection of funds for the Federated Vt
    and through it the dissemination of radical propaganda, a Federated I’m
    League was organized in Chicago on February 4, 1922. By this Lt I
    membership in the Federated Press is stimulated, funds are colle
    frequently from parlor Bolshevik cireles and wealthy people who belj
    they are giving to aid the Mown -trodden’ to express themselves and n
    themselves heard by the rest of humanity. A number of chain papn
    been established from Boston to Los Angeles, and agents of the Lei
    who are really working for the cause of the Communist party of Ai
    are active in every city in the country. The officials of the League,
    at the Chicago meeting were: Robert Morss Lovett, president; Mrs. I
    C« Lillie, vice-president; George B. Hooker, vice-president; E, C. \V<
    worth, treasurer; and Clark H. Getts, secretary.

    It is evident that the Communist element is gaining control enl i
    this news-gathering organization. Besides the Berlin office, an ofli
    been established in Moscow and the Communist International us<
    office for the purpose of sending out manifestos and strong
    ganda ? to be published in this country. According to Robert M. ilin4|
    chairman of the Executive Board, who is connected with the New Mo
    a radical publication in Chicago, the central figures in the Federated I'tt
    are Jack Carney, editor of the radical Voice of Labor; Arul Swabeck, t\ I •■
    and Editor of Nytio who controlled ten votes at the Chicago mr<
    Editor Feinburg, of Solidarity; William Z. Foster, head of the Trade 1 till
    Educational League and a delegate to the illegal convention of the < hf|
    munist party of America at Bridgman, Mich: Carl Haessler. the mil – ,■
    professor who spent two years in the penitentiary; Mabel Sear
    Milwaukee; Clark H. Getts, who has served a jail term: Carroll I'
    a college man; Louis P. Lochncr, the European representative, and
    McCreery, the woman agitator who was active in the establishmenl •
    chain papers throughout the country 1 .

    E. J. Costello was manager of the Federated Press until, beca i
    a wrangle in the board, he was dismissed and Carl Haessler took hh
    William Z. Foster, who among his numerous radical activities is a in i
    of the board of trustees of the Garland Foundation, expected to turn
    $100,000 of the Foundation to the Federated Press, and told a numbci |
    people that he was going to do so, but the row in the management tn the Garland Foundation.

    A detailed account of how thoroughly the work of organization and

    illy df collecting money for the furtherance of the aim of the Com-

    I | kmI y is done will prove interesting as well as illuminating. Bruce

    n Iriiding Communist of Seattle, went secretly to Los Angeles, ar-

    llirre on the night of March 24, 1922, to raise money for the Feder-

    ■ i I’i’rhh League and at the same time to spread Communist propaganda.

    1 i I wo objects were specified in his instructions for the trip, A seurel

    m. i. mihv was held March 26 at which Rogers met William Thurston

    I lla Reeve Bloor, who was a delegate to the illegal convention at

    ii, and Alfred Bush. Rogers explained the purpose of his trip and

    i nil that small groups of “thoroughly grounded Communists” who

    n • minis of craft unions travel from place to place and join the local

    ilming their short sojourns in industrial centers for the purpose of

    llie radical factions and starting Communist nuclei within the craft

    He said that a group of printers and stereotypers had come to

    i from Detroit and worked along those lines.

    riioae present at this conference endorsed the Roger plan as he out-
    m. ,1 .1 and decided to get in touch with San Francisco, Portland, Seattle,
    ||| Luke City and Chicago for the purpose of inviting such groups of

    , foot-loose craft union men to go to Los Angele3 and strengthen

    i 1 1 radical movement.

    II tigers went to the Labor Temple in Los Angeles, but he later told

    l that he had anything but a cordial reception there. He said the

    u d Press had been laboring under a misapprehension when thinking

    . il .i news represents the viewpoint of the average American-born worker,

    |l Im said, is as yet wrapped up in the capitalistic ideology. He made a

    i ip to San Diego but returned in time to speak at a meeting of the

    I m i. .Mini of the Socialist party. He was introduced as the representative

    fill*- Federated Press service and spoke on “The Origin of Newspapers

    n< Press Service," He afterwards told friends that he was very well

    i .1 with the way his Communist propaganda was received. His head-

    i . in Los Angeles were at the Van Winkle Hotel, No. 349 South

    hect, kept by an Irish woman, an old-timer in the radical movement,

    i i sheltered many Communists in her hostelry.

    i in ihc evening of April 6 a secret meeting was held at the home of a

    ml Mrs. Kashub, at which were present Ella Reeve Bloor, Arthur

    i u Miss Moran, well known among the public school teachers because

    I.. . rndicalism, Rogers, a Mrs. Mellentine, who is a member of the Sever-

    , Club of Los Angeles, and five others. There were no introductions

    meeting was shrouded in strictest secrecy. At this meeting further

    I | ( ,i the work of the Communist party were agreed upon, especially

    llu.'crs* work on the Pacific Coast. Rogers was scheduled to speak
    | lit, Modern School on the night of April 17, but cancelled the lecture be-

    [81]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    cause of the small attendance, for which he blamed lack of adverlmin,
    Mrs Bloor was speaking the same night at a widely advertised m« ■
    at the bnelley Club under the auspices of the Young People's Forum II
    led to an arrangement with Emanuel Levin to establish a clearing-hol
    tor radical speakers so there would not again come about a conflict of <l,i.

    Kogera worked his way into parlor bolshevik circles, using his co

    tion with the Federated Press as an opening wedge. He was after b|
    game, planning to raise enough money from wealthy radicals in PasadeJ
    Hollywood and Los Angeles to establish a chain of papers in the! South m
    A \: . co ^™ led h y the ^derated Press. He was the guest of the Wrilru
    Uud m Hollywood, where he said he met a number of men with radii -,il
    iS? 8 ,-. ° su PP° rt the ^derated Press. Mrs. Martha Kashub, Mrs. Gayloi
    Wilshire and Countess Korzybska (Lady Edgerly) gave him valn.ilJ.
    leads. On the night of April 12, he spoke at the Shelley Club abour tflj
    necessity of building up a radical press service in the United States. Mill I
    ot his lecture was taken from Upton Sinclair's "Brass Check."

    |To some of his closest friends he told the real object of his trip J
    Los Angeles. He told them that the Federated Press, which was the ',,1,
    radical press service in the country, could not exist on the support il n
    ceived trom labor organizations for two reasons: first it did not represfid
    the viewpoint of the great mass of organized labor, being far too advanoJ
    revolutionary for the conservative American-born working man; mu\
    second, that no enterprise was ever financed by "passing the hat" explain

    ing that he meant that the small contributions of organized labor were

    sufficient to keep the Federated Press going.

    Consequently, he said, the Federated Press representatives from Boali*
    to the Pacific Coast had been instructed to go after the wealthy liberal
    and get as many life members for the Federated Press League at $H).ii.
    each as possible. "Do not offend the liberals and do anything to n\m ■
    the parlor reds, he said, is to be the watchword of the Federated Prati
    Ihe interesting feature of this is that Rogers and many other representath
    of the Federated Press are Communists and their propaganda and motim
    raising activities pave the way for later penetration on the part of l!| Prince Hopkins and others. He addressed them on

    i i. .11 of the Federated Press, saying frankly that it was the only avenue

    [83]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    through which the Communists, the Workers’ party and the Trade 1 nil
    Educational League could reach the working class and all those intei
    in the working class struggle. He said that the Federated Press was in dirt
    need of funds and that he had been instructed to raise $25,000 in uj
    around Los Angeles. After his address he talked privately with moBl nl
    those present.

    Rogers left Los Angeles for San Francisco June 15. The radical land
    lady at whose hotel he lived said that Rogers did more for the radical cautl
    during his two months in Los Angeles than had ever been done before. Sf|
    said that he, under the pretense of raising money for the Federated Pn

    had collected more than $20,000 for the Communists. Part of the m<

    he said, will be turned over to the Federated Press but it will be spenl fa\
    the same purpose, for Rogers told her, she said, the Federated Presi .
    gradually growing into the one news gathering agency which is firmly con
    trolled by the Communists. Rogers collected money from the Liborflll
    saying that the Federated Press was nothing moTe than an independent pri

    service interested solely in getting the truth before the people; and fi

    the labor unions saying that it was about to become the official org;m oj
    the American Federation of Labor. The latter statement, however, drntf
    forth a rebuke from Francis Drake, editor of the local American Federation
    of Labor organ, who said that the Federated Press was spreading Comrmml |
    propaganda colored in the interests of disruptionists like William Z. Fi
    Alexander Howatt, and Curley Grow.

    1 1

    IU41

    CHAPTER FIVE

    "legal" organizations

    When the Communist party of America was officially declared to be

    Ull il organization in the United States, its avowed object being the

    iiliiow by violence of the established government of this country

    I I lin inauguration of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat here,

    Immediately burrowed underground — and continued to function

    li fni'ti greater activity. But in order to carry on the propaganda for

    (P nl form of government in the United States, as it was under orders

    in Moscow to do, it became necessary to find some way of "legal expres-

    n M in order to reach the people of whom it hoped to make converts.

    " M (LB no need to waste time, money and energy in spreading Communist

    , inda among Communists, but it was highly important that some

    " be found quickly to reach the hated bourgeoisie, to show them the

    "i" f Communism and to raise them to the high radical estate of

    ■tin,

    1 1 was also necessary to have organizations to secure funds from the

    nooisie to be expended in fighting the battle of the united front, for

    tCtioD against the present order of church, home and state. For it

    POOM from the outset, as established by the Russian Reds, the method of

    c mtinists to extract money from the rich to finance their overthrow.

    im matter was the subject of much deliberation among the members of

    huh i circle of the Communist party underground, and experts were

    nl 1 1 inn Moscow to aid in the solution of this important problem. Finally,

    hi” uric found and today there are four chief organizations, classed as

    1 1,” by which the fight against the United States Government may be

    II i IihI out and financed. There are also a number of subordinate bodies

    Htliiiip; to aid the chief “legal” branches as well as non-Communist organ-

    mimi the activities of which directly lend aid to the work “in the open”

    | llir Communists underground.

    The legal organizations are definitely controlled by the Communist

    ♦ ■!» of America which, in turn, is controlled by the inner Soviet circle in

    MU’uw- The programs for work by the legal organizations are drawn up

    V ‘In Central Executive Committee of the Communist party and approved

    Munrow before being put into operation by the various bodies whose

    iff* nre known to the public. It wa3 partly for the purpose of effecting

    nliict between the legal bodies, the Communist party of America and

    ■ Inn ling head at Moscow that the illegal convention of the Communist
    Ply was held in Brldgman, Mich., when it was raided by the Michigan
    i-i’ iinlhorities. The delegates to this convention, while influenced largely

    [85]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    “LEGAL” ORGANIZATIONS

    by the words and acts of the Central Executive Committee, were really i
    authorized representatives of the party to decide on the best means I
    putting into action the instructions from Moscow.

    An example of the activities of the legal branches of the parly i ii.
    dissemination of information regarding the interest taken by the Mo
    Central Bureau of the Communist movement in the situation in the Unlli
    known to as many working men as possible. By this it was hoped to allvm
    non-Communist workers to the ranks of the Communists, as the argmncil
    was used that the Moscow Government was lighting for the American worl
    man and woman. This document, copies of which were sent to all Com
    munist parties in the world, translated by the Central Executive Comni II
    reads as follows:

    FOR THE AID OF THE STRIKING MINERS
    OF AMERICA

    “Workers of England:

    “It is now four months that the fierce struggle of the American miniM
    with the Coal Barons is going on. For several months hundreds of id
    sands of workers without regard to language or race are defending rlinu
    selves against the attacks of the American Financial Kings. An arm, ‘
    hired workers from the camp of the bourgeoisie, the establishment of mm
    tial law, a whole army of provocateurs, have been unable to break 1 1
    unitedness and compel them to work for the exploiters for a further refluent
    pay.

    “THEIR HEROIC DEFENSE IS BEGINNING TO BEAR FRUITS
    “THE COAL RESERVES ACCUMULATED BY THE CAPITALS!*
    FOR THIS STRUGGLE ARE EXHAUSTED. AMERICAN INDUSTIlV
    IS BECOMING EXHAUSTED; THE CAPITALISTS ARE FACING TIIR
    MENACE OF A GREAT DEFEAT,

    “It is well known to the English capitalists that a defeat of the A

    ican exploiters will mean their own defeat and a strengthening of (hi
    English wage slaves. They have realized what constitutes their chi
    terest and are coming to the assistance of American mine owners. Tlml
    are loading and shipping to America a whole fleet with coal. Every stcnmJ
    with coal arriving in a North American harbor strengthens the fori
    the c’oal barons and nullifies the results which have been attained h\ ill
    struggling workers.

    “THERE EXISTS THE DANGER THAT THE STRUGGLE OF OLfl
    PROLETARIAN COMRADES, UNEXAMPLED IN ITS LENGTH AH

    i l i SACRIFICE, WILL BECOME LOST, THANKS TO THE INTER-
    IATII >NAL UNION OF CAPITALISTS.

    I’M* must be countered by the international unity of the workers.

    “KM ILISH TRANSPORT WORKERS, HARBOR WORKERS,

    II II US I IT IS YOUR TURN NOW. You must understand that every

    lliifj of a ship with coal being sent to America is a blow in the back

    i In. workers who are struggling there. You must understand that you

    ndering support to the capitalists to the extent of your failure to in-

    ■ with the delivery of coal to America.

    Tfou must understand that the defeat of the American workers will

    v\\ i My react against you. The reduction of the wage scale and the In-

    }imihd ill the working day in America will bring the same consequences in

    I,

    II you present against the united front of the exploiters the united

    I (tie exploited, then your aid will greatly increase the fighting

    Ik of the American proletarians, and will help them to achieve victory,
    .1 \i-ii, equally with your American brothers, will reap the fruits of this

    i lila is why we call upon you to:

    HASTEN TO THE ASSISTANCE OF THE AMERICAN STRUG^

    GLER!
    DO NOT LOAD COAL FOR AMERICA!
    LONG LIVE THE UNITY OF THE ENGLISH AND AMERICAN

    WORKERS!
    LONG LIVE THE WORLD SOCIAL REVOLUTION!
    ‘LONG LIVE THE COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL!

    “ZINOVIEFF,

    “President of the Communist International.”

    Anonipanying this appeal by Zinovieff were instructions to the Cen-

    | i lenitive Committee of the Communist party of America to promote

    ■lion in an effort to arouse the striking miners to a point of armed in-

    iinii. No opportunity is ever lost by the leaders of the world Com-

    vement to make of any trouble or disorder the spark to set off

    lii’il violence by which they hope to accomplish the overthrow of the

    in I. These instructions are verbatim as follows:

    riifl Central Committee of the Communist party of America must direct
    ilienlur attention to the progress of the strike of the miners of Amer-

    v-ii;itors and propagandists must be sent to the strike regions.

    “Il in necessary to strive to arouse the striking coal miners to the point

    ■ I insurrection. Let them blow up and flood the shafts. Shower

    | ih Ike regions with proclamations and appeals. This arouses the revo-

    iimv Hpirit of the workers and prepares them for the coming revolution

    Ui”iieu.

    “ZINOVIEFF,

    “President of the Communist International:**

    186]

    1871

    REDS IN AMERICA

    X>EGAL” ORGANIZATIONS

    With this background it is possible to understand some of the vv.
    that is being done by the “legal” organizations through which the Co]
    munist party of America is able to spread the propaganda looking
    the overthrow by violence of the Government of the United States uni
    orders from Moscow. It should also be borne in mind that these organl
    tions frequently change their names in order to mystify the authorities I]
    fool the public. First, probably, in importance among the various !
    organizations is the “Workers’ party of America, ostensibly a political pufj
    of the laborers. The documents found at Bridgman, Mich., demolish tjj
    beyond the question of a doubt that the Communist party control- it J
    directs every action of the Workers’ party. By gathering the labor.
    this country into a single political party and keeping them steeped in Coffl
    munist propaganda the leaders believe they can make converts of llifM

    The Workers’ party of America was born December 24, 1921, i\\
    convention called by the American Labor Alliance, secretly organized IjJ
    the Communist party as a “cover.” The convention call invited dch ■ ,i,
    from such organizations as the Finnish Socialist Federation, the Hmi
    Federation, the Irish- American Labor Alliance; and the majority of ill)

    delegates to this convention was hand-picked by the Central Executive C

    mittee of the Communist party of America. The delegates represctilnf]
    besides those organizations just mentioned, the Italian Workers’ Feder
    the Jewish Workers’ Federation, the Jewish Socialist Federation and lh|
    Workers’ Educational Association. They came from Massachusetts, Ni j
    York, Montana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Minni
    sota, Virginia, New Jersey, Michigan, Colorado and Kansas. There WAM
    164 delegates besides about one hundred fraternal delegates. One rouri
    sented the Industrial Workers of the World and two the African Rlood
    Brotherhood,

    J. Louis Engdahl, in opening the convention, said that it had I

    called for the purpose of establishing in this country a real revoluli*

    political party “to wage successful combat against and finally to acliinl
    the overthrow of American capitalism.” J. P. Cannon, at that time a rn■. nli which to continue its attacks against the capitalistic order. There

    llli h persecution as to make it impossible for us to continue the fight.

    1 !.;■ .lass looks with confidence into the future; it will be led by

    I parly which uses the well-tried tactics of the Third International,

    i [llli ni party which knows no compromise.”

    I In Workers’ party counts largely on support from the women voters.

    ■ i .nr wjis taken in effecting an organization which would reach all

    Dl working women, including, as the program states, “millions of

    nil farmers’ wives isolated from the general field of the organized

    I Iuhh struggle,” for it was deemed an absolute necessity to “win

    htm nti of the working class to the party’s ideal” and to “unite them for

    | link Idem to the general proletarian struggle.” Accordingly women’s

    |H linn wore started in various parts of the country with leaders whose

    Itu hided spreading propaganda, the substance of which, subversive of

    – lihtlioH, is dictated through the Workers’ party by the Central

    [891

    REDS IN AMERICA

    “LEGAL” ORGANIZATIONS

    Executive Committee of the Communist party of America.

    At the beginning of the railroad and coal strikes, when it was ti

    these troubles might lead to the longed-for General Strike which
    effect the violent overthrow of the Government of the United Stat*
    the establishment of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, it was quick I y
    that the women’s committees of the Workers’ party could do some excfllll
    agitational work among the families of the strikers. According I
    National Women’s Committee, which is a secret body, on April 1, I 1
    adopted and set in motion a program for women’s emergency work in
    mining districts. A form set of resolutions was sent out to all woi
    Communists in the districts to he adopted by the women committee* to i
    formed, and specific instructions were given the Communists of whirh il
    following are portions:

    “Before bringing this resolution to a vote/the members of the nUl
    [that is, the inner circles of Communists] and the Number One
    [that is, the women members of the illegal organizations of Comiminl
    should do a thorough piece of agitational work to insure its entmisli
    acceptance.”

    “As soon as the vote is taken, a meeting of women should be hi
    under the auspices of the union, A working committee should be appoint
    NUMBER ONE WOMEN SHOULD SEE TO IT THAT THEY ARE
    THE COMMITTEE, The Chairman, however, should be the local m\ n
    who has the most experience and been most active in past strikes, irr«p|
    tive of her being a member of Number One. This is important.

    “Other working women in the locality, who are sympathetic, sin
    by all means be encouraged to attend meetings and participate in the

    “Number One women must not use this committee for prop;
    UNCONNECTED WITH THE STRIKE, The efforts of Number One ■■
    be to create solidarity and morale. Plenty of opportunity for propazin
    on issues directly related to the strike can be found.

    “Number One women should suggest to the women’s committed!
    forming of a literature committee with a view of publishing a leaflet
    house-to-house distribution. The text of such a leaflet will be hv
    National Woman’s Committee. THIS SHOULD BE PRESENTED AS
    WORK OF A LOCAL WOMAN. It may be modified or enlarged
    local conditions.

    “The National Women’s Committee urgently recommends that
    emergency project, unanimously passed upon, SHALL REMAIN SECI
    AND NOT SENT OUT TO THE MEMBERSHIP AT LARGE,”

    Finally, thejast paragraph of the “Principles and Aims of the Worl
    party,” definitely and positively links this political organization with
    Communist party. This document was found buried at Bridgman
    the convention of the Communist party was raided, and the last parai
    reads as follows:

    “The Workers’ party declares itself in sympathy with the princ
    of the Communist International and enters the struggle against Amci
    capitalism, the most powerful of the national groups of capitalists

    i’

    lilttrfthip of the Communist International. It rallies to the call,

    1 1 « i of the World Unite,’ ,:

    I hi whole work of the Workers’ party is aimed to educating the work-

    i mid mass in Red Trade Union International ideas through active

    million in the political life of the country. The subtlety of this

    i I til preparation for future political action is cleverly conceived,

    I hiil for the fact that the connection between the Workers* party and

    i n authorities is now known, the results of the methods employed

    1 1 i v« been the source of much trouble in the future. This may yet

    Ni’il in importance, probably, in the legal organizations of the Conv

    • | y is William Z. Foster’s Trade Union Educational League. This

    I chiefly at the industrial life of the nation and is constantly at open

    in a minority organization with the American Federation of Labor.

    ill t and uncompromising attitude toward capital and its power within

    imnrlcun Federation of Labor show that it has large influence in

    in unitization and is constantly making gains within the Federation

    i hip. It was organized by Foster in 1920 and embraced at the out-

    i more radically inclined labor unions. Shortly after this organiza-

    i formed the Communist International promulgated the policy of

  7. Shortly after this organiza-

    i formed the Communist International promulgated the policy of

    I’rom within” the trade unions with a view to wrecking the trade

    1 1 vcment in this country. Foster was approached by the Commu-

    ■ m.l an a consequence he attended the Congress of the Communist Inter-

    II I and the first congress of the Red Trade Union International held

    1 ii w in July, 1921*

    |l|ion Foster’s return from Moscow the Trade Union Educational

    immediately became a propaganda agency for the Communist In-

    . mil and flffiliatp.d with the Red Trade Union International. Foster

    liriitcdly denied this, and has declared that no connection existed be-

    lu organization and the Communists. But, thanks to the Bridgman

    1 . iliite proof of his connection is now available. The Labor Herald

    i- ullirial organ of the Trade Union Educational League. The principles

    i |m. ; i un of Foster’s League were distributed widely throughout the

    ily in 1922 and the following sentences from it are significant:

    I Im Trade Union Educational League proposes to develop trade

    in l ■ “in their present antiquated and stagnant conditions into modem,

    |f fill labor organizations capable of waging successful warfare against

    I To this end it is working to revamp and remodel from, top to bot-

    ||n ii theories, tactics, structure and leadership- Instead of advocating

    vii i ling shameful and demoralizing nonsense about harmonizing the

    ■in of capital and labor, it is firing the workers’ imaginations and

    . I heir wonderful idealism and energy by propagating the inspiring

    i t)| the abolition of capitalism and the establishment of a workers’

    i i,.

    I lir Trade Union Educational League groups the militants in two

    l. localities and by industries. In all cities and towns general groups

    1 1 |m of all trades are formed to carry on the work of education and

    T90]

    [91]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    LEGAL” ORGANIZATIONS

    reorganization in their respective localities. These local general group i »
    iacihtate their work, divide themselves into industrial sections. . . . All tl.
    local general groups are kept in touch and cooperation with each ..il».
    through a national corresponding secretary. Likewise all the local indi
    educational groups are linked together nationally, industry by induiti
    through their respective corresponding secretaries. Every phase an,!
    or the trade union movement will have its branch of the life— ivin* ediu I
    tional organization.” c

    The entire work of the Trade Union Educational League is based u

    the following decisions of the Red Trade Union International:

    1.— Workers’ Control is the necessary school for the work of pre

    ing the masses for the proletarian revolution.

    “2.— Workers’ Control must be the war-cry for the workers of cvurf i

    capitalist country and must be utilized as a weapon to disclose fir. I

    and commercial secrets.

    «3— Workers’ Control must be largely used for the reconstruct!
    Of the outlaw trade unions and the industrial factions, the former I
    fiarmlul tor the workers’ revolutionary movement.

    “^–Workers* Control i s distinct from capitalist schemes, and to il..
    dictatorship of the capitalist class it opposes the dictatorship of the worl ….
    class. In the various activities within the shops the so-called revolutioi
    nuclei perform the various functions promulgated bv the Trade UniiiB
    International.”

    Who is William Zebulon Foster, familiarly known as “Bill” Foat«|
    The authorities have known that he was a “radical” for a long time, ai
    has been accused of being “Red,” but there has not been much proof offend
    the public on the matter. Foster himself has denied repeatedly thai I
    was anything but an honest working man, devoted to bettering the condl
    tions of his fellow-workers. He has denied that he was a Communist, t.ut
    at times has admitted that he was affiliated with the Communists,
    he went to Moscow he attempted to make the trip in secret, hut it b<
    known, and after that he was a bit more frank about his sympathies n.il
    the Red movement.

    Now it is possible to establish definitely that Foster is a Commune
    a paid employee of the Communist party of America, and that the Traill
    Union Educational League, of which he was the founder and is the
    is a branch of the Communist party designed to "bore from within" ill]
    labor union branches of the American Federation of Labor and de.Hh
    that organization.

    That Foster is not only a paid agent of the Moscow government bill
    is also a paymaster is shown by the fact that when he returned fron
    secret trip to Russia, he brought with him, presumably to carry on ( ni
    munist propaganda in this country the sum of $40,000. On anotlul
    occasion, in April, 1923, the Trade Union Educational League, of whl9
    Foster is the organizer and head, received the sum of $90,000 from Mosocfl
    In August, 1922, Lozovsky attended the secret illegal convention of il>.
    Communist party of America at Bridgman, as a delegate from Mo

    [92]

    li.

    i i

    1 -d over to Foster for the use of the Trade Union Educational

    the sum of $35,000, making a total of S^^OO 1 , It is not to be

    U i m<I from this that this is all the money that the Moscow government

    i In- Third International has sent to this country for the purpose of

    ItiilMy overthrowing this government, as undoubtedly many sums have

    ill of which none but the immediate parties concerned have knowledge.

    Foster has repeatedly denied that this League had any connection

    llh the Communist party, but we have seen how he has discussed it

    nly in the inner councils of the party at their convention at Bridgman,

    h. Among the documents left buried on the Bridgman farm August 22,

    !. when the convention was broken up by the raid of the authorities,

    s questionnaires, answered by the delegates in their own handwriting

    icd over to the grounds committee for safe keeping,

    I iter gave his age as 41, stated that he was born in the United States

    I WU married— each in answer to questions submitted in mimeographed

    1 I [e said that be used English "in the main," but that he could speak

    m .in and French imperfectly. "When not in party employ," he said,

    Occupation was railroading. He said he once belonged to the Socialist

    lv, and "has been active in the revolutionary movement" twenty-one

    ih. His present position, he said, was the only office he had held, how-

    h In the revolutionary movement. He had been "active in the Communist

    ■meat" one year and was at that time a paid employee of the Communist

    lv "if America, his office being given as "industrial director".

    In response to the question, "How many times arrested?" he answered,
    B] limes in trade union work", but gave two months as his longest
    it "I imprisonment. He said he had never been deported -and was not
    i < indictment. This questionnaire having been filled out before the
    il, In* statement that he was not under indictment was true at that time.
    ►•iiiin! that he was inclined to industrial work in the party, and that he
    I boon a member of a labor union twenty-one years. It will be noted that
    Moor union experience coincides exactly with his time of activity in

    lutionary movement in his own opinion. He said he was still a

    ■ D ii of the Railway Carmen's Union, and was formerly a member of

    BOmen, Street Carmen, I. W. W. etc.," and had held the offices of

    ;(gent, secretary and president in unions. He admitted that he

    I participated in scores of strikes in which he had "held a position of

    I • ihip" And he printed in capital letters, as if to emphasize his

    that he had never belonged to the Army or Militia.

    |o much for Foster's own story of his life, as told by himself. In

    1 tl may be said that he was born in Taunton, Mass., Oct. 25, 1881.

    i I'lOfi to 1911 he was a reporter on the Socialist Call, and when
    plod to cover the activities of the I. W. W. he became so interested

    I conization that he joined it. In 1911 he represented the I. W. W.

    ndicalist Congress in Toulouse* France, and announced that he

    ninny of A. W, Kllefoth, Assistant Chief of the Eastern European Division
    Miute Department before the Senate Committee investigating Communist
    R|t««fitn1n In the United States (Jan, 1924).

    [93]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    "LEGAL* 8 ORGANIZATIONS

    was

    a syndical-anarchist He also attended the anarchist conference ■
    Barcelona, Spain, on this trip and visited Germany before returning i
    America, Prior to this, his first trip to Europe, he took an active pari I
    the free speech fight in Spokane, Washington, and was arrested and Iffl
    prisoned for a short term for his participation.

    At the Barcelona anarchist conference the policy of "boring 1
    within" was stressed, and Foster immediately adopted it as his own, to 1
    used in his future battles in America. When the Russian Revolution cilffl
    and Lenin and Trotsky told of their plans for a great Dictatorship of [H
    Proletariat to embrace the whole world, Foster evolved his scheme M
    "one big union." These two expressions have been great favorites ol III
    —his pet slogans for years. The "boring from within" policy he hm ..,■
    plied to the American Federation of Labor, planting men within the orp
    zation to alienate as many members as possible from the strictly lull
    features of the Federation and convert them to the idea of "one big union
    As a member of the I. W. W. and the American Federation of Lnlmi
    foster was active in the strike of the Standard Steel Car Company
    Butler, Pa. He was general secretary of the Steel Strike Organizing
    mittee, principal organizer of the steel workers in Pittsburgh, and in I'M
    was a member of the Home Colony of Anarchists in the State of Wash I III
    ton. He organized the Stock Yards Labor Council in July, 1917, mi.l
    endeavored to unite that body with the I. W. W. The following yeai &
    left Chicago for Pittsburgh to become secretary-treasurer of a ej
    organizing committee of the American Federation of Labor in the I'm
    burgh district. He represented the Electrical Workers at the confernniH
    to organize the Iron and Steel Workers, in Washington, in September, 1 01 J
    and in January, 1920, he promoted the railroad strike.

    Foster is a believer in direct action, in force instead of the ballol |
    bring about changes in government, and in ownership of industriei I
    Labor, He is secretary of the Syndicalist League of North America

    member of the National Committee of the American Civil Liberties Ui

    one of the trustees of the Garland Foundation, and is a frequent contribiilm
    of extremist articles to the many radical papers in this country. He is tU
    author of several books intended to incite the workers to violence agnltid
    society.

    Before 1910 Foster was working to form the greatest revolution*!
    movement the world has ever seen, and so the plans of Lenin and Trol il
    fitted in exactly with his plans. The Russians had a better opporlnnm
    to put their revolutionary plans into effect, with the aid of Germany, I ■■<
    they found an able aid on this side of the water in Foster. By 1919 !).. |
    “bore from within.”

    After becoming a leader of the I. W. W. and touring Europe as ihft
    representative of that organization, he became so pronounced in his ni I

    !

    I im I lie overthrow of the Government by force and so insistent about “boring

    I within” as a fixed policy of any organization that could be used to

    mrthor his ambitious ends that the I. W. W. disagreed with him and he
    l»fl I hut party. From the beginning his plans have been consistent, with
    llin one aim of doing away with all organized government and giving

    t || jontrol of the world. His ideas were so radical that the I. W. W.

    iltd by contrast, and even Solidarity refused to publish his articles.

    Illli by little he has organized the radicals and Reds in all branches of

    [nduHtry, gathering them into the American Federation of Labor, until,

    li their influence and support, he has put himself into a position

    »«l Importance rivaling that of Gompers.

    In August, 1920, Foster met with representatives of twenty -four inter-

    Im at Youngstown, Ohio, to vote for a proposed general strike of

    1 1. 1 1 Industry workers. The strike was carried by 98 per cent, chiefly

    ■ li the efforts of Foster. He has always been interested in negro

    II IlieM mid in 1919 he promised Lee Fort Whitman, the negro radical,

    jllitl In would aid him in bringing the negroes into the steel workers’ union.

    || U ulleged that he was connected with a free speech campaign having to

    ih the Inter-Church World Movement in April, 1920. In November

    3 |ji til year he left the staff of The New Majority, with which he had been

    lili-niU’ied for some time, and organized the Trade Union Educational

    U.i|Hm for the avowed purpose of hastening the evolution of labor from

    Hull hi Industrial.

    Ill December, 1920, at a meeting of the Executive Board of the Meat
    UlltlfrV Union, held in New York City, he explained to the meat cutters

    I In v could strike to force the surrender of all the capitalists and

    Ll-.ii i he wage reduction and open-shop movement. He attended the

    IM Congress of the Red Trade Union International, at Moscow, in June,

    ■I M a representative of the Amalgamated Textile Workers of America.

    i i i in now advocating on all occasions, as a preliminary to centraliza-

    l ;.ll power in the workers’ hands, the amalgamation of all unions

    i lie same craft. In April, 1922, he stated in a speech in Chicago that

    l| llm workers receive all they were entitled to it would mean the elimina-

    ol the employer class, and referred to the coming struggle between

    I nod labor as the most brutal war the world has ever known.

    In advocacy of violence in the fight against capitalism Foster has

    ,, volumes. He was very much impressed with the French workers

    IrH and the destruction of property accomplished by them in their

    It was during one of his visits to Europe that he had an oppor-

    ol” studying sabotage at first hand, and on his return to America

    n»le: , • ,

    “Noxt to the partial strike, the most effective weapon used by tne
    nlmts in their daily warfare on capitalism is sabotage.
    i . rhaps the most widely practised form of sabotage is the restriction
    M ‘i. i workers of their output.

    “Thn most widely known form of sabotage is that known as putting
    ,„ liincry on strike.’ If he is a railroader, he cuts wires, puts cement

    [Ml

    [95]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    “LEGAL” ORGANIZATIONS

    in switches signals, etc., runs locomotives into turntable pits and m, .
    every possible way to temporarily disorganize the delicately adjusLnl ,,,
    road system. If he is a machinist or factory worker, and hasnl ,.- H ,|
    access to the machinery, he will hire out as a scab and surreptitious

    OfrTJ 1,’M h «*W°*** machinery or otherwise disable!
    Oftentimes he takes time by the forelock, and when going on strike ‘„
    he machinery on strike’ with him, hiding, stealing *o r destroying
    small indispensable machine part which is difficult to replace.
    . .. An ™? e . r kin< ? oi sabotage widely practiced by Syndicalists ifl |
    actics of either ruining or turning out inferior products. Thus, by ■ ■ „
    thdr employers financial losses, they force them to grant their deiri ,

    Sabotage is peculiarly a weapon of the rebel minority. Its sun ,
    application^ unlike the strike, does not require the cooperation o
    the workers interested. A few rebels can, undetected, sabotage and demorfli
    an industry and force the weak or timid majority to share its be.,,!'!
    itie byndicahsts are not concerned that the methods of sabotage imi
    underhanded or unmanly/ They are very successful and that is all 11
    ask of them. (Syndicalism., pages 15, 16, 17 and 18.)

    In advocating direct action as against political action, Foster wrol

    Ihe superiority of direct action to political action in winni.i,

    cessions from capitalism is clearly seen in a comparison of the Au
    ments to date of the direct action and political action movements.

    Ihe chief cause for the greater success of the labor unions than I

    political party is found in the superior efficacy of direct action to po

    action. The former is a demonstration of real power, the latter I

    an expression of public sentiment.

    /The campaign for 'law and order' tactics that is continually carr'J
    on in the unions by various kinds of legalitarians and weakling

    L oc 1 !, w Up ? n th ™* lt must cease " (Syndicalism, pages 20, 22,
    2% 25, 2o and 49* )

    Regarding society in general and his utter disregard for it V
    writes in Syndicalism, pages 27 and 28:

    ■ < \ reason to give the public the best possible service. The teachers

    I htivo full control over education, the doctors over sanitation, the

    I kefs over the transmission of mail, etc. This would certainly

    | I -‘I efficiency, for no other body would be SO competent to control
    In h v us the workers directly employed in it. Surely no mere legisla-
    inhlies could hope to be in possession of sufficient knowledge to
    Hh’lligcntly advise such groups of scientifically organized producers,

    control them.
    Wnli war, crime, class antagonisms and property squabbles obliter-
    Ititj the management of industry taken from its care, little or no
    Would exist for government. What few extraordinary occasions
    lci|iiiiing legislative action to arrive at some sort of solution could
    “II’ -I by the Trade Unions, which would still contrive to have many

    I Trade Unionism, pages 24 and 25.)

    | 1 1 ii Workers 3 party functions in politics and the Trade Union

    Hi hum I League in industry, so the “Friends of Soviet Russia” is the

    Nitmicial branch of the Communist party of America, A member

    1 i iiir.il Executive Committee of the Communist party is known

    bid that but for the funds collected by the Friends of Soviet Russia

    ilrusible purpose of relief, the party would hardly be able to

    tin’s country as a great portion of the relief money never leaves

    lllnl Slates but is used for propaganda. This organization was formed
    i I ihe Central Executive Committee of the Communist party for

    [97]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    the purpose of securing funds for the relief of Soviet Russia and bI
    expose and refute the lies which are constantly being circulated nljinij
    in the capitalist press and to present the real facts about Soviet llu
    the American people, and create a demand for the lifting of the bin
    against her and the resumption of trade.”

    CO

    Article one of the constitution of the society provides that tli«
    Uected shall be sent ”to Russian Soviet authorities.” The ormm

    organ!

    of this body was brought about by Caleb Harrison, one of the d
    delegates to the illegal Bridgman convention, and Dr. Jacob W. Ilmi
    The names of the first executive committee and advisory commit It
    prove its connection with the Communist party. The first-named coiM
    comprised Dr, Hartman, Caleb Harrison, Edgar Owens, Allen S. |
    Dr. J. Wilenkin, Dr. William Mendelsohn and Dr. Leo S. Reichel. I |
    visory committee included William Z. Foster, William F. Dunne, Rosi I”
    Stokes, Caleb Harrison, Robert Minor and Ella Reeve Bloor, all ..l
    delegates at Bridgman; Dennis Bait, Elmer T. Allison, Jack Carney, ],m
    Lore, Edgar Owens, Mary W. Vorse, Hulet M, Wells, Max Eastman,
    S. Broms, Joseph P. Cannon, Dr. Wilenkin, Dr. Mendelsohn and Dr. R| S
    The activities of this organization have spread rapidly througnoij
    United States and Canada. Branches have been established, prop
    spread by means of pamphlets, mass meetings and moving pictures. AIM
    tions with labor organizations, societies and associations have incj
    new relief bodies have been organized. A subsidiary branch known d
    “American-Federated Russian Famine Relief Committee” has been
    ized to purchase supplies with the money secured by the Friends of $
    Russia. Speakers from radical unions, I.W.W. and Communist or<2
    are touring the country in the interests of this society. Among the "…
    zations affiliated with the Friends of Soviet Russia are the following, all I
    bodies ;

    The Workers' party, Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia, th

    Workingmen's Association, Socialists Consumers' League, Russian- I
    Workers' Educational Society, Lithuanian Relief Committee, Amertiih I I
    anian Workers' Literary Society, American-Hungarian Workers' Fe
    and Labor Council, Montreal Trades and Labor Council, Amalgamatr.l ‘ I
    ing Workers of America, Chicago Federation of Labor, Detroit I
    of Labor, Seattle Central Labor Council and Tacoma Central Labor wt govern-

    … 1 1.. world. But

    i ir told that

    ni’rit allows

    . Itltilron o( 5 years

    I i,. work under

    n.litions in

    . factories and

    i r to get a

    || You are told that the organizations of

    . i like the unions and the communist

    wicked organizations that are unjust

    . … ■ itioble and bad all around. The child

    i- is taught to hate the working class

    it the capitalists.., They tell you that

    , ■ ig yon an education, but it is not true.
    I tihlv tcftph you enough

    The World Belongs To Us

    iting, reading

    and ‘rithmetic to make

    you able to cany on work
    for the boss when you are
    old enough to be dragged
    into a factory or a mine.
    In your religious train-
    ing you are told that even
    if things are bad on this
    earth, everything will be
    wonderful when you die
    and go to Heaven, for
    there you will be in Para-
    dise.

    But we do not want to
    wait until we are alt dead
    to go to a Paradise. That
    is all a lie. When you die,
    you arc dead and that ia
    all there is to it. We
    want our Paradise right
    here and now. We work
    hard and make all the
    beautiful things of life
    and we want to enjoy
    them now. And if we put
    up a good, strong ftghtfor it, we can have our
    heaven on earth, where we shall live like human
    beings and not like beasts in a hole.

    That is what the Junior Section ts organized
    for We want to get all the children of the work-
    ers united into a strong organization. We want
    to tight, all of us together”! The older men and
    women workers in the Workers Party : the young

    CG

    mmtat paper for little folks. The YOnnff Comrade, official organ of the

    Mt Ion. young “Workers’ Leag-ue of America.

    [98]

    “LEGAL* 1 ORGANIZATIONS

    I t nmmunist who was a delegate to the Bridgman convention. Minor’s
    m I | “luring the war which would have resulted in his execution but
    1 Influence exercised in his behalf is well known. The aim of this

    ■ i ton is to place the ideals of Communism before the youth of this
    IMh in m most subtle manner so that when they attain maturity they

    iliMiungh Communists ready for the work of moving toward the
    I iv violence of the Government under which they now live. This
    [rowth of the Young People’s Communist League and the Young
    socialist League. It was recently reorganized for “legal” propa-
    Bolshevist »
    aador to the United States. He desired to extend Russian relief-
    order to reach elements in the United States who would not con,,, I
    the avowedly soy.etized Russian Red Cross Society. A contract wa , ,
    into between the Russian Red Cross Society with Dr. David D,X
    Ohsol and Dr. Michael Michailovsky., as parties of the fiJtpar

    and James H. McGilI as parties of the second part. This conlracl » .

    fr/Te zr d r?n 8 r tract r the ?»« ° f ,he r-^” R d “J

    for the support of the American Committee for Russian Famine Itnll

    Ihis underwriting contract was not generally known and ,,,,
    he character of the three Russians were unknown “to the majority
    ons lending theu names to the support of the committee. Tl
    public indication appearing m connection with the Russian Red Cm.. ,
    that on the letter head of the American Committee, where was pr

    SL? n e fer„?” t: Distributing Thro – h “-*■ ™ c – 1 •

    The activities of the organization were first directed to holdin-

    meetings for the purpose of raising funds for Russian relief work, bu th,
    quickly took on a political character severely criticising the United
    and praising Russia under the Communists. Isaac McBride, fori,
    close associate of Martens and an active friend of Dubrowsky, early in ifef
    addressed a meeting in Chicago which opened with cheers for I , i
    lrotsky and the Soviet Government of Russia as well as for the Comnnnil
    party of America. In Milwaukee a meeting developed into a polillJ
    gathering for recognition of the Soviet Government by this country –
    Minneapolis a resolution was passed calling upon the United States Go ,
    ment to establish at once trade relations with the present Russian (.

    «wl ^ cBri ^ S f f’ ” W ** XG S° in g t0 ™*k the bourgeoisie of this r

    and they will he p us to keep up the struggle against themselves/’
    Kicker one of the parties to the underwriting agreement, said thai I.
    sympathies and those of the committee were entirely with the Soviet *
    McBnde also said that the American Committee was formed after
    realized that certain organizations, openly recognized as having Sovirl I
    ings, could not perform the same work. He said:

    “A number who were previously connected with the Advisory CotllJ
    have been eliminated for fear that their presence might be looked …..
    with suspicion by the general public. One of those eliminated is I ‘ill
    Post, former Assistant Secretary of Labor.”

    The activities of the Russian Red Cross in the United Stair
    became apparent in 1921 when Dubrowsky, Michailovsky and Ohsol f…»J
    their committee for carrying on the work. Charles Reck, legal reprc*«t||

    x Dr. Michael Michailovsky is identified in the New York Stata M Pf Un n i th™*—
    having an office at No. 18 EaBt 41st Street, New Tork City He *Sd mi? frr.™ ‘IJ
    Russian University in medicine in 1897, is a member of the AmlrkSi S .-?, ‘ 1
    Station and the New York Academy or Medicine, and is iStS ^ vS, *■
    matologist and urologist to the Sydenham Hospital A& ^silmr ,|

    Cloo]

    llii Soviet interests in this country, said that the Russian Red Cross

    id the two recognized Soviet relief organizations in New York in

    i 1021. The personnel of the committee of three Russians was

    liirh’tint feature of the scheme to those who knew something of the

    i. ul llii- Communist party’s work here.

    Innwttky had been a member of the staff of Martens and had been

    ir.l mi. the latter’s payroll at $50 a week. After Marten’s departure

    I v was recognized in radical circles as the unofficial representative

    nvlel Government, He was particularly active in connection with

    limit Public Committee, and was the instigator of the plan to transmit

    i… >.ii in Russia sums o£ money from their relatives in the United

    K The significance of this scheme was noticed in view of the exchange

    illiccd upon the ruble by Dubrowsky. When the exchange rate

    – I.-h than 4000 rubles to the American dollar, Dubrowsky was

    I. in 250 rubles to the dollar, and charging $10 for transmission

    ii<<t by cable and $1 by mail. Dubrowsky's activities along this

    m< Hqnelched by the Federal Government.

    ()||«iil was first called to the attention of the public by Senator Watson

    ■ • u.i, in 1919, when he was employed by the Federal Trade Commis-

    I In was charged with being at that time a pronounced Socialist

    .i ii virulent type. Ohsol was also a member of Marten's staff,

    I in,, nlir-1 a large part of the latter's commercial work. He is a
    ih.iih Bolshevik propagandist. Michailovsky is a representative of
    iiinsariat of Public Healthy an official unit of the Russian Socialist
    iJ Soviet Republic.

    nous efforts have been made to impress upon the American pub-

    i i he Russian Red Cross is not affiliated with* or supervised by,

    M.. inn Soviet Republic. This, however, is proved by an examination

    lln ..iilinances of the Soviet republic and the by-laws of the Russian

    itself* On August 7, 1918, "the Soviet of the Commissaries of

    ^puplr 11 issued an ordinance signed by Lenin as manager of the affairs

    1 1,, (iruple, and by the secretary of the Soviets, dealing with the Russian

    1 iu'm Society which says specifically, "The Russian Red Cross Society

    |,i i he high protection of the central institutions of the republic."

    idimmce also orders the reorganization of the society to elect, among

    Iim 4liin;vs the "immediate adoption of all possible measures for the

    of attracting to the number of the members of the society the

    i [Missible number of proletarian institutions, organizations and asso-

    li ivnn the Russian Red Cross workers in the famine districts of Russia,
    Mi. direction of the Soviet government, who gathered small children,
    .,;■ from hunger, into rooms decorated with the old symbols of the
    i. religion, and commanded these starving children to pray to their
    i .i food. When no food appeared in answer to their prayers they
    i inl.l lo pray to the Soviets for food. The children did so and the

    Hrw open as if in answer to their prayers and plentiful food appeared.

    Hi! by-laws of the Russian Red Cross Society, which were adopted

    [101]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    at a general conference held in Moscow on Nov. 20, 1921 com.

    following statements: J ' coma in I

    government. When Secretary Hoover officially warned the Amrri™,.
    he agamst contributing to these various Russian reTief bodit he
    Red Cross and the Friends of Soviet Russia became very busy cl ni

    Sove R^bl ' V; F vf' * rtanding for Russian Socialist Fed,,,,,

    sovwt Kepublic. These blanks were quickly destroyed in order

    connection of the organisation with the Soviet government mt ,!
    disclosed. The same policy was followed by the FriendTof sTvie
    In v.ew of this rt is interesting to note, in conclusion

  8. These blanks were quickly destroyed in order

    connection of the organisation with the Soviet government mt ,!
    disclosed. The same policy was followed by the FriendTof sTvie
    In v.ew of this rt is interesting to note, in conclusion there!,
    nouncernent of the executive committee of the Third InternatfonT

    We talk in two languages, that which we talk to the bouree n i,| B 1
    Our pSeris’th^ 1 1^ T ^ V^ ™ U P^etufe’

    CHAPTER SIX

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    Millions of American dollars have been poured into Russia, ostensibly
    tin relief of famine sufferers. It is now known that little of this money,

    ■ moll as was sent through the channels of the American Relief Ad-
    . m, the official organization directed by Herbert Hoover, Secretary

    iiimnorce in the Cabinet of President Harding, was used primarily to
    p [ft mine sufferers. It went first to the Communist Soviet Government
    i >n where its disposition was determined. There was the Red Army to
    I, nlolhe and equip; and the multitude of officials in Moscow to be
    ••! I mi. It is known that occasionally some of the American- contributed

    | Wont to famine relief, but it is also known that much of it never

    I. ..I imy famine sufferer.

    Onfl *»f the most pretentious “drives”, which was intended to secure
    |y million dollars for the Russian Communists, was that launched in
    ^ by Captain Paxton Hibben, acting for the Russian Red Cross, an
    pf various clubs, and has connections which enable him to enter

    BiMtlt’H of many loyal American citizens. His plea was based upon the
    F > ‘ ed ty the Russian Red Cross in MtllJ
    1922, taking the place of V. V. Chikoff as secretary of that organ
    In a circular widely distributed by the Friends of Soviet nW
    winch he later became officially connected, Hibben is quoted Lu
    the preset government of Russia, saying that they “have fou- ,

    S ° “Wta t\ L*£ 0t ^**™«J Chen’s reads as foUow :
    _ What J am interested in, and what we are all intere^f! it, T f.L.

    -.those people over there who have fought the £5 ^Ifit \h
    existed for four years in the face of an enemy world T S’ w I!m

    Jem lose that fight for lack of food of which ‘you and i h« pl^ty ,)

    millions of workers all over this country want to take up the fob of V .
    he tarvtng of Russia, when the supplies of the American Relief A 1
    nitration are exhausted, as workers, to help the workers of the onfy Gov”

    ™i:L:tziij> workers ‘ for workers in the wi * * •»«**

    throu^lT^ in ? Ca ?^ ha ! H * bm . ««picianed that the supplies fund I
    toragh the Friends of Soviet Russia and through the Russian Red Ci
    were going first to the Soviet authorities so that they might not “los ,l, ,
    fight for the ack of food,” although what was left might find its w v

    Wri R ^ m A e / U . ffererS “- And he Mm *^ *» ‘his slatement ],
    Amer can R e hef Administration, under the direction of Secretary HmivJ
    was about to cease its actual work of feeding the real sufferers in the I
    districts of Russia. Naturally, if the Hoover organization ceased fun, I
    mg there would he a better chance for the Soviet organization with , I
    Hibben was connected to raise funds in this country

    On July 1, 1922, Hibben sailed for Berlin on the steamship Horn* J
    to be present as a delegate from the Russian Red Cross in America i
    International Convention of the International Workers’ Famine Relief ( ,-,,
    mittee which was to open July 9 and which was convened at the mil
    ot the Supreme Central Executive Committee for Famine Relief, li
    called by the foreign” representative of this committee, Nicholas Krestin I
    tormer plenipotentiary representative of the Soviet Government in Ge. i
    Rut Hibben arrived in Berlin too late for this convention. He did
    ever, have a number of talks with Tchitcherin and made the statement ifU
    he had conveyed information between Tchitcherin and L, C. A K M
    the Bolshevist “ambassador” to the United States whose activities in |
    of the Communist party of America led to his departure. On July I
    Hibben left Berlin for Moscow, where he said he wae to act as a rniin
    sentative of the Society of American Relief for the Children of Russia |

    HKLIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    « It lie was a director, and where he achieved much publicity.

    Illbben’e work was fulsomely praised in the Moscow Izve&tia* the Soviet

    [ft] organ, of August 11, 1922, which printed an interview with him

    ■ lin li he said that the American Relief Administration would drop its

    ■ hi Russia and then relief would all have to be done through the Rus*
    > IE- .1 Cross, He also spoke of his relations with Dr, David H. Dubrow-

    I llOSe activities here in behalf of the Communists have already been
    I lie mentioned the fact that there were in Moscow at that time four

    ■ I ‘ H of the national committee of the American Committee of Relief
    ini ian Children, Rev. John Haynes Holmes, Frank P. Walsh, Dr. M.
    lollovaky, and John G. Oheoh The records of Holmes, Michailovsky

    I I thtol in activities connected with the Communist regime have been
    I in previous chapters. Frank P. Walsh returned from Moscow by way
    Mmilreal and immediately launched a campaign of bitter criticism
    Bll the United States Government for failure to recognize the present

    (rovernment, and spread propaganda as to the wonderful progress

    I hi that country under the Communist regime. He later became chief
    until lor the Bridgman conspirators at an enormous fee. The hvestia
    l> In nays in part:

    In our interview with Captain Hibben he declared that Americans
    ‘■v much interested in the welfare of Russian children, and that chil-
    li who became orphans in consequence of the war and famine can count
    llmiiHnnds of friends in the United States who will help them through
    American Committee of Relief for Russian Children, which is now un-
    ilic charge of Mary Lena Wilson. The activities of the American Re-
    i Administration developed to such a degree that many people forget
    tence of other organizations in America and other countries which
    i .n ry on famine relief work in the Volga region.”
    ‘I Inn. quoting Hibben, it says:

    “I lie Russian Red Cross deserves all praise for its remarkable work
    I with the perfectly insignificant sum at its disposal, getting the public

    i gn countries interested in the relief of Russian sufferers. The

    Relief Administration will, sooner or later, stop activities in

    i i nd will leave the country. But the work of the Russian Red Cross,

    e, will continue and try to cure the wounds of the Russian people

    ■(I l.v the famine and the blockade. . . * During the period Octo-

    I’ 1 K to June, 1922, the Russian Red Cross in America shipped food

    i i clothing and medicine worth $342,895 which were contributed

    I I uited States and Canada. The collection of money and other kinds
    l i . ilmtion is still going on. I have just received a cablegram from Dr.

    HUWxky, who is head of the Russian Red Cross in America and is just

    li from a trip to Mexico; his cablegram says that Mexico shipped 10,000

    « nl corn and 5,000 sacks of rice and a shipment of medicine to the

    ftlfli: Red Cross to be distributed among the starving. This shipment

    I I ■ ■ rond one from Mexico as a result of Dr. Dubrowsky’s efforts,”

    li a ill be interesting lu note here by way of parenthesis that the Mcx-
    i.ils had no illusions as to the disposition of these shipments. They

    E104J

    [105]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    were admittedly for the Red Army of Russia because, as E. PI I

    Calles, premier in the Mexican cabinet, said: “We are working toward U
    same end,” viz., the Dictatorship of the Proletariat, and that Russia ti i I
    better opportunity because she did not have the United States hanging
    her head like the Damoclean sword. These are almost, if not quit
    exact words of Calles to Dubrowsky, The references to the “Dam
    sword” is Calles’s picture to the Russian emissary.

    Hibben’s praise of the Russian Red Cross in America, of which li
    at the time secretary, in “getting the public of foreign countries inten
    has a double significance; for it is a part of the work of all agencies of
    Soviet Government, as officially prescribed, to disseminate Connmi
    propaganda on all possible occasions. Hibben went on, in the hm
    interview, to describe a new plan for subtle propaganda by means of I
    Cross*’ shops to be established in the United States to show how indushl
    the Russian people are under the Communist rule and at the same tiim
    raise money for the Soviet relief movement. He is quoted as saying:
    “In the United States the Russian Red Cross intends to mainhin.

    own existence quite independently and not to spend for administr;ii

    single copek out of the amount collected for famine relief in Russia. r>
    sary means for the realization of this intention will he given by
    row of Red Cross shops in important cities of the United States in whtf
    home made articles will be sold for the benefit of the orphans, victim* I
    war and famine in Russia, This enterprise will be not only a new umltjj
    of funds for relief work but will give to Russian home industry u 111
    market, for through these shops America will be given an opportunity 1
    get acquainted with articles made under such circumstances. Right now |
    dealing with the President of the Centroyuz (the Central Executive Commfl
    of the Russian Soviet), Comrade Khinchuck, about methods to realize 1I1I4
    plan in fact. WE ALSO ARE ANXIOUS TO ARRANGE A TRII’ 1
    RUSSIAN 1 DRAMATICAL ACTORS TO THE UNITED STATES, itt
    GETHER WITH MUSICIANS AND ARTISTS, who will under the an
    of the Russian Red Cross help to collect means for the relief of Rufl
    AND AT THE SAME TIME WILL PROVE TO THE AMERICAN PI HUH
    THE HIGH STANDARD OF RUSSIAN ART REACHED DURINi; j
    TIME OF REVOLUTION.”

    It is interesting to note that there are constantly offered for nali* I
    this country by the Friends of Soviet Russia, literature and suppliiw
    raise money for Russian relief* On circulars the public is urged to ”
    books, pamphlets, pictures, postals, leaflets, posters,” and the order I 1
    on which this appeal is made lists busts of Lenin for S3 and of Trull,
    for $2, which are said to be replicas of the work of Claire Sheridan. limit
    like “Communism and Christianity,” by Bishop William Mont; 1
    Brown, are also offered for sale in this appealj as well as writings of bill
    Reed, Albert Rhys Williams and Isaac McBride. Communist maj- • •
    and Red buttons are on the same list.

    Hibben’s activities in behalf of Soviet Russia make it inti
    to note that his experience has been vast and varied. His brilllimri

    [106]

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    Captain Paxton Hibben. Officers Rese-r-vp Cnnw TTnr+^,i c*„* .

    „l mind has never been questioned. His scholarship, while at college
    .,„„ lined him for Phi Beta Kappa, but he was not admitted. During
    ,li,. war in Europe his anti-British and pro-German sentiments made it
    mo advisable that he be not used for certain purposes m France Ihe
    ■ Imrities have documents showing that he was paid propagandist for the
    I trrk Royalists before the United States entered the war.

    He hi frequently referred slightingly to the United States £™en.

    I criticised it severely for its stand in regard to Commun st *»*»-*»

    I „ time when that same Russian Government was directly using every

    „■ at its command to effect the overthrow of the Umted S tate a by armed

    .H.cllion. Hibben had a troublous career while he was in the diploma Uc

    n’vi, e of the United States, which covered practically seven years in Rus-

    Mexico, Colombia, Holland, Luxemburg and Chile.

    libben has stated that he was always “passionately French mb

    athies but that did not prevent him from cha 1 enging a g-ch Torres-

    ,„ lent to a duel in Athens on one occasion early in the European War

    La Frenchman made a scene in a hotel room where H.bben was enter-

    l.lning a German correspondent and his wife at luncheon. The duel was

    |„., K ht with no injuries on either side. He was a great admirer of John ! Reed

    tin brilliant Harvard anarchist, later a Communist, and whose spectacuar

    ,-v was cut short by his death in Moscow. A year after Reeds death

    I ben was in Moscow, and in October, 1921, he was photographed

    ,,,!,,:,” a wreath on Reed’s grave. Reed’s widow, Mrs. Louise Bryant,

    i later associated with Hibben in his pro-Russian work.

    Through his connection with the Russian Red Cross, Hibbens plan

    „, ,-ivcd the endorsement of the Friends of Soviet Russia and the Workers

    y, both Communist “legal” branches. It is interesting here to note

    |,„l the latter organization was in desperate straits because of the raid at
    | R man, Mich., in August, 1922, when William F. Dunne the party .

    Ii ate for the governorship of New York, was arrested with a number

    Ser Worker’s” party men for attendance at the illegal convent,^
    lll.ninl orders issued by C. E. Ruthenberg, Executive Secretary oi die
    Workers’ party of America, called for immediate and effective aid from all

    n.bers of the party because “we are in the midst of a great campaigr .of

    .,11 defence.” He urged all foreign-born to become citizens not for pa tn-

    .easons but in order to draw them into the polmca life of the United

    Lt<» " These official orders were sent out from the national office on
    member 14, and announced that a Labor Defense Council would be or-
    lLr,\ at once and that it was necessary to raise "tens of thousands of
    Limn" Frank P. Walsh was retained and conducted the defense ot the
    !,.„,„„ prisoners. Robert M. Buck editor of Neu, Majonty off cia
    ,„»,. of the Chicago Federation of Labor, was chairman of the Labor

    , Council just referred to, and Sam T. Ha—a! one

    William Z. Foster's right-hand men who was active in the steel strike

    ! , | I recent convention of the Trade Union Educational League, was secre-

    Insurer of the newly formed organisation. The appeal was addressed

    "llistrict Organizers, Federation Secretaries, Local Secretaries, District

    [1071

    REDS IN AMERICA

    Executive Committees, Federation Executive Committees and Local Ex J
    tive Committees," and read:

    "Comrades; For your guidance the following statement of our poll) ,
    Committee ^^ ^ ^ formu,at6d b ? the Cent ™l Exn-,„, .

    "We are in the midst of a great campaign of self-defense by the worl In

    masses against, the ruthless capitalist offensive and the Central Exec

    Committee instructs all party units to put the following into action.

    I. loday our major campaign is to be directed against Governmonlij
    authorities who are attacking us rather than against the yellow socul, ,
    and trade union bureaucrats. The immediate struggles of the workr, u
    becoming more tense and taking on wider scope. We must develop to ill!
    highest point the resistance of the workers to the brutal attacks of Rovaffl

    mental authorities on the fundamental rights of the workers. The

    ion necessitates our following a policy which will draw into the conllM
    3S Tr maSS the wolkers regardless of political differences.
    A We must energetically propagate the idea among the workers thai il,
    onslaugh on the Communists and militants is a part of the attack Iain, || I
    against the working-class. Our activities in the strikes are the basin I
    this attack.

    tt "?'• 0U / 2?? 1 sl ° g ^ nS m this cam P ai g» should be 'Workers, Fifth! !',
    Unrestricted Right to Organize, Strike and Picket. Defend These H
    By means of All the Political and Industrial Power at Your ComirwVi I
    Our members must urge the workers to disobey the Strike Injunction n I
    to carry on the strike in defiance of the injunction.

    "Our rallying cries are: ,

    "'Down with Government by Injunctions!*

    ' 'Down with the usurped power of the courts!'

    "'Down with the use of armed force against the workers'*
    4 It is our task to organize the workers to demand and to attointtl

    to take the rights of the much vaunted American democracy. The C

    munists and all militant workers are part of the working class, thcrrfoi
    the Communists and all militants must also have the unrestricted
    ot tree speech, press and assemblage.

    "5. We must fight energetically to secure for all the foreign-horn
    workers equal civil and economic rights. We must wage an intensive
    paign for removing restrictions on citizenship and against the anli-nllnn
    Jaws. We must demand that the foreign-born workers have unrealrirl
    right to work. We must work diligently for the development of the *o||
    danty of the native and foreign-born workers. The party must maki
    following organization steps toward carrying out this program of agiUiij.iH
    and action.

    "(A) Our Federations should wage a vigorous campaign to hav<
    toreign-born workers become citizens. Not for patriotic reasons bill I
    draw^them into the political life of the United States.

    "(B) Our Federations should wage a vigorous campaign to havi
    toreign-born workers join the labor unions.

    [108]

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    t*. We must persistently propagate the idea in the unions and among
    skrrs generally of independent political action by the workers and
    1 need of a working-class political party.
    "Pniternally yours,

    "C. E. RUTHENBERG,
    "Executive Secretary."

    That the raid of the Michigan authorities on the illegal, underground

    nlion of the Communist party of America at Bridgman upset the

    1 Hi "I the Workers' party as well as those of the Communists, was evident

    other appeal, also sent out by Ruthenberg on September 14, 1922.

    || writ difficult to conduct a political campaign when the party's candidates
    H under arrest for conspiracy to overthrow the Government by armed
    (nun; and in this case the head of the principal ticket, that of New York
    IMhIp, was caught at Bridgman. William F, Dunne, candidate for governor
    I Nrw York on the Workers' ticket, could hardly appeal for any votes out-
    llil*' Ink traitorous party while in jail or out on bail facing such a charge.
    Hi" hrrond appeal was addressed "To All Branches, District Organizers

    I federation Secretaries," and read as follows:

    "Comrades: The National Convention of the party, which was to have

    ' I" M in Chicago, August 23th, will be held in New York City beginning

    Dnccmber 25th.

    "The immediate reason for the postponement of the convention was, as

    II I now, the arrest of the executive secretary, a number of district organ-
    l»i* find other party workers as part of the campaign of terrorism which

    iipitalists are waging against the workers in connection with the

    hike battles which have shaken the country during recent months.

    The first decision was to postpone the National Convention for two

    *4*, in the hope that those suffering under the persecution of the ruling

    COllld be quickly released and take their places in the ranks of the

    ilMv.

    "The party, however, finds itself face to face with this situation:

    "During the next month or two we must mobilize all our forces for
    Blue work. We must raise tens of thousands of dollars for bail so

    Ul nil our comrades can be freed and carry on their party work during
    m period in which their cases are pending. Only six weeks Temain before the

    ■HVfMiiher elections. We must nominate candidates and carry on campaigns
    1 i ■ vcr possible.

    "The present industrial struggles will be over by December, the lessons
    M iIi.h struggle will be clear and we will be able to base our new policies

    M lll( – developments which this struggle has brought to the American

    I ■■• movement The period from now on to December will be a period
    pnration. The convention must and will be a greater demonstration
    Ulrnngth to our party. Details about the convention such as agents,
    •MfpHlimiB, finances, etc., will be forwarded later.

    [109]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    "Let us take up immediate tasks of the party with entlm i. m
    courage. Let us build more strongly than ever during the coming itnmll
    and make the December convention a demonstration of the power <■! I
    movement.

    "Fraternally yours,

    "C. E. Ruthenberg,
    "Executive Secretary,"

    Details of the plans for the Labor Defense Council were also am

    on the same date by Ruthenberg. This announcement stated that the (

    Executive Committee of the Workers' party initiated this plan and \ [i

    carry out the work, but city central committees and branches were in li nil
    to organize local labor defence councils, to function under the mil
    organization, and to invite other working class organizations to send * I* I
    gates to the local councils. But in order that it might appear to be n |i
    taneous movement of all workers, instead of a carefully engineered ■ In
    by the Communistic Workers* party, the organizers were cautioned I
    these invitations "in the name of the provisional committee as a provi |<
    committee of the Labor Defence Council and NOT [capitals are It
    berg's] in the name of the Workers' party." The instructions sun
    st The local Defence Council should at once begin a campaign of
    tion and money raising. It should hold public meetings, send speufo ■
    the unions, have resolutions introduced in the unions and in ever)
    possible stir up the workers to the need of a united stand again i ||
    capitalist attack."

    A part of the plans of the drive of Captain Hibben for fund*
    supplies was directed at the small farmer and farm workers, who
    ready being assiduously cultivated by the Communist party of Aiut’ildi
    Captain Hibben ‘s idea was that the farmers had excellent crops, but n i
    market, in 1922, and that, therefore, they would be ready to conlilliUl
    out of their surplus products to feed the Russians. This appeal was
    by the Communist-controlled Friends of Soviet Russia and with the Imu
    ing of the new drive by the Hibben organization the small farmer* mill
    their hired help were flooded with carefully prepared propaganda dcM^nm)
    to appeal to their hearts for suffering humanity and at the same time i
    to them unsound ideas regarding “capitalist” society.

    The Communist party’s agrarian program which is now being pul ln|
    effect throughout the United States and which is admittedly a progfll
    which will require time and patience to carry out to its fulfilment, ■
    of the most cleverly prepared and thought-out programs thus far prodi
    In its preparation is shown surprising appreciation of the psycholii|i
    conditions and sympathies of the small farmer and farmhand. Tin
    gram contains many pages of carefully prepared statistics, maps and i
    showing “population-distribution,” “jobs of those engaged in agriculnii
    “farm wages and farm income,” “farms and farm tenure,” “comparii
    East and West ” “crops— production, distribution, consumption,” “lln
    cultural press,” “farmers’ organizations in the United States,” “the 111-41
    farmer,” “farm propaganda,” etc; maps showing yields, in million himUli

    i in, wheat and oats; primary markets, export markets, cotton area;

    ^unizations and agrarian press circulation.

    following out the program of the Communist party of America students

    ‘ I boon “planted” in various agricultural schools in the country, whose

    In to become proficient as farm laborers primarily. They are also

    ■ il” rd to inculcate as much of the Communist doctrine in their fellow

    id iiIh as may be done without creating trouble; but that is not their

    duty as students. After having been prepared at the agricultural

    In these students are sent to various parts of the country as county

    to Heek employment as farm hands, which is easily found, owing to

    I – -rlage of farm labor in these days. Then their real work for the

    i logins. They are organizers and propagandists, first, last and all

    j. They form nuclei wherever they are — two or three companions

    Imuift enough at any one place. This movement, according to the plans

    | ilr Communists, will have the ground prepared by the time the great

    1 1 strike comes and the Communists themselves will he able to supply

    Mi . cssnry food for the fighters on the side of the proletariat.

    Notes among the pages of the statistics contain such sentences as these:

    “Tlii* concentration of industry in the Eastern half of the United States

    ktnk rti n comparison from an agrarian point of view important because

    iiih to me the city proletariat will approach revolt more rapidly where

    ■ ei ni rated and would, therefore, become more dependent upon the im-

    i iic farms than upon those at great distances.”

    ‘Tine proletarian organizations among farm laborers are possible in

    i mil d way only where large numbers of workers are employed together

    tin v lire during harvest in the wheat and fruit lands of the West. These

    I workers are entirely distinct in type from the great mass of farm

    HllmiriN. The ‘harvest stiff’ migrates from farm to farm with numbers

    I liln fellows specializing in only one farm operation. He comes from

    illy ;md drifts back to it for the winter. He is more nearly of the

    The farm laborer is an all-round farmer. His point of view is more

    • iliii of his employer; he is paid by the month, eats with the boss, and

    Isolated from other workers. All these combined make wide-spread
    it inns among this strata of the agrarian population impracticable
    || n-ii impossible under a system of capitalist agriculture.”

    lln* program opens with a division of the United States into sections
    I’M h the Communists are working. This portion of the program reads:
    “The American problem is not composite; it consists of several dis-
    |d I problems. This is true because of the differences in historical back-
    ii U and developments which have followed separate courses, deter-
    IMih .I mainly by geographical conditions.

    Tin- United States should be divided into four geographical divisions

    and each section studied separately. First, its reaction to the

    ii capitalist pressure. Second, the particular policy and programs

    lilt will reach the individual farmers peculiar to that section — teach

    • • thfll in resisting capitalist exploitation his interests join those of the
    t 1’ioleiariat.

    [110]

    [111]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    “Studied from the point of view of the Proletarian Revolution ih

    following chapters of statistical references will show that four geogrnpl

    sections have a relative importance as agrarian units of the problem.

    “Least in importance is the West. It is the Siberia of America. ‘Ill
    great area, thinly populated, thousands of miles from the great indu
    centers of the country, is too remote to figure decisively in an Induslrldl
    Proletarian Revolution.

    “Next in importance comes the New England section. Agricultuwillt
    it is not self-supporting. It imports 75 per cent of its food supplies. |>|j|
    this section is important above the West as a unit in the agrarian problem
    because New England farms adjoin the great industrial section of tit-
    country.

    “The South ranks above the West and New England for two rensoni|
    first, it is distinctly an agricultural community, whose markets are within
    easy reach of the great industrial centers; and second, because it in-
    race problems. Some of the state populations in this section are

    negroes. These descendants of the slaves and the poorer whites are

    peting for the crusts under the lash of the Landlord System.

    “This competition has sharpened the race antagonism between tlin
    members of the same exploited class, whether skilled or unskilled labori j
    or farmers.

    “This condition must be considered in the program for SoinL
    farmers. It holds a menace to the proletarian revolution which will |n
    seized by the bourgeoisie,

    “Above all the rest comes the great producing empire stretching 1 1
    the middle Atlantic and including the Middle West, producing more
    per man than any other country in the world. Here industry is concent rtiiml
    Here the city proletariat and agrarian are hut a few hours apart
    section must be won over to the side of the city proletarian. All nil
    are secondary to the vital importance of this section as a factor in ilm
    success of the proletarian revolution.”

    It is explained that the statistical material used in preparing il>
    report containing the “agrarian program” has been compiled fron
    latest available sources, Government, state and corporation figures lining
    used. After many pages of interesting statistics the report takes up I III
    question of farm propaganda of different radical organizations, as fol

    “The Non-Partisan League is an organization of farmers in
    North Central States. They have gained control of the State govci i
    of North Dakota and several State offices in other States; also congressi«n||
    representatives from North Dakota.

    “Their propaganda teaches the farmer to ‘Fight the Capital isf
    is spoiled by holding the Non-Partisan League legislative program .
    cure-all. The following is quoted from a summary of a history ol ill
    League which was issued recently by them:

    “‘It is a typically Anterican institution dedicated to the principle lM

    the people should rule and that the ballot offers the remedy for econ ||

    and political wrongs*’

    “Ah a matter of fact, the actions of the Non-Partisan League are more
    tllirel than their polices indicate. There is a Left and Right struggle

    ■ Itllln the League at present. Connections with the Left elements should

    ■ made and they should continue inside the organization. Some of their

    i papers have a wide circulation; if controlled they could reach out

    Into more important agricultural sections.

    “The I. W. W« has based its farm propaganda on the mistaken as-
    nmption that agrarian conditions in the wheat States are typical; that the
    rntory ‘harvest stiff’ is the typical farm laborer.

    “In the most developed regions the same relations prevail upon the

    I h as are found in other industries. . . . The farm hand has become

    migratory laborer, possessing all the characteristics of his industrial
    lit other.

    “As the migratory workers specialize in only one farm operation.

    Mild only a portion of their time on the farms and drift back to the cities

    if! the winter, it seems obvious that they are not typically farm laborers.

    “The Socialist party farm propaganda was concerned principally in
    Mllng votes. Some of their leaflets were unscientific enough to use modern
    methods and machinery as a warning:

    ” ‘Mr. Farmer: The great machine is invading your field of labor. Ine

    imbine is coming your way. With it comes the big machine, drawing

    iwo ploughs with its seeder and narrower, the steam harvester and

    Higher of the capitalists. With them are leagued the railroads and the

    . II . In a few more years the capitalists will have you hunting a job

    I .lay laborer because you cannot compete with the corporation which
    ……Lines capital, the land, the railroads, mills, elevators and farm ma-

    phlnrryvjhat does the work of forty horses and eighty men at the same time.

    “Combined farming should not hp. used as a bugbear; it is a desired
    Neither should the level farms of the Middle West where thirty gang-

    -us can be used he looked upon as typical, A thirty-gang outfit could

    I ..u.llv turn around in the average farm field. On the other hand, the

    W..M thresher of the capitalists’ which they mention is universally used

    kllflicver cereals are grown; operated generally by a neighborhood farmer

    i Hide line. Farm propaganda should at least be edited by farmers.

    Particularly interesting in this report is “an outline of policy which
    »,,« adopted and is now being followed out by the agents and the Com-
    ihuniMt nartv under direction from the agrarian section of the party. It

    the necessitv for work among the largest element of

    ii r mm I party
    Pttil-i ns follows:

    “1, Emphasize
    i:ula« mass— the small farmers.

    “2 Use the common interest in the struggle against capitalism which
    , mm-, between the small farmer and the proletariat as a wedge to separate
    ■ I :,., a class from the capitalist and petty capitalist elements.

    “3, Use the farm organizations of the small farmers as a held tor
    m-mida. teaching them to strike rather than arbitrate.

    “I, Organize the agrarian proletariat wherever possible to luillrei the
    Lrk of preparation and separation of the agrarian elements.

    [112]

    ni3]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    RELIEF DRIVES; THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM

    “5. Recognize the literal necessity for the city proletariat to give Q
    some of its members to agrarian work.

    te I believe that proletarians in any occupation will react uniform!]
    to a proletarian revolution. That is, they will support the interests of till j|
    class. Therefore, the agrarian proletariat can be expected to suppoii il.
    revolution of the city proletariat.

    “An agrarian policy must recognize, however, that conditions today
    prevent the organization of the true farm proletariat. Nothing shoii S]
    revolution will bring them together as a class.

    “The policy must be directed to a preparation of the ground by prop-
    aganda to clarify the interests of the several strata within the agrarlM
    population.

    “When the city proletariat overthrow the bourgeoisie, the agrarian

    population should begin a gradual process of reorganization: first, thr

    farm proletariat must be organized into Soviets; this will be strength.,.. I
    by later addition of the more oppressed semi-proletarians: gradually il,-
    small farmers will begin to drift over until only those are left whose in
    terests are directly opposed to the proletariat.

    “This process will be completed rapidly and without friction only .1
    the agrarian policy during the pre-revolutionary stages is directed mainly In
    woTk among that element which makes up more than sixty per cent of il..
    total farm population— the small farmer.

    “The proletarian and semi-proletarian elements in the farm popubn

    are comparatively small No practical agrarian policy can direct itseli tfl
    these small unorganized elements as its dominant purpose. These den
    will ot necessity support the proletarian revolution.

    “On the contrary, a practical policy must be dominated by the r>Ul
    pose to guide the largest exploited elements of the agrarian— the anial
    tarmers. Ihese are organized; and their organizations are formed to ,. ,
    capitalist pressure. These farmers must be taught the direct issue bel
    tnemselves as a class and the bourgeoisie.

    “While their interests are not entirely those of the proletarian i

    in so far as they are the same they must be united with the proleta.

    from a revolutionary point of view it must be recognized that at
    whole the farm population is generations behind- The overthrow of il,.
    bourgeoisie will bring the agrarians in one jump to the necessity of coil
    sidering the reorganization of the very basis of their existence, that Is H..
    small farm unit— a farm operated by the farm family and one farm laborot
    I he combination of these farm units is a development which will follow Mm
    revolution; will come, as it should, gradually as a result of the aeparalim.
    ot the agrarian population according to their class interests. Whr.
    big farms exist the confiscation of these lands by the farm proletariat In.
    the state must be the first step.

    “The organization of agriculture should be much more rapid in Am. . Ii |
    than in any other country, because of the wide-spread knowledge ol
    advantages of modern machinery applied to the efficient unit of

    Communism cannot be preached to this small farmer element bcfmi

    [114]

    1 1,. revolution; and only by demonstration after the revolution. But what-
    . unity of interest exists with the proletarian must be taught; and the

    I economic weapons such as food strikes be advocated in their organ-

    (Htlona as the only effective means to gain anything from the bourgeoisie.

    “this policy will be effective only when well-grounded Communists

    In- spared from the ranks of the city proletariat actually to live and

    1 1 among the farmers.”

    The program now in effect called for a budget of $35,000. It included

    M outlined in this report, the organization of a “legal Agrarian Bureau”;

    Living or establishing a farm weekly paper; training of county agents;

    Ul inventory of all radicals in the agrarian population; and regular con-

    ices of agrarian leaders. In elaborating the subject of training of
    utility agents, the report says:

    “Believing that it is easier to make farmers than to make Communists,
    | | II a rounded young Communists who are physically strong and under-

    I I the situation they volunteer to enter, should begin training at once,

    I ling will consist of four months intensive practical work on special

    i i under the direction of the bureau. This will be followed by a winter’s

    r in a scientific agricultural college. After this the county agent will
    ‘ placed in an important agricultural section. He then becomes the out-
    i i in three lines of work: distribution of propaganda, source of informa-
    11 agrarian party organizer.”

    1 1 was decided to start ten young men at once on this course of training.
    IKrv must be self-supporting until they enter their scientific training in
    I ullrge, and $300 each was allotted for this college work. It ia interesting
    |il know that the “intensive practical work” is now being done on one farm
    ||1 i .mnecticut, one in the South and others in the Middle West.

    L115I

    CHAPTER SEVEN

    AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

    E

    Al ihe suggestion of Felix Frankfurter of Harvard, the American Civil
    Im Hurt Union decided to ask William Allen White to serve on the national

    ttee of that organization. Frankfurter, William Z. Foster, who was~\

    •th -il as fraternal delegate to the unlawful Communist convention at Bridg- \
    ■ tn. Mich.; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Crystal Eastman. Roger N. Baldwin, \
    In., i, Hillquit, Scott Nearing and many other radicals, some of them Com-
    hiihH’s are members of the national committee of this organization; andj

    Itlln’n defiance of his friend, Governor Allen, in the 1922 coal strike
    h..iiUrn in Kansas was the recommendation for White’s availibility as a

    I lUceman,

    The American Civil Liberties Union is definitely linked with Com-^j

    n through the system of interlocking directorates, so successfully \

    I by the Communist party of America in penetrating into every possible

    i/nlion with a view to getting control so that when the time comes

    I he great general strike which, they believe and hope, will lead to the

    ■ iiinw of the United States Government by violence, they will already

    licse bodies definitely aligned with them. The party has several mem-

    in the American Civil Liberties Union and the constant activities of j

    lltii I •■ i<Iy are proving of great moral and financial benefit to the Communists^,

    Hose Pastor Stokes, who was a delegate to the illegal Bridgman con-

    t i, was one of those reported present at the meeting of the Executive

    HHiiinittce of the American Civil Liberties Union, on August 23, 1922, at
    i lion's headquarters in New York, although she was not a member of

    i mmittee, when the decision was reached, after discussion of White's

    wtitnliility as a member of the National Committee, to elect him to the
    uiHithiittre if, upon inquiry, it was learned that he would accept. Among
    hers at this meeting were Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Robert Morss Lovett,
    . | incident of the Federated Press League, the connection of which with
    » Communist party has been shown in a previous chapter. Lovett wrote!
    | |ln Communist leader. Bruce Rogers, in Los Angeles, to canvass the!
    iiHlnii picture colony, giving the names of several prominent movie people!
    • with us," and who "helped us before and will do it again"; Nor-
    1 Thomas, Walter Nelles, B. W. Huebsch, the well-known publisher,
    i rr N. Baldwin, the "slacker" during the war who served a sentence

    uii and who is one of the active heads of the organization.
    Al this same time meeting of the Executive Committee it was also de-|

    and

    n

    arrange a meeting for Senator Borah on the amnesty question am

    [117]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    to supply funds for the meeting. This is not the first time that Senil
    Borah's name has appeared in the minutes of the meetings of the Amor I
    Civil Liberties Union, for he has asked this radical organization to I
    pare bills for him to introduce in the Senate of the United States, I
    minutes of a meeting of the Executive Committee, on October 3, 1921, roi
    that Senator Borah asked, through Albert DeSilver (among whose othfl
    activities was that of being treasurer of the I.W.W. Defense Fund) thai M.
    Union draft bills repealing title 12 of the Espionage Act, under which llm
    postal authorities still censored the mail. Included also were to be ninnid
    ments to that section of the obscenity statute which would eliminair |H
    words "tending to murder, arson and assassination" under the "mderrwl
    definition. The minutes of the following meeting, on October 10, shoM lh|
    DeSilver reported that the two bills had been prepared and forward"! |
    the Senator. In the minutes of the April 17, 1922 meeting, we read: "TH
    material for Senator Borah has been submitted to him and it is expooMl
    \ he will make his speech to the Senate in a comparatively few days."
    LM a y 1 '* was reported Senator Borah was still contemplating his speech
    p^ Complaint has frequently been made that the American Civil Lihnlh'i
    I Union is never exercised about predicaments in which poor men, who m
    \ not radicals, find themselves. Their interests and activities are alw
    without exception, in behalf of lawbreakers of the radical criminal clfltf
    A survey of the National Committee of this Union shows at once that |<i
    ;
    in regard to the I. W. W.» the Mooney and Billings cases, and similar Imll
    viduals and organizations; in the cases mentioned the American Civil I

    fH

    U18]

    Ufiyr vml Charier, M ‘ Lathtofa Executive Secretary of the -De-
    bar tout nl of Social Service of the Natio nal CoKuHnTTh^

    EpUCGpat Church: ” ~” ■ — —

    *’Oup goy-mirtkmt particularly in the arrest of the aliened
    C&tnmiitu*t9 =i*i Afrch-igan ■ seems -to take the position that it is a
    crime >to_ he a commmrist; I cannot help but be reminded af
    the original- COmmrniKts who were Mie first converts to the
    Christian faith. ■ If “the-Roman Government in the early days r>£
    Christianity had taken the sane attitude, the entire Apostolic
    College would travejieen arrested. Saint Peter, Saint John and
    the rest of them^ They woulc have been in the same position
    as. Mr. Foster. Mr. Kllthenbcra and the others are ^to-day. For-

    tunrJtely the Imperial Government of Rome at that time was
    not |sa reactionary. As an American citizen and speakine for
    myself, I want to take- my stand on the basic right for any-
    body in the United States to be a communist who wishes to
    be one.

    ^

    The Jesus-Thmk

    ers

    By Michael Gold

    JESUS KUlIered, and iied for EGmethina; he believed good;
    he »M Jiot a verbose, tricky jaurnnliHt, a suiitasaful per-
    son, a cunning exploiter of labor, or evon a politician, and
    for this wfrtofuat respect him. For liis age Jesus was un-
    tlniiBtedly on Innocent aiid bcaul M poetical voice of oil i hal
    k beat in. tho I ;■ : ; in of the animal Man; .we cm love him
    for that, qa wq 1»>i Sbelley and Whitmrin. We have nil of
    us his tender flnild-hnnEM In our-Veins, that makes ua dream
    of c simple and gentle world; where there is ne strife, where
    All is mild and fraternal, Had where men are m little chil-
    dren, it is a bbuuMfal vnakncts to try to live in that world
    now. It Is a cowardice, too, and must be extirpated from
    dSit’jg soul with :■. terrible knife if one is to become a m–
    The tpil-it of Jesus, Hia legend in anu’s htoori, )«»
    fusion, inflffeclLveiUiSS, and despair in lb
    Exactly a3 Wc must Jcarn to- break

    fathers -to bMcme men,
    Father of Jesus, and ?>

    -m*..^ ^\W V ..^^

    ii”^ 1 9*” J __^#*^ V humanity.

    type of supci bi i:i,’, but he makes the typical Je.iUj-miiii.in.
    of refusing to admit that Ihcjre &r« obstacles ia the uatli |j
    such a world. There are rjovemmenta, policemen, eapjj ill |
    politicians, brinies, SQVi«3, gunmen, the state. To Ihu JlWI
    thinker there count for nothing. It 1e neeessaj-y wily I.i in
    noble and to nave other. souls for. □.ability. It is not in
    .<

    stiry to think out plans for im. ting the opposition, |W

    is no opposition to nobility. It ia nut necessary in iliiuli
    about what might happen if millions iff the peor IBCJlll I

    rose n^ain'it llic r?ch ; end the rich turned machine fti »■

    them. It i,: not neceeoary to think about what to i!o nllli
    nwn who try to assassinate the leaders of a fiw and In
    tsmal world, (is they who sought

  9. It i,: not neceeoary to think about what to i!o nllli
    nwn who try to assassinate the leaders of a fiw and In
    tsmal world, (is they who sought In assussinalc I.- in.
    . The Jesus-thinkerg, care ‘only for the nobility and |ii>nli
    Of their own souls, they are ethical. JJut does u I. ■ i

    dream af ethiea when he Is cutting sonl-e rotten Both I |

    Hie aide el a sick maul Dees a drowning awimmcr Uilnll •■’
    nobility and pyrjty when ho is emight by an ‘underlov’J He
    ‘Inks only p-f objective things, of the force of the wa»in. II.
    •Iks of nlsWri forw,, The doctor thinks scicntiUcolli- Mh*n
    . performing- an operation. There Is a science In hutiiku
    tV. too; that is What the .1 ■ ‘..-. A.i: -..-..:. will netri *il

    They mistake their own longings for Lha n

    ‘I’li’-y are CROtixti, worried i ■ I . – ■ . ■ ti.i.

    refuse to 6e «bjwtive. It j;, inn r-lldml

    ^i . — . «j^»,tn acknowledge that the niajorilx nf men

    Rev. Harry F. Ward of th G American Civil Liberties Union exprai
    apinion of the j’aid upon tlie Communist Convention at Eiidbinan in the Jan
    issue of the Social Service Bulletin of the Methodist Federation for Social
    A similar expression from Rev. Charles M. Lathrop, executive secretary of the I0«]
    ment of Social Service of the National Council of the Kpiseopal Church. :..\
    want to make my stand on the basic right for anybody in the United States i>.
    communist who wishes to be one.”

    A pag-e from Mas Eastman – .? Liberator, Sept. 1922, showing title, “Tin. M
    Thinkers” by Michael Gold. Among other things, Gold says: 4 ‘The lege ml ..r i
    is more beautiful to me than the legend of Jesus. * * * The Russian ilnl In
    will leave the world a better place than Jesus left it.”

    AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

    Union was particularly active, in an effort to prevent the criminals
    1 1 i>iii paying the penalties imposed by the courts of the country for the
    iihih-h committed. It was also exercised over the predicaments of Com*
    ihimmhIk in various parts of the country who were sentenced under the antj^
    |yi,dl Cfllist laws of different States; and it is not infrequent to find notation^
    in i In- minutes of their meetings that appeal to the Supreme Court of the
    [jlillod States will be taken in an effort to save the radicals convicted of
    ipiracy to overthrow by violence the Government of the United States,

    The activities of the Union, however, do not stop with trying to aidr-
    unmunists and other radicals and criminals after they have been con-
    Ifltilnd of crimes, but it conducts political campaigns in various States in
    mi effort to bring about the repeal of laws enacted to protect the Govern
    Hivtil from conspiracies directed from Moscow, and it provides money
    for the Communists with which the anti-American fight may be conducted^
    Hut minutes of the Executive Committee meeting held May 8 t 1922, show
    I In* following entry:

    “An application from the National Defense Committee for a loan of
    |MH) for ninety days was noted, and was referred to Mr. Baldwin to ne-
    Miiiinlc on his personal responsibility with the general approval of the
    1 iiltee.” — ^

    Il is interesting to note that this National Defense Committee is wholly 1

    U

    I ommunist, controlled from Moscow, one of the many “legal”‘ organizations
    i in- the work of the secret Communist party of America. Its membership
    ■ entirely of Communists, most, if not all, of them in attendance on the
    lllogiil. underground Communist convention at Bridgman. This committee
    nude up of Max Bedacht, J. E. Ferguson, L. E. Katterlield, Edgar
    “. . ii 8 and C. E. Rutherberg. And this is the organization for which the
    [merican Civil Liberties Union authorized the negotiation of a loan “with
    I In* full approval” of the Executive Committee.

    The chairman of the American Civil Liberties Union is Harry F + Ward,
    id. preacher whose utterances in the Methodist Textbook on radicalism

    III nl a scandal. He was formerly connected with the Boston School of
    lliniilogy, is a teacher of Christian Ethics at Union Theological Seminary

    I has been a leading factor in the Interchurch World Movement and the

    i I i jited Council of Churches of Christ in America. His sympathy and
    (Humiliation with Socialists, I. W. “W., radical and other anti^American
    lUiivements have been notable. He was a pacifist during the war, and prac*
    n. ■■ 1 1 v all of his associates in the organization have records as pacifists and
    fUfuilists in those troublesome days, some of whom were imprisoned for

    1 1 <:fusal to fight when the United States was at war or for endeavoring'

    i l.iing about the defeat of this country by actively aiding the enemy. –

    Ward's activities are best illustrated by citing a letter which was given
    •nit by the American Civil Liberties Union in April, 1922, and which was
    BlIilirnHed to Congressman Martin B, Madden, chairman of the House Ap-

    .i..|. Millions Committee. In this, he attempted to influence Congressman

    ,il.l-n for the purpose of securing a cut in the appropriations intended

    1 1. 1 I Ik- use of that executive branch of the Government which has most

    [119]

    3

    ';;

    REDS IN AMERICA

    AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

    to do with the suppression of revolutionary radicalism and empha
    the specious claim that at that time radicalism was on the wane. V
    letter contained the following;

    "Radical activities in the United States have greatly decreased sillO
    1919. , . . The underground propaganda … is obviously llml
    conducted by the Communists in the United States, The fact that propagnnfl
    is underground is due entirely to the repressive measures directed again*! U
    . . . The Soviet government is not responsible for this propaganda I
    is a part of the international, revolutionary, working-class movement allill
    ated with one or another of the international bodies which express iins of the laws of the country. Soon after the formation of the Union
    i find the names of Amos Pinchot, brother of Governor GifFord Pinchot

    »f I’pimsylvania, as vice-chairman, and Scott Nearing and Max Eastman on
    |f Kxccutive Committee. And in the two years of its existence it has been
    llml by all radicals to fight the existing Government of the United States,
    i i illymg cry of “free speech and free press” brought many well-inten-

    i <l people into its ranks and hundreds of others to place their names

    mm ilir lists of contributors. The difference between free speech and the

    iMnplrncy to overthrow the Government is not drawn by the leaders of the

    uu'nt. Freedom to them means the license of treason and sedition. Za-

    Chaffee, colleague at Harvard of Felix Frankfurter, writes, preaches

    ■ I |.iTsumably teaches that there should be no law against anarchy or
    Million.

    The directors of the American Civil Liberties Union hold that citizen-

    |p |uipers should not be refused an alien because of his radicalism, no

    of what degree. They profess to believe that no persons should

    rtifused admission to the United States, especially radicals^ and that

    I 'i should not be deported for expression of opinion or for membership

    imLal or even revolutionary organizations, even if they aim at the

    I 1 1 i.t ion of the Government and social system of the United States. _^ i

    The methods to be employed in securing civil liberties by this Union,
    i tnntend, is through maintaining an aggressive policy. This can be

    [121]

    ^-^

    REDS IN AMERICA

    AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

    m i

    Is*

    obtained by unions of organized labor, farmers, radical and liberal
    ments, free speech demonstrations (as they interpret free speech), ptll

    licity through circulars and posters, but more particularly through pel '

    influence with editors or subordinates on reputable newspapers, whii li
    also their chief means of spreading subversive propaganda, and legnl dfl
    fence work. Thus the Union creates in the minds of Communists, Anarchl I
    and all classes of radicals the idea that it is improper for anyone to interM
    | with their activities aimed at the destruction of American institutions.

    The activities of this organization are extensive. It assists any rndiolj
    ; movement through publications of high standing in order to in flu i ■
    , public sympathy toward the radical organizations, furnishing allorniH
    i for radical criminals, conscientious objectors and radical or foreign §p||
    \ "bores from within" in churches, religious and labor organizations W
    men's Clubs, schools and colleges and the American Federation of LobOl
    in order to spread: radical ideas. The union maintains a staff of spenkl I
    j investigators and lawyers who are working in all sections of the count I
    j Lawyers are furnished on short notice wherever a radical criminal geli Lnl
    trouble. A press clipping service is maintained which keeps the org
    tion in close touch with every radical criminal or group of radical criminal!
    in trouble and immediate financial aid, publicity and counsel is offend

    Aiding in this service are some 800 cooperating lawyers, and more thl

    j thousand correspondents and investigators, representing 450 weekly Inbofi
    J farmer and liberal papers with 420 speakers and writers.
    J=r The American Civil Liberties Union was particularly active in aiding tl||
    1 Communists caught in the Bridgman, Mich., raid. It was active in beball Qj
    trouble makers in connection with, and prominently identified with tin utJU
    and railroad strikes, the Amalgamated Textile Worker's strike in Pa
    N. J., the National Committee for organizing Iron and Stsftl Wor!
    Duquesne, Pa., the Socialist party at Mt. Vernon, NT., and in fighting M
    State Supreme Court's rulings on free speech during 1920, and the Sni
    Vanzetti defense in 1921. An office is maintained in Washington with tlt<
    Federated Press organization to handle matter requiring direct contact nillt
    the Government. A special drive was engineered and directed by the UnlH
    seeking amnesty for so-called "political" and industrial prisoners, pr. ,
    who had been duly convicted of crime against the laws of the count r)
    The organization established branch offices and bodies were formed umlti
    other names* It maintains separate funds such as an "amnesty fund" …. i
    an "L W* W. Publicity Fund."

    1 In addition to the regular services already furnished, an extra pn
    was put forth upon which special efforts were devoted. This pnnn
    included: amnesty for 150 "political prisoners" of whom 103
    members of the I. W. W. ; test meetings as a basis for getting laws 1« I
    the courts on the question of free speech; a special campaign again*! till
    American Legion and the Ku Klux Klan; completing studies on injun
    and advising tactics for labor organizations; a campaign in school
    colleges for "academic freedom"; and further development of the Nal
    Bill Fund to reach all defendants in "civil liberty" cases.' The policii

    [122]

    i. -uganization are determined by the National Committee and the carry-l
    hi,. • of treason and sedition.

    I Ik- following paragraphs from the 1920 Lusk Committee report uon-
    ibe American Civil Liberties Union, will prove interesting at this

    “An examination, however, of the propaganda and agitation which has

    n carried on in favor of the forceful overthrow of this Government shows

    B|| ii does not consist of a mere expression of opinion, but invariably

    1 ih-H measures for its effectuation. In other words, the representatives

    ■ n >lutionary Socialists, Communists, Anarchists and other groups, state
    «’ i l.y doing certain acts this Government may be overthrown and in each

    I hut the agitator urges his hearers or his readers to commit those acts.

    well settled principle of law that any reasonable man is responsible

    In logical and reasonable consequences of his acts and utterances.

    “While the Constitution of the State of New York guarantees the right

    i ii speech it also contains the warning that the citizen may exercise it

    i ■ ii- ponsiblt’ for the abuse of that right.’ The effect of the activities

    i tin American Civil Liberties Union is to create in the minds of the ill-
    nni-il people the impression that it is un-American to interfere with
    cllvltles of those who seek lu destroy American institutions. They
    . influence legislators and executives to repeal or veto any act calcu-
    li]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    lated to protect the State or the Federal Government from the attackl

    agitators.

    _ “It is interesting to note that the anxiety of the American Civil Liboi i [i

    Union is shown only where the abuse of free speech is called in quoi

    because of attacks upon property or Government. The committee doeB ill ‘
    find anything in their literature which seeks to prevent a man from bold

    punished because of libel or slander or because of licentious or inn

    speech or writing. These writings or utterances are penalized unuY
    institutions because they are deemed to be abuses of the right of free spoi 1 1.
    and that they will tend to destroy the reputation of an individual or till]
    will lend to corrupt public morals. If the principles set forth in tfi|
    ‘Statement of Civil Liberty’ . . . were carried into effect, libel, standi
    and immoral or lewd writings and speech could not be punished.”

    After some further analysis this report says:

    “THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, IN THE LAfl
    ANALYSIS, IS A SUPPORTER OF ALL SUBVERSIVE MOVEMKNT’.
    AND ITS PROPAGANDA IS DETRIMENTAL TO THE INTERESTS 0|
    THE STATE. IT ATTEMPTS NOT ONLY TO PROTECT CRIME HH’I
    TO ENCOURAGE ATTACKS UPON OUR INSTITUTIONS IN EVIIh
    FORM.”

    / The union is closely identified with groups in practically

    city in the country known as “parlor Bolsheviki.” Speakers are furnishl I
    for these dilettante radicals whose influence would amount to little l)(l|
    for the fact that they can be counted upon for financial contributor
    any movement that promises them a thrill. It has been said that imiijy

    | idle men and women become identified with this parlor Bolshevik movon

    through emotionalism and because it gives ihem something to think ah

    , Whatever the reason, the Communists and the Civil Liberties Union agitnloU
    make use of these groups for financial aid and as means of spreadh)
    aganda..

    Just at present the Workers’ party of America is receiving the attttl
    tion of the American Civil Liberties Union, and through that organ i/iil
    the aid of the parlor Bolsheviki. The Workers* party being the “N
    j expression” in politics of the Communist party of America, and its stand
    ■ bearer in New York, William F. Dunne, being charged with criminal
    spiracy for his participation in the illegal Bridgman Communist convcnll
    the party is having a hard row to hoe. Among other attempted artivi
    at this time is an appeal for funds from any source.

    The Workers’ party as a branch of the Communist party, has urrmi
    to the “sucker lists” of people who have contributed to the finances n(
    the party in various cities, and besides has “sucker lists” of its own whli ‘
    . are shared with the Communists. The most remarkable feature of ih In Mi^w York, was in hiding for some months after the Bridgman Con-

    in was raided, and this had embarrassed the party, especially with

    . the leader, in jail, or out on bond. However, Weinstone, who is

    ft llinivn Communist, still sent out orders for the campaign from his hiding-

    The party had difficulties in obtaining signatures to get the candi-

    Hulim on the ballot, as the membership, dismayed by the publicity attending

    ection of the party with the illegal Communist party, was unwilling

    | I ieh the signatures to the petitions. Thev were, therefore, compelled

    i v men to do this work and, by order of E. Lindgren, who was held by
    lute of New York for extradition to Michigan charged with having
    ipiited in the illegal Bridgman Communist Convention, were asking

    I him fur funds to get the paid solicitors busy. This is where the “sucker

    lliln” prove their worth. The apprehension felt by Weinstone, in his hiding
    him r, was indicated by the following letter which he sent out under date
    |if Nq. lumber 25, 1922:

    “To All Branches of the Workers’ Party Local, Greater New York.

    “Ili-fir Comrades: Our party organization, for obvious reasons, has
    hi fur failed to function effectively in the campaign. So far as getting
    ilftii’uiiKH on the petitions is concerned we have fallen down miserably.

    “This means that if we depend upon our party membership to get sufE-

    piiI i natures to place our candidates on the ballot, our party will not

    P on llie ballot. If we do not get on the ballot, it will be a great blow to us.

    “U e must under all circumstances get a place on the ballot for our
    ■Hy, [The italics are Weinstone’s,] And since we shall not be on the
    I II. i if we depend upon the party membership we are compelled to pay

    , |-l.« ulio will get signatures for us.

    “A few thousand dollars is necessary immediately. We must raise

    I i y at all costs. The City Central Committee passed a motion to

    il. ■■ i fliat every branch must contribne a sum of money for the campaign

    I it. fifty cents per member. If a branch has thirty members it must

    Hii.l In to the Local Office, $15; if it has forty members it must give S20,

    [125J

    REDS IN AMERJCA

    “Comrades — this matter cannot be delayed.
    “Hurry Comrades — by October 6th the Local must raise one thouil
    dollars for the campaign. Send in the money immediately.
    “Let us get on the ballot and begin a real campaign.

    “Fraternally,

    “W. W, Weinstone,

    “Executive SecrflUj |
    “P. S. — Branch Organizers, The leaflets for the Ratification Meetin|
    Sept. 29th are ready. Come down and get them. Get some comradm
    distribute them.”

    The Communist International at Moscow had originally plaum-il ||
    have the Communist party of America make every effort to secure tin i li
    tion to Congress and to other offices of persona friendly toward !
    Russia, and for this purpose promised to give the organization in iln<
    country a quarter of a million dollars for a campaign fund. Bui ill
    inaction of candidates in whom they had placed confidence and the «
    activities of others, made the Moscow Reds, plotting on the im
    politics of the United States and with an organ to carry out their | ■ I ■ il
    lose confidence and they decided to withhold this fund at least until "ili«
    goods have been delivered."

    Information reached the Communists of America that Moscow offii
    were particularly indignant at the action of Senator France, of Man
    in introducing legislation to have the United States transfer six HNmnmi
    to Poland and the Moscow people said that this action showed iM
    Russia could not depend upon such friends. When the Communis I hilm-
    national was informed of this state of affairs it abandoned its origin;) I | I
    and instructed the party here to exert all its efforts in using the pin
    for propaganda purposes. The Communist International, however, U
    appropriate $30,000 for the conduct of the election campaign by tin' (.mM'
    munist party through the Workers' party of America.

    CHAPTER EIGHT

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    I ho plan elaborated by the Communists for the purpose of gaining a

    I ml fiuld among the workingmen of various industries includes the for-

    ■ i "ii of a series of "nuclei" or groups each consisting of ten members with

    I M mlnr, who are pledged to the support of the revolutionary program. Only

    • In lender knows the members of his own group or nucleus, and a limited

    i 'i of other leaders. By this method it was hoped that by gradual ex-

    of the numbers of nuclei through propaganda, further insinuations

    i •< ndutionary thought would result until finally a sufficient minority
    ill lie under control to influence the passive thought and actions of the

    ■ I- -i- niy. For it must be remembered that the ultimate influences behind
    tin world revolutionary movement are by a developed instinct, specialists
    nirity rule*

    There are but few groups of workingmen in the United States, either

    . illy speaking or in a single industry that do not contain the germs

    I i i were put into touch with those groups which had been in existence for

    er period. Most, if not all of the members were enrolled in the United
    Mine Workers and through their locals naturally exerted a good deal of
    IhIIhiimi’ in the policies of the Union as a whole, bearing in mind that a

    [126]

    [127]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    well-directed> secretly organized minority can always control to a gi
    or less extent the policies of a presumably democratic organization.

    The gradual amalgamation of union and non-union workers in • |
    line of industry into a single organization, first in cities, then in Stale

    then in the entire country, is the first general step which is now I |

    taken. Then will come, according to the schedule prepared by Mum
    and American communists, the amalgamation of all workers of all In
    dustries,, first in cities, then in States and then in the entire country. WIlMl
    this is accomplished the stage will be set for the great general stril ■

    it cannot be developed from a local disturbance before that time. The r

    niunists plan this as the first general direct move toward the overturn » i
    the Government by force of arms.

    Many more steps have been taken toward this goal than the gou»r||
    public realizes. Communists attended, as members of the Maintonttm
    of Way Union of the railroad group, the convention of that bod
    Detroit on the 5th of October, 1922, and showed their victorious limit
    when for the first time they were able to force a resolution through calll
    for the amalgamation of all rail workers. William Z. Foster, oul
    jail under bond for his participation in the “illegal” Communist purl
    convention at Bridgman, Mich., was active at this meeting of the M«l||
    tenance of Way Union. An Associated Press despatch from Detroit Hill
    date of October 5, tells the story :

    “The Maintenance of Way Union, in convention here, went on i
    today as favoring a union of the chief railroad workers’ organization!
    as a step toward more concerted action in matters relating to I j 1 1 ■ • • >
    A resolution instructing officers of the brotherhood to ‘prepare for til
    amalgamation of the unions’ was adopted after several hours of honlM
    debate in which friends of President E. F. Grable charged that the propu [|
    was put forward by ( a radical group’.

    “One speaker declared that it was evident that ^representatives of Sovbj
    Russia or the Industrial Workers of the World are secretly sitting 9
    the convention hall’. The affairs of the convention, this speaker said
    parently were temporarily in the hands of William Z. Foster, ‘who |
    known wherever labor is organized as an ultra -radical’,

    “Foster attended one of the sessions on Tuesday without credential
    and has since been barred from the floor.”

    This is the fight that all American workers, in unions and oul H
    fighting in their own ranks. Unfortunately, before they or the Amcrintii
    people appreciated the seriousness of the situation or understood tli
    signs the Communist regime in Moscow, through the Communist path ■
    America, had on the United States Government and its institution!
    Communists had succeeded in planting many members in the diffcrcm lf|
    dustries, in the unions and among the non-union workers, and had surli |
    foothold that they could not be eliminated. The sane, loyal Amn
    members of the Maintenance of Way Union have just discovered Eli
    tent to which their organization is dominated by the Communists.

    Besides the active Communists “planted” in the labor organizallnitl

    i verted to Communism by the missionaries thus included in the raem-

    irilllpi there are a number of active “legal” bodies aiding in this work
    mI |1 liming all labor for the united front “preparatory to the General
    lillif. Among these are the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia,
    orkers* Party of America and the Friends of Soviet Russia, which are
    E most important. When it is understood that these organizations are in
    Rill line and the same as the Communist party of America, it is easily
    ■ mm i Iwii this is an important means of agitation which is legally utilized

    I. i ilie innocent guises of technical, famine or other kinds of relief for

    Ibi-mlii. In a recent report by the Central Bureau of the Society for
    1 Imlca] Aid to Soviet Russia, sent to the communist authorities in
    Mnifovv, it is shown that the influence of this organization is rapidly ex-
    ( imllng throughout the United States and Canada. A branch has also been
    I ililLsned in Panama.

    la this report it is stated that the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet

    I i 1 1 ad collected in 1922, $620,000 in this country for its work in behalf

    I tin* Communist movement here and in Russia. In fact, because of the

    .>,.,. unlive poverty of the rest of the world, the United States is very

    1 ■■■ -Iv financing the ruling group in Russia, whose only American policy

    Mm destruction by force of the Government of the United States, Of

    ‘ f)20,000 collected here on behalf of this seemingly excellent charitable

    merit 110,000 passed immediately into the coffers of the Communist

    I ii i v (if America. The rest was variously expended, a considerable sum

    I …., in gold to the Communist circle in Moscow, The balance is vari-

    |i I-, used in buying tools for Russia and hi promoting industries in that

    li’y, in financing movements and spreading propaganda in this country.

    1 1. 1 hi in was collected in less than six months, and sustains the hope of
    ummuniats that more than $1,000,000 a year can be counted nn from
    ■ i.« mnirce alone in the United States,

    An as an example of the thoroughness with which the work of the

    i mil rusts in industries is done, correspondence in April, 1922, between

    Imtir-t l\ Cannon, national chairman of the Workers’ party of America,

    Ktl T. R* Sullivan of St. Louis, one of the delegates to the Bridgman con-

    in of the Communist party, may be cited- This correspondence re-

    ■ I to the work of the communists in the southern Illinois coal fields,

    irnc of the Herrin massacre. Under date of April 17 Cannon wrote

    , “Dear Comrade Bob” asking for “a little report on the activities you

    ..tying on in the coal fields, stating just what is being done, and

    wlirllit’i- the work is being turned into account for organization purposes

    I Ihr W. P.” (Workers’ party). Sullivan is also requested to “write

    iliing for the Worker about the Workers’ party activities in this strike

    iin district.”

    To this letter from the leader of one Communist organization, Sullivan,
    i h Communist leader, replied on April 22, in a letter which throws no
    llUlr. light on the miners’ strike and shows something of the strength of
    Hid Communists in the ranks of the coal miners. This letter reads:

    [1281

    [129]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    “Dear Comrade: In compliance with your request for a Little i
    on the work being done in the Illinois coal fields, I would say thai lo
    as a result of meetings which I had in Southern Illinois, together
    consultations with other comrades active in the mine workers, the follfl
    program has been formulated and adopted and is now in progress oi
    put into effect by means of the organization of caucuses inside of
    local unions. The program is first, that all members of the Wo
    party shall give their fullest and heartiest support to the aggressive cm
    on of the miners’ strike. Second, that we stand for no split or dual u
    and are pledged to give our undivided support to fighting any such dm
    in the mine workers’ organization. 7’hird, that we stand solidly fin
    basis for state agreement and will fight uncompromisingly any muvi
    separate state agreements* Fourth, that we support in every way pn
    the demand for a special national convention to reinstate Alex Howatl
    the Kansas miners.

    “We are carrying on a systematic organized campaign, for the pm
    of carrying this program into effect, throughout the Southern Illinoi
    fields, active work is being done along these lines in Zeigler. Chri.-i
    Herrin, Valler, Johnston City, Collinsville, Bellville, W. Frankfort, V.
    O’Fallon, Sesser, Royalton, Buckner, Benton, Staunton, Livingston, Mnr|
    ville and other towns in Southern Illinois Coal Fields.

    “Our plan is to carry on this work of organizing these Lefl
    caucuses and to circulate especially among those in these cam n
    party literature. This to be followed up with personal talks and wild!
    possible with mass meetings. This work, I believe is most fundunu nl
    and in a short time will result in our securing large numbers of \h
    building a machine inside the United Mine Workers cannot be p,lvi>||
    publicity without bringing down upon our, as yet, incomplete organi/jtllnl
    the attacks of the powerful reactionary machine. I can say, howevln ill

    we have good reason to believe that by next winter we will have a very n hi in learning that Foster’s Trade Union Educational League and the
    i I Labor Council were controlled by the Communists.
    1 lie first of those reports reads:

    “The periodic reports received from our comrades show great activity
    it i In Industrial field. Our comrades have taken leading parts in con-

    B vc movements; at all times placing the labor movement as a whole

    i , n(jcts, party policies or theories. We are well represented at the

    I Mine Workers* Convention and the Railroad Telegraphers’ Con-

    ii, doing our share of the preliminary spade work which must be

    lirfore broader fighting organizations can be developed.

    “We have organized the [Trade Union] Educational League, which

    1 1 rmidy established a Bureau of Railroad Workers and which is pre-

    |UHhi|> 1o enter other industries, particularly among the steel, packing

    i Imilding trades workers. As a step toward the unification of in-

    Lfiniiloiit unions we have made the [United Labor] Council of New York

    ilnl vicinity a live body and organized the [United Labor] Council of

    , h, which initiated a convention of all independent unions to be held

    Nnw York in the first week in January, when a permanent federation

    II l.c formed. Under our leadership the United Labor Council, in con-

    , i,. with the American Labor Alliance, Workers’ League and other

    ions cooperated with defence organizations, agitating the cases of

    mi > •» mul Vanzetti. Our comrades in unions throughout the country have
    l.il Mn movements for the introduction of the shop delegate system, affilia-
    |Im n mill the Red Trade International, Relief of Soviet Russia, Defense of

    |] (HU nsts and other class conscious workers and have done much to

    kwU iIk; unions face the problem of unemployment as a class issue. In

    n we have made the Voice of labor an industrial organ. Everywhere

    ■ I, |iurt the labor press, urging unions to stand with the Federated Press.

    NEW YORK

    \i live in the United Hat and Cap Makers’ campaign to revive the

    In Trades Workers’ Alliance for all unions in the industry, numbering

    .mi workers. Opposition by President Schlesinger of the I.L.G,W*U.

    “Active in cloakmakers’ strike.

    “Active in Locals 22 and 25 where we faced expulsion by the machine.
    “Propaganda to turn the I. W. W. toward the Red Trade International
    i .i the same time seeking to overcome sterile dualism.
    “Initiating amalgamation of five shoe workers’ unions, in conjunction
    ||l 1 1 imr comrades in the United Labor Council.
    “Practically control knit goods workers’ union.

    [131]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    “Active among Foodstuff Workers, Public Service Organization –
    Office Workers.

    “Important contacts with ex-soldiers.

    “After a long period of hard work we have gained some sum
    directing union activity through the Unemployment Council.

    “International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, nineteen memhi I
    four locals. Industry not well organized. ‘Open Shop’ quite exit
    in dressmaking line*

    “Arranged a conference in Needle Trades for reviving Needle T. i
    Alliance.

    CHICAGO

    “Amalgamated Clothing Workers, seventy members in eleven In
    Industry 100 per cent, organized. Many skilled workers unemnln
    One local of 12,000 being won over to shop delegates system. Op|Mi
    bosses 5 scheme to turn over plant management to workers as a meftn
    strengthening speeding up shop benefit system. Faced expulsion Im-
    position to machine. Verblen expelled without fair trial. In some i
    the officials refused to hold meetings from May to August. Undci
    sure from us they finally resigned and our comrades took their place*.

    “Railroad workers, 50 members in four locals, 70 per cent, u
    ployed. Dual unions inactive. One Big Union dead. We have
    menced our Trade Union Educational League Railroad Bureau here u
    only means of dealing with so large an industry. ,

    “Similarly in the Building Trades, where we have forty-two memUii
    in thirteen locals in six trades. We lead the rank and file movi n
    against the Landis award, and are using the R. & F. committees to i,i«1
    for united action of crafts and scattered locals. Very strong in fiv
    penters’ locals.

    “We have foreign language comrades in ten steel plants and are ( – ■ i
    with a great educational problem, the same as among the railroad wmlt»i|
    already referred to, and among the stockyard workers, where we also liM
    the problem of dualism to contend with.

    “Among the printers we are working with some success for a i-lmll
    affiliation of trades.

    “Among the machinists we successfully resisted a split when llinfl
    was a move to take a faction over to the Amalgamated Metal Worker*.

    “At the Illinois State Federation of Labor Convention (Oct, I |
    1921), we led successful fights for resolutions endorsing Friends of
    Russia, planning support of Mooney, Debs, Larkin, Gitlow and other . U
    war prisoners, planning action for a shorter day and union relief nml!
    for unemployed, recognition for Soviet Government of Russia, plmiiiltU
    united action by all crafts in building trades to oppose Landis award.

    [132]

    BOSTON AND NEW ENGLAND
    “An far back as July we led movement to unite a score of shoe workers’

    i, including some scab unions. The job promises to be successful.

    planning shop delegate system.

    BALTIMORE

    ‘International Ladies’ Garment Workers, twenty-five members in Ladies’
    tyalnl Makers’ Union. Active in strike committees. Twenty-three members
    jj i lutik Makers’ Local.

    “Amalgamated Clothing Workers, eight members.

    “Also members in Painters, Butchers and Bakers, Journeyman Tailors,

    .l <
    American Federation of Labor, and that even of those who do beloii
    labor unions, there are a considerable number who cannot be imnl i

    [1343

    . mix™* 1| "*%1… WUll» rB, i

    IasS:S5*£ss
    laSs ^-^» j^Ss

    /:

    Bishop William M. Brown of Gallon. Ohio, member of the House
    of the Protestant Episcopal Church, resigned as Fifth Bishop of Arkansas
    a self-styled "Episcopus In partialis Bolshevikium et Infidelium." The covei
    book. "Communism and Christian ism." Checks given by Bishop Brown to 9
    Ruthenbergr, executive secretary of the Communist Partv of America and to f]
    Lang, alias Joseph Fogany the Hungarian Revolutionist who is now the nails B
    sent from Moscow*

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    our message to the workers in their various respective organizations
    the difficulties of language.
    '•The results so far show that it has been especially difficult to get the
    i comrades to participate in this form of activity even in cases
    methods were used to make it specially suitable for them to take
    i nuclei work,
    "Those at present active in nuclei work are primarily English. Jewish,
    i ' .. i man, and here and there Finnish comrades. From the other nation-
    llirre are very few who participate in this work.
    "In addition to the foregoing tremendous difficulties, there must also
    i .1 rn into account the general state of affairs in this euunliy where the
    ' -II nf the revolutionists are not within the labor unions, but are outside,
    ill,., not organized and unwilling to join the existing labor unions, or
    nii/rd in dual 'model' unions.

    "We have, therefore, a situation where the bulk of the revolutionary
    nl in this country, Communists, sympathizers, anarchists and Socialists,
    intl part of the organized labor movement. As a result of this fact,
    !l„ mlluence of the few thousand revolutionists who are organized in the
    niinist party of America is very limited- To this may be added the
    l.i.i i lint in many industries labor organizations have hardly taken root,
    .HiJ mi others there exist certain conditions which make it impossible to
    i . rhe workers without making gigantic efforts with a big apparatus
    i mi enormous treasury behind it. Many of our members are in these
    1 1 a s, working as laborers, which generally makes them ineligible to
    lierehip in the American Federation of Labor.
    Hie only feasible method suitable to the situation in the party was
    lublishment of the machinery for industrial work which at the be-
    . would function along the lines of the party. Later aUempta
    ,. made to centralize the already established party nuclei along trade
    hi as to coordinate the work in the various labor unions.
    'The coordination of this work has been made extremely difficult
    |||l«i[i|;h the underground [illegal] organization, and many opportu-
    ne jiuve been lost through lack of connections or through the impossibility
    I .. irhing the comrades in proper, time with the proper advice.

    Taking all these difficulties into consideration, the work accomplished
    | (in bespeaks the correctness of the policy pursued by the party and the
    ndous possibilities for the party by concentrating further upon this
    , .i nf the party activities.

    "The progress made in the various districts, as reported by the dis-
    Itlil industrial organizers, the reports not being very complete, are as

    ■ '

    District I, (Boston headquarters). Nuclei in needle trades,
    building trades, shoe workers, textile workers and railroad

    shop

    Tin- nuclei lack centralization and have been largely organized by
    ■ Individual efforts of comrades in those unions. The industrial depart-

    [135]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    ment in the district has not been functioning. The total number of the
    organized in these trades does not exceed one hundred."

    The conditions in the other eleven districts into which the Unl
    states is divided by the Communist party were then similarly analyze! m
    the report continues:

    "At best the prospects of our influencing the labor movement til

    mainly m the predominantly Jewish organizations like the Interni

    Lad.es Garment Workers, Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Hat, Cm,. J
    Millinery Workers, etc.

    "There is a splendid chance for our propaganda, and a strong rnvttllj
    tjonary element, and there are strong nuclei among the textile worker: »|
    the United Mine Workers.

    "Among the shoe workers there are great possibilities for our wot\
    Also among the automobile workers. There is also a good possibilil) fill
    strongly entrenching ourselves in the machinist organizations and wc h«1
    some good working groups in that organization. The prospects, howtvfl
    ot obtaining decisive influence in that organization are remote.

    "Our activities in the I. W. W. have led to their liquidation in
    number of Eastern cities.

    "In the building trades we have strong groups in Chicago, New Y..1I

    ban Francisco and also other large centers. The more radical elei

    especially among the painters and paper hangers, as well as the carpaiili ,
    are joining us in our work.

    "In the independent unions we have been especially successful ai
    the Amalgamated Food Workers, the Metal Workers, Textile Workers
    Automobile Workers. .

    "Our exact influence, however, in the I. W, W .11
    radical papers with instructions to print it on Oct. 1. The appeal to ill
    second district, New York, read in part as follows:

    “Proletarians of all countries — unite!

    “Join the ranks of the Workers’ Party of America!

    “Manifesto of the District Committee of the Second District Itn
    Federation Workers’ Party of America.

    “The District Committee, Second District, Russian Federation, Win I ■ I
    Party of America, which includes the States of New York, New Jerar-
    Connecticut, has designated October as a red month, a month of rccrii

    • fl l embers. The District Committee Appeals to all conscious workers
    I Ilia Russian Colony to become acquainted with the program of the

    I .! nrV Party and join its ranks. The Workers’ Party of America is the
    ii I j i evolutionary party existing legally in the United States. It numbers

    .i i niiks the most forward, conscious element of the working class,

    II llii^iiished by self-denial and preparedness for battle.

    “I hiring the month of October every conscious worker or group of
    run, without unnecessary difficulties or formalities, join our ranks.
    i oil to ourselves only those who are ready to sacrifice themselves
    it. thfl interests of the working class.

    ‘JOIN THEN THE RANKS OF THE WORKERS’ PARTY!

    I’lll iNCniEN AND HELP THAT PARTY, WHICH WILL LEAD THE

    WINKING CLASS OF AMERICA TO COMPLETE LIBERATION FROM

    NIK CAPITALIST YOKE, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A

    W< HIKERS' REPUBLIC IN THE FORM OF A SOVIET GOVERNMENT."

    'Tor more detailed information apply to I. Yanishevskaya, 208 East

    Ihli St, New York City."

    The name and address given were those of the secretary of the Russian
    ' i ration of the Workers' party. He was also an employee of the All*
    1 n Mil Jewish Relief Committee, "Idgeskom."

    In an official bulletin issued by the Central Executive Committee of the

    mist party of America shortly before the Bridgman convention the

    hillowing instructions were given to all members, which shows conclusively
    iliii I lie entire industrial movement is controlled by the secret, illegal,

    ling branch of the party. All members were cautioned to read the
    i nil. hii carefully and to see to it that the instructions were carried out to

    ii-tler at once. After stating that the party has launched on enlarged
    miik. if had this to say under the head of "Industrial Activities":

    "The proper conduct of this line of activities is dependent upon the

    lli'ilMi-His and understanding of our forces, and must be controlled and

    …. I. y No. 1 [illegal]. The same principle applies here as was laid

    ■ before, that all decisions as to policies and fundamental principles,

    . it nil as tactics, are to be decided upon by No. 1 before being carried

    No, 2 [legal]

    “We must organize nuclei of members of No. 2, and work as a unit
    llllMu these nuclei, and become a live factor in all these activities; but at

    ..II ea keep our own forces intact. We must endeavor to create left wing

    .i.iini groups within the labor organizations, in which we must also be-
    iih the leading factor.

    “The majority of our members must be on all important committees.

    Ml urganizera must be chosen from our ranks, such as Sub-District In-

    tijil Organizers, organizers for industries, trades and local unions.

    All nuclei connections of No. One must be kept separately through

    III* various units, and be held in readiness to be called at any time by the

    Htgum/crs.

    [136]

    L137]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM

    “All reports to the lower units connecting No. One with I In i i

    of No. One cannot be placed as organizer, a member of No- One mil ‘
    assigned to keep all connections of his membership; his connection i
    turn must be recorded with the District Industrial Organizer.”

    With the knowledge of methods and plans of the Commit m I ||
    easy to see the parts they have played in the strikes in industry thai til ill
    the year 1922. It has already been shown that they played leading i

    in the railroad and coal strikes, and it is known that they were |

    larly active in the textile strikes in New England. Agents were scnl i ■
    various parts of the country to each of the N^vr England cities win n ||
    strikes were declared, reporting regularly to the higher officials n| |H
    Communist party and were directed in their work by the Central Ext*i nil
    Committee of the party. The American Federation of Labor fell lull
    simple trap set for it by the Communists, either knowingly or in
    like innocence, when it pledged $2000 a week to support the strike™.

    Typical of these agents was one Joseph Kowalski, a Pole and 1111
    Kowalski had been deported a short time after the sailing of the Bufurd ‘
    participation in Communist enterprises and giving vent to sedition
    ances. In December, 1921, he returned to America under a false pin \
    and quickly came in contact with leaders of the Communist parly i
    country. Kowalski was active both in the New England Textile ami I
    coal strikes, making frequent trips from New York, where he made In ■ hi |
    quarters, to centers in New England and Pennsylvania. It is a nnii. i
    record that following the beginning of the coal strike until his an
    August, Kowalski had himself organized over 2.000 striking miners in imii ||
    of ten members each, and through them violence was promoted and llir in ‘
    cies of the unions and their members influenced. Kowalski was only
    many such agents.

    Kowalski’s arrest led to his proper identification and a duo i<< I
    activities while abroad. It was established that at least part of tin
    he had been influential and highly placed member of the Che-ka, m |
    Commission for the Suppression of Counter-Revolution of the Russian
    Government^ and as such responsible for the continued detention in |nl|

    seven American citizens. He was convicted of violation of the Dej il

    Act and sentenced to Atlanta Penitentiary for one year and to be 'iH»lH
    deported.

    As an example of the cleverness with which the Communist WUl
    the textile strikes are illuminating. It was pretended that intense ii< '
    existed between the Amalgamated Textile Workers and the United Tfl
    Workers. Both were conducting strikes on similar lines, but tin.
    tended that they were not only in no way connected but were m-liml
    hostile to each other. Undoubtedly many of the rank and file <»l ■
    organizations believed this. But the leaders knew the fact, thai botli

    [138]

    luti I) controlled by the Red Trade Union International, a Communist

    nl ttiou of Moscow with active agents in this country.

    I hit organization has the same principles as all Communist bodies, aim-
    I) i In* taking over by the workers of all industries and the establishment
    In Dictatorship of the Proletariat after all organized government has
    • nvi'illirown by force of arms. Naturally, only the leaders of the

    || textile organizations knew of the relationship between the two as
    111 | the overlordship of the Red Trade Union International was kept a
    In I Heeret.

  10. textile organizations knew of the relationship between the two as
    111 | the overlordship of the Red Trade Union International was kept a
    In I Heeret.

    [139]

    CHAPTER NINE

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    i

    The Communist party of America was quick to see the excellence of
    i if.c and the screen as mediums through which Communist propaganda
    I be fed to the public without contravention of the laws. As soon as
    n port on this phase of extending radicalism to the general public was
    lined to the high Communist authorities in Moscow a plan was agreed
    i«> enlist the movies and the stage for this purpose, and Moscow
    i • cady to spend whatever money was necessary to further such a move-
    i mi Charles Recht, the highest Soviet representative of Communist Russia
    \ mii-i iuii today, took up with Will H. Hays, as head of the Motion Picture
    II hy in the United States, the matter of producing radical films to cost
    11,0(10,000, the money to be furnished from Moscow. It is impossible to
    •(mi. exactly how much of this $8,000,000, was raised in the United State3
    km J nil to Moscow, but it is safe to say that three-quarters of the amount
    mi Immh the pockets of citizens of this country, and the chief purpose
    which it was solicited was the destruction by force of this Government.
    tl.ln ily attending this proposal resulted in the failure of the scheme to
    It ml the United States with propaganda films; the Recht scheme fell
    lOUgh. _ ! j’Si

    Unfortunately for the loyal American members of the labor unions
    I ilii’t country the Communists have linked labor with Communism in
    • film service that is supplied to motion picture houses throughout the

    y. In addition to this general service, a special class of films is

    liiK used at union and non-union workers’ meetings, picnics and other
    llii’iiugs. These pictures are especially designed to create dissatisfaction
    lump, the workers by showing exaggerated pictures of life among the rich
    i.l ihc contrast of life among the very poor. In urging the use of these
    Ultlien the Communists point out the fact that messages may be con*
    yml in the public by means of the screen which would not be permitted
    | iv to be spoken from a public platform.

    Many prominent “movie favorites,” men and women, as well as stars

    n legitimate stage are involved, knowingly or unknowingly, in this

    ii .sow the seed of Communism through entertainment for the public.

    mini it Duncan, the dancer, who expressed vitriolic indignation when it

    Uggested that she, or her new Russian husband, might be tainted

    1 1 i iiiiimunism, when they were held up for brief investigation at Ellis

    lllid, is quoted far and wide in Communist newspapers and magazines,

    l 1 1 linl in many languages, in her expression of favor for the Russian

    [Wl]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    ?SZ&S&Ji can be found in ^ Mack *» in *~ *

    ■.«”?* ma u rt y rdom which Russia is suffering will be a- fruitful
    postenty as the martyrdom of the Nazarene.” ‘

    she ha™ S cLTL^ ^”^ ^f the 8tatement ‘ a9 far « » I

    ^hTL^CS tlle suggesti011 ™ made *« ** – *2

    permitted to leave Russia, This includes all, including the Mos,
    Theatre Company, whether of Russian origin or of ^natLna
    STe 1 !L!X ed °l y ^ ±Ke artist l a ^ » writin g y to three 111,
    38 twll^ are 6 : “‘ ^ ^ *™ to ^ «’ ‘

    States’^t^q^f n °- t0 T duCt P r °P a &^ while in the t

    St^Sn^n ” 7T , Sp f ial P* efe ™ce is shown th, ,1,

    agree to conduct propaganda for the Soviets.

    wf”l^ e ! a ^ ree £ t0 deducl fr01 * their earnings for the benefit „l [III
    Sovxet State twenty-five or thirty-three per cent of their earnings w I I*
    this country. (There are evidently two forms of contract.) °

    d.—Ihey agree to return to Russia at the expiration of their Nvi

    not hi n 2™ 1° l l \V Y ^ d6mand3 1 and in ° rder that certai ” «*&■■” Mil
    not be alarmed at thus signing away their receipts to the Soviets, ll.r

    Government has appointed a “special committee” which supervt ,

    and ms ructions to the artist. This committee consist, of reliable „ .

    Jthlr f^T Pa / ty> b f f °/ the pur P° se of ^acting the all
    of the capitalist nations from the Committee, all official papers arc
    by Kia sin. It is believed that the money thus collected goes to the f
    national Propaganda Bureau in Berlin, which regularly sends fund, «!

    *HK C ! 7 ° £ f meric \ to aid jt ™ its nght against the Govern,,
    U* United States It may be stated authoritatively, at any rate, 1 1,,,
    goodly portion of this money, collected from lovers of opera, ||», ,i«„,

    and [dancing m the : United States, is used for propaganda of the Con,, I.I

    movement. The artists are “remitted” the amount of their “taxes”

    United StL C s ° mraCt ‘ they diSSeminate ^ttwust propaganda in

    l ome of the ar tists coming from Russia are opposed to the Comn

    but tney are not allowed to leave the country at all unless they agree I
    terms set forth above. In order to control them and divert their attonttul
    trom the real purpose of their trip, and to conceal from them the \m )
    the money they contribute to the Communist coffers, the “Special Comn
    hides behind the name of the Central Famine Relief Committee. The
    vision, of such artists and money is turned over to innocent-appearing
    organizations in various countries, such as, for instance, the Russian

    [142]

    mi the United States. Incidentally, it should be mentioned here that,

    ling to official statements by Soviet authorities, the danger of famine

    .. It i. -in is past; crops have been excellent, and there is no starvation due
    mine. In fact grain is now being exported to central European
    ml ri This authoritative information should be sufficient answer to

    ||ti livHlnrical pleas to the American public to “Save Starving Russia.”

    I he connection between the tours of Russian actors and artists and the

    ■ *«~ -* * assured^’ th £

    SX5.5 of , 4 h 11 ? u Ti fo J ^ here is abundant and reIiabI * evi •

    mat instead of a high standard of Russian art reached durine a tlmi

    SKLi! age an V!J tHe “^ *” RuS5ia W fallen S the :;
    Th^fZ ^f rad ^T **<*«* In ^y country in modern times. With <I,h

    SllST 1 ? XdUS1VeI , h \ th * *™ ts ™ d «*«- ^e stag h|
    lewd and tJ^ I * "7 ^J 01 ^ The drama is now almost enllr. I
    lewd and suggestive beyond anything ever seen in any country befor«

    ,J nam aS SOm . G c ^trover 3 y has arisen over the document*! iVl
    stated above concerning the relations between the Soviet gov™,

    offick sZn^l hCatre ' ° the i evi ^ WMch f °/ a , lun,ted en S a S e ^nt to begin in January, M .

    These articles comprised about a column and a half respectively n i
    New York Times and [The Herald and were identical in language and 31
    style easily reco f xzed as written by a press-agent. In the course of a I , I

    description of the histrionic abilities of the Moscow Art Theatre ■

    this press-agent release said, italicized for emphasis:

    “Permission of the Soviet government has been obtained for the 4,nm\
    lean tour under unusual circumstances. The company has a Ieavr oi
    sencc from Moscow for seven months from next January. But under

    conditions 1 of the leave of absence it must return to its home stage in

    to celebrate the silver jubilee of its founding in the early autumn or lliiical activity, under the management of Morris Gest. The Soviet
    intent has placed a special ship at the Art Theatre’s disposal for

    i«n-i|nn1ntion of scenery, properties and personnel from Petrograd to
    I1HI11, Germany,

    ‘ t’ltr Soviet was forced to tender shipping because the railroad service
    h I lint special trains could not be spared to transport the Art Theatre
    |h iii elaborate bag and baggage.

    Wider transportation for the troup from Petrograd to Danzig costs
    KKX),000 Soviet rubles.

    ‘ft took a lot of red tape before the Soviet government gave permis-
    | for ihe Art Theatre’s journey to America. . . .

    Tin- advance guard of the Moscow Art Theatre landed in New York on
    Innl day of 1922, according to The New York Times of the following
    .,!,. The party included Sergei Barthenson, designated as the manager.
    tHniiflc by The American Defense Society, comprising the substance of
    documentary evidence above given, had some days previously been
    rutted to the American press, and it had caused vigorous denials and
    li luiions of disbelief on the part of many interested persons notwith-
    MMHibn^ its authoritative character. Upon landing, a reporter asked Ber-
    …11:

    ” l lt is said that 33% of the profits from the American tour will go to
    I rWict government.’

    ‘ That is not true,’ said Mr. Berthenson. ‘The proceeds of the first

    ■ r jormances will go to the Russian Reli-ef Association, which is like
    unrican organization now working in Russia. It will be devoted to

    1 ..’- and clothing destitute Russian people and especially the children.
    I 1 not pay any state tax to the government nor have we consulted the
    fcylM in any way before coming to the United States.”

    I he players themselves landed Jan. 4, 1923. In the large party at the

    iii>1> In greet the new arrivals was Sergei Rachmaninoff, the pianist, and

    lliii in Anisfeld, who has done many of the scenic settings at the Metro-

    in Opera House.” When Constantin Stanislavsky, “one of the two

    IriM of the famous cooperative organization” was told that their en-

    IRmm’ In this country had been protested by The American Defense Society

    I llm ground that support of the Moscow Art Theatre would contribute

    llllipi directly or indirectly to the support of Communist propaganda in

    || country, he said through’an interpreter, shaking his head:

    li 3s not so. We have no connection with the Soviet government.*”

    The next reel in this “Russian” theatrical scenario is given by The New

    I »i A If “odd, September 15, 1922. The article follows a “double head” and

    I 11 “double leaded,” thereby placing the information it contains in the

    1 Hihuit or “must” class. The’caption reads: “KAHN BACKS RUSSIAN

    HI* THEATRES HERE.

    ‘METROPOLITAN OPERA CHAIRMAN

    [145]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    ALSO HELPED BRING BALIEFF’S CHAUVE-SOURIS TO AMKIIH \
    The body of the article follows:

    “Otto H. Kami, Chairman of the Board of Directors of tl U
    politan Opera Company and liberal patron of the arts with many md In-
    is the silent figure, sometimes called ‘angel,’ back of the Russian Ail ill
    movements in America, The World learned from authoritative sou™
    terday. Mr. Kahn, when questioned as to his cooperation with Mom ‘
    of Comstock-Gest admitted he was instrumental in the New York picmMil
    tion of Balieff’s Chauve-Souris and that he was sponsoring the comiri|
    of the Moscow Art Theatre Company to America.

    “The financier, one of the best known patrons of the arts, did no I h
    into figures regarding hia support of Mr. Gest, but was enthusiastic In H
    praise of the producer who brought to this country new and striking «n
    izations. , . . ”

    The same issue of The World contained a special dispatch from I. .ml I
    in which it is stated that “Feodor Chaliapin, famous Russian baritorn I •
    who sails for New York, Oct 25th, and who is to fulfil a contracl will) llj
    Metropolitan Opera Company, to-day said he is to receive 30% nun.
    Caruso ever got from the Metropolitan for the same number of prifnj
    mances. His contract is for a minimum of fifteen appearances.

    “Chaliapin told The World representative he intended to go irtln i 1 ”
    movies while in America and would play the leading part in a nnv< I
    nario in which he is collaborating with Maxim Gorky " The World, in
    ment following, places Cbaliapin's salary at $4,000 for each appriu n
    at the Metropolitan.

    The busy Mr. Gest then returns from Europe again in a gray top]
    and will neither affirm nor deny cabled reports to the effect that he
    bring to America Lady Diana Manners ot Eleonora Duse. He did «
    however, according to The Times of August 16th, 1923 that "he had
    got his parents with seven brothers and sisters living in Berlin, after
    ing four years in getting them safely out of Odessa. They will rem m
    the German capital, he added, until his mother's health has been comp|
    restored. Then he will bring his family to America."

    Meanwhile, it is announced from Moscow through the medium of
    Times, June 29, 1923, that "the ex-Imperial ballet of Petrograd will
    a season in New York next winter, with full cast of two hundred IB
    from the Petrograd schools and a selection of its unparalleled coitl
    and decorations. Ivan Vassilivich Eksfcosovich, Director of the Stair T
    tre, Petrograd, informed The New York Times to-day that authori \
    had just been received for an American tour, which, unlike the Art TL
    will be unpreceded by performances in Europe."

    After reciting the difficulties which beset the company during the in
    days of the revolution when "bullets flew in streets outside, though I
    and dressing rooms were in arctic cold through lack of fuel," tldj
    daunted, these Russian stage-folk of the Petrograd State Theatre, "e.i
    on its business as usual." Then the story continues;

    "Nnw there has been farmed « mixed company with the State to run
    tiu!\rad Stale Theatre in Russia and abroad"

    I In- Labor Film Service was the name of an organization* as usual
    'labor" as a medium of appeal, formed for the express purpose of

    , rig radical films for exhibition before American audiences. The

    III illrector of this organization was, from the start, J. D. Cannon, of

    III In, Washington, a radical leader who had been active in iron and steel

    Immm* strikes and an official of the Mine, Mill and Smelters' organiza-

    Cunnon carefully canvassed the United States, selling stock in the

    | i in l''ilm Service at $10 a share, chiefly to members of labor unions,

    hit I fie argument that he was going to present films to counteract the

    IhilnliHt films being shown which placed labor in a false and undignified

    ii. He made no secrecy of presenting radical films, although to

    Kb union members he did not admit that he was working for Communism,

    imiounced that the pictures presented by his company would be propa-

    i in behalf of radical and labor unions, motion pictures describing

    In, i lie called the terrible conditions existing among the working classes

    | M… United States. The pictures were designed to stir up antagonism

    Mud lint red between workmen and their employers.

    ' im* of the first pictures presented was The Contrast, by John W. Slaton,

    Well known radical of Pittsburgh. One of the pictures in this masterpiece

    , -veil a child taking food from a garbage can besides a dog belonging

    nine rich person, and was entitled "To be seen in any great city— it

    HI a day to feed this dog." The advertising matter concerning this

    imr proclaimed:

    "The girl in this picture will be seen coming around a street corner,

    .1 1 1 1 1 -, something to eat from a garbage can, acting as though she feared

    ,1.1.. I ion. Then a maid will be seen carefully leading this pedigreed dog

    in elegantly furnished dining-room to partake of a tempting chicken

    i . hut already surfeited he declines to eat,"

    * Juinon harped on his desire to present "the truth" to the public through

    Hum of these pictures, and The Contrast may be cited as an example

    il… idea of the truth. It was also advertised that the following suggestive
    | itlona would be shown on the screen in connection with this picture;

    There were no labor unions in Egypt during many centuries. Why
    111 tint nation lose her civilization two thousand years ago?"

    "There have been no strikes in China for six thousand years. Jloes
    Id,,! ,,. , -nunt for her long death-like sleep and submerged millions?"

    in view of these facts, what would happen in America if the labor
    mriit would be crushed? 1 '

    It it is dangerous, therefore wrong, for labor to organize .and strike,
    i in.) equally wrong for capital to organize and raise prices?"
    fit wage workers should not organize solidly, why should lawyers,
    hi i, business men and ministers organize?

    U46 J

    [147]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    of £$Zf££.. bit of 9creen advertisin * **« *■** ** *«w4

    "The next scene will be thought-compelling. It will show a wml
    dimng-room table with empty dishes. The wife enters from kitchen, U
    n arms, little girl clinging to mother's skirts, and she will say: <M ,,
    1 am hungry The mother will bid them all to sit at the table and wall I
    papa, with whose coming she expects food He enters, but is empty lu.,,,1, '
    When the mother sees this her head bows, tears start, the babe £ nn
    Ughtly to her breast. The father throws his coat aside, looks at tin

    table and hungry family, reads the splendid extract from the Dedi

    ot Independence, folds his arms and shakes his head."

    The American Federation of Labor made a report on Cannon in I
    in which it was pointed out that he had been a member of the W< Hi

    t tl^M t °n^ iner \r and W1 T he came East he was apposed or R i

    for the Metalliferous Miners of which Charles Moyer was the head |"
    previous to his arrival," the report continued, "the late John MilriJ

    was haying a series of conferences with the mine owners for the mi.

    of getting recognition for the organization. The mine owners had
    Ucally agreed to recognition of the union when Cannon began ui'lImi
    speeches advocating action along the lines of the Western Federalinn
    Miners, with the result that the mine owners backed up on the Mil. I J
    proposition and not only refused recognition, but decided to give am I
    gamzation that might be formed a fight.

    "In the territory of which Mr. Cannon was in charge, comprint il„
    States of New York and New Jersey, there were more than 40,000 m,

    gaged m this industry. He has been very active in all radical move i

    has talked syndicalism and approved Sovietism, He has taken sidm .
    secessionists against the legitimate trade union organization, and ha
    very close to Moms Hillquit and Sydney Hillman and groups of *ii,,||„
    stripe, tie is now selling stock for the Labor Film Service Comivn.
    organization in which Hillquit is interested."

    In one of his letters sent to labor unions through! the country <
    stated that his company had secured another picture, The Jungle In.,*,
    upon Upton Sine air s novel, which he said had been made five years Mol
    It was produced," he wrote, "before the evil influence now so evidrnl ,
    the moving picture world got such a hold on industry. We are goiiiji
    revvse the picture and bring it up to date," This process, it dev< I ,
    was to make the scenes depicted by Sinclair appear to be true picturni
    today. An attempt was made to publish a Labor Film Magazine in
    nection with this company, but the New York police authorities refuel
    grant it a permit. It was plainly evident that a part of the work pro,,
    was to take moving pictures of any situation reflecting against the <■
    ment in its treatment of workers in the enforcement of law and or, In
    then display them at radical meetings for the purpose of inciting c.Uv I
    ing Another of Cannon s letters, this one addressed to a radical in ()A
    land, Lahi. s contained the following informative paragraph-

    Out enterprise bears the endorsement of such prominent leaders as

    I ii Thomas, Rabbi Judah L t Magnes, Scott Nearing, Louis Waldman,

    M. Snckin, etc. We also have endorsement of the Central Federated
    n, United Hebrew Trades, Italian Chamber of Commerce and other
    1 ' Minimizations."

    Robert C, Deming, director of the Connecticut Board of Education,

    ••mh< Into possession of some literature of the Labor Film Service as far

    U of Hadlyme, Conn., had at that

    -i. Iinrn approached with an offer to go to Germany for the purpose of

    1 1 1 luping film publicity. This offer, it is understood, was refused,

    i H m’mm evident that this propaganda was intended to aid the radicals.

    Tim film, The Contrast, was probably the most successful picture

    Mini by this company. It was shown, sometimes publicly and at other

    |l i ncitrclly, in practically every important city in the country. Its con-

    1 1 1 mi with the Moscow Communists was plainly demonstrated, although

    ‘ I in- public information, at a meeting of the Chicago Federation of the

    i i In of Soviet Russia, a Communist branch organization, at No. 220

    M.i Oi.k Street, on March 2, 1922. At that time a representative of the

    I kImii Film Company was present soliciting business for this film for use

    il.i Friends of Soviet Russia. Moritz J. Loeb, of the Friends of Soviet

    ■ . took occasion to state that this body was not only a relief organiza-

    [Imk Iml its members were really friends of Soviet Russia and used their

    llllliir nrc to promote the efforts of that regime to secure recognition. He

    i, hi ~|in tfically that the real function of the Friends of Soviet Russia was

    ■ living pressure on the capitalist governments, especially the United

    pllllnn, in order to force them to recognize Soviet Russia officially.

    I iOeb, who was then secretary of the Chicago organization of the Friends

    I Soviet Russia, said that the film could be used for propaganda purposes

    |iiil nlmwn in regular motion picture houses, and that through this propa-

    mnny sympathizers could be reached who would not be willing to

    ,£h or even attend a lecture on the subject. The representative of

    I il.nr Film Service assured those in attendance upon this meeting that

    . Ill in had been made in a most radical manner, showing things that a

    it.’-r could not give utterance to on a public platform.

    The Cooperative League of America, the American branch of an in-

    initial organization which has in its membership a number of Com-

    i-t and radicals of other hues, officially indorsed the Labor Film

    – and urged all persons interested in the cooperative or trade union

    merits to patronize it. It is interesting to note that labor union officials,
    immimsts and “parlor bolshevists” were also interested in this organiza-

    Tlie Communists are never asleep on matters that can be turned to their

    Inge, When Orphans o[ the Storm, one of D. W. Griffith’s great

    was produced, the Communists discovered that it might be utilized

    tltt]

    [149]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    as excellent propaganda for their cause. Accordingly the word wn
    out for all Communists to “press-agent the film as much as posaihh •
    this was done. This is not meant to reflect, even by inference, tlinl I
    Griffith was interested in aiding the Communists, but the Comimnml i
    lieved that he was aiding them and appreciated it.

    The attitude of the Communists is best explained by indiculhifj |M
    atmosphere” of the plot as shown by one of the captions. Thi
    ‘Danton, the Lincoln of the French Revolution!” The film was aflei
    suppressed in France.

    The success, much of it under cover, of the Labor Film Service <

    pany, although after a year or more it proved a failure, resulted in nllli
    efforts to enter the radical film field. In California the Mission Pi
    Corporation was organized and a Mrs. Clews, prominently identified ■
    the Teachers' Council movement in Los Angeles, approached a numbfll
    the wealthy radicals of that city and Pasadena asking support foi I
    company, which had been recently formed, and the first picture of ul
    was Science of God. This company at that time was preparing to m
    work on another radical picture to be called Robinson Crusoe, a Sfl
    Pioneer.

    Bruce Rogers, the notorious West Coast Communist, who was in SmitL
    ern California collecting funds for the Communist party of Americ
    the Federated Press League, sold a film scenario to Lasky. The real niilllfl
    of this scenario, it is said, was in Alaska, but Rogers disposed of the pii i ..i/ is said to have traits of Jesus Christ as well as of Dostoevsky’s Idiot.

    Ilauptmann’s Die Weber 7 the drama depicting the revolt of striking

    IVni’H in Silesia, it is said that no stronger radical labor propaganda has

    II produced for the stage. One of the most effective scenes in The Fool 7
    >■ reported, is one showing a Polish labor agitator in a fiery soapbox

    li against the ten-hour day and for better working conditions and

    I wages.
    hmter, who is one of the Trustees of the Garland Foundation, told

    ir Chaplin and Mrs. Gartz on his visit to Los Angeles, that the Gar-

    I.hmI I ninl could be depended upon to be used in aiding any of the radicals

    ■ •I into trouble with the authorities. But Foster was especially pro-

    H(|i’ wilh promises to the effect that there would be many uses for the funds

    ■ mi nl by the eccentric New England Harvard youth. Foster said the

    \**l,nttrti Press was to get $100,000 and a number of Communist workers

    ft lltr (‘oast were promised salaries.

    Hi in Rogers was the money-getter for the Communists, to whom
    1 I… 1 Moras Lovett, Harvard ’92, as president of the Federated Press
    i>M|Mir\ wrote urging him to see and collect money from William C. de
    lllllr, Allan Hollabar, and Eric Von Stroheim whose pro-Germanism made

    I prominent figure during the war; Dr. Percival T. Gerson, Will

    1 in. Charles Ray and Charlie Chaplin. Lovett said in this letter, which

    i|ui»lcd in an earlier chapter, that he had written these men, that “they

    |» 1 1 ml us before and will do it again,” and assured Rogers that “these men

    1I1 us.” It mav be of interest to “movie fans” to know that William

    f, ih< Mille married a daughter of Henry George and has been very active

    .li- tax movements.

    II has been known for a long time that Charlie Chaplin has been inter-
    Mini in radical movements and a heavy contributor to radical funds, much

    I111-I1 found its way into Communist channels. He and Lila Lee, a Fa-

    n Haver star; and Raymond Griffith, playwright, motion picture pro-

    . 1 . ninl actor, were among the guests of Mrs, Gartz and Prince Hopkins

    it tin iimv famous dinner given in honor of Upton Sinclair, when there was

    ■ 1I1 ..-ling of radicals of every known hue, on April 5, 1922. Among the

    1151]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE STAGE AND THE MOVIES

    speakers on this momentous occasion was the redoubtable Chaplin
    lold with great gusto of his pride in having given District AtLuim v W
    wine, of Los Angeles, what he called ; *a good lesson regarding I In
    meaning of syndicalist ideas," Chaplin said that he had visited \\
    in his office and discussed with him the subject of criminal ayml
    He asked Woolwine to show him one of "those terrible, cul-llnM
    derous I. W. W.'s, whereupon one of the L W. W, prisoners wan I
    from the jail for his edification. Chaplin said that he and the- di I
    torney questioned the prisoner and "were much impressed by the inir II.,
    and enthusiasm of the clean cut young radical."

    It was in August, 1922, that Charles Recht, the New York law,- i
    defended Ludwig C. A. K. Martens and succeeded him as head of thl
    Russian Government representation in this country, conducted hcpitlull^
    as was stated earlier in this chapter, with Will Hays, as head ol |h<< m>-|i
    ganda purposes. They were to be anti-Christian, anti-capitalistlcr, nnilj
    show the great advantage of Communism over the present stair M <ll
    in the rest of the world.

    Recht sailed for Europe early in September, 1922, with an n\i\\
    ment to meet Norma Talmadge, the film star, and her husband (fj
    Schenckj a motion picture producer, on Sept. 25, at the Hotel Elii'«|
    in Berlin whence they were to go to Moscow to conclude the ucgnll
    for an extensive picture propaganda campaign. Schenek and bin
    is understood, failed to get to Moscow because they could not gol
    factory guarantees for their personal safety. Will Hays may not hnv< I
    the slightest idea of what Recht was deliberately aiming at during llin
    gotiations the two had and when the proposal was publicly expo
    deal fell through.

    The Friends of Soviet Russia undertook some time ago a natii
    motion picture campaign to aid in obtaining American gold for tha
    Government to handle under the guise of relief funds. These ptl
    were taken in Russia and were manifestly propaganda films. Ceri
    various parts of the country so cut the films, however, that they tfll
    last reduced to nothing but lantern slides. Automobiles were furni
    take exhibitors of these slides from one city to another in order In jv»1
    extensive publicity for the propaganda as possible.

    Early in 1922 a number of prominent New York people allow- il
    names to be used as patrons and patronesses of a "Russian Fair mnl •
    tume Bal 1," given by the American Committee for Relief of Id nil
    Children, under the impression that they were really lending aid to ffl
    sufferers. They did not know that their efforts were being given i-
    in the perpetuation, through the force of the Red :Arniy, of the [)rl
    regime in Russia before any thought was given to the starving chllfl
    The names of some of the most prominent writers, artists and soiih
    women misled by plausible appearances, were sandwiched in will) »

    – ill Scott Nearing, Charlie Chaplin and Constance and Norma Talmadge.

    Ill lonncclion with the efforts to disseminate Communist propaganda

    -in of public amusement 'should be mentioned renewed activity on

    i i "I the Communists to capture the youth of the world for Com-

    .i-ni In a circular "about the session of the Bureau of the Communist

    itili liiln national," marked "strictly confidential!" found in the mass

    H his captured by the Michigan State authorities when they raided

    11 1 1 Communist convention at Bridgman, the Executive Committee of

    1 miminist Youth International in Moscow gave specific instructions

    lln Communists of all the countries of the globe must make a special

    Id j'H at the young children who are gathered in such organizations

    ||m« Catholic youth unions, the Y, M. C. A. organizations and the Boy

    mii'i This document was in German.

    In prtssmg, it should be mentioned that the Bridgman raid was the

    i Mow sustained by the Communist party of America, and therefore

    oil radicals, in the history of the United States. The Michigan author-

    I j'lil seventeen of these men actually conspiring ;to overthrow the

    Hp Stnleg Government by force, found the records of every delegate to

    Miilbn, the financial statements of the party, "sucker lists" of many

    < written instructions to the Communists from the directing circle in
    H1H iif which Lenin and Trotsky are the active principals, and almost
    Hjpw documents which prove the conspiracy and the guilt of every per-
    il In itltendance.

    I In document pertaining to capturing the youth of the ^world for

    inimm confesses that these organizations of youngsters constitute the

    {Uflli I obstacle to the development of Communist youth organizations,"

    |C nluiuld serve to keep loyal citizens of all countries firmly behind

    ” h officials in the Army and Navy departments of the Government.

    In ‘i, all ideas of pacifism are to be encouraged. This includes

    ■ i. • of civil organizations devoted to pacifism, disarmament, “no more

    dove, and any movement which will tend to reduce the military forces

    P and ability. In all such civil organizations the Communists are

    wed and in many of them they appear as members, sometimes under

    ltlt<Kiiise of reputable citizens, in others openly as revolutionary workers.

    [155]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    influence among yoking workers is so great that the world-wide Co

    organization fears them and must outline a campaign of battle to nil
    them from ideas of religion and ^patriotism.

    CHAPTER TEN

    ARMY, NAVY, AND THE GOVERNMENT

    1

    I

    In i lie conspiracy to overthrow' the Government of the United States

    M turd insurrection" the Communist party of America, coached specifi-

    ly liy the Communist International of Moscow, aims first to undermine

    military force of this country, including Army, Navy and ; local police

    ionizations. The handling of the local situations is left -to the Communists

    i' various cities, but the question of the Army and Navy is squarely

    Bf| the national organization. The illegal Bridgman convention was 'to

    considered this feature of the Communist work, but as the eonspira-

    HBre rudely interrupted by the Michigan authorities they did not get

    i lim part of the convention program. How r ever, certain documents found

    ilm authorities after the raid show plainly what the plans were.

    ll should be mentioned here that the celebrated Boston police strike,

    m the Communist party of America was organized, was a part of the

    niiiist movement in this country. It was engineered by the Left Wing

    i In Socialists, which had seceded from the Socialist party and was
    tiling the coming of organized Communism to the United States. These
    ll Wing Socialists, who later joined the Communist party, boasted of
    I iuccess in precipitating the police strike and they were officially credited
    li this manifestation of their strength both at Moscow and by the Com-
    HiUI party of America, when the question of amalgamation came up.
    I Incident has been cited more than once by the Communists as evidence
    ii, case with which the police can be handled when the great general
    iLr comes which is to result in the overthrow of the Government,

    Two distinct lines of attack, based upon the success of the Communist

    Ration in Russia when the Russian Government was overthrown,

    I tng used in the Army and Navy of the United States. These lines

    itltrick were dictated by the Moscow officials to be put in practice in

    • 1 lulled States. The orders, issued from Moscow, are on record. They

    lllbtle, as are all the methods of the Communists when subtlety is

    ii ,, but the plans and the working out -of the program are known to

    i MkIi officials in the Army and Navy departments of the Government.

    First, all ideas of pacifism are to be encouraged. This includes

    f civil organizations devoted to pacifism, disarmament, "no more

    P Jays, and any movement which will tend to reduce the military forces

    •Irr and ability. In all such civil organizations the Communists are

    i ! and in many of them they appear as members, sometimes under

    I. guise of reputable citizens, in others openly as revolutionary workers.

    1154]

    [155]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    P^i S ^ by L ^ an ^ P rinted wwl circulated by word p«

    framed, well-equipped, well-clothed and well-fed.Red Armv Tf

    fl56J

    1 elusion that the military organization of the Communist Inter-

    • <l lacks the forces which it could lead to a decisive battle with
    '■•mi, without which, of course, it is impossible to obtain a victory
    ll*U and the World-Wide Soviet Republic." The secret instructions

    Ulldi a condition of affairs has long since prompted -the necessity

    jflViitlng attention to the army and navy of the capitalistic States, and

    ImiwiMd and intense work utilizing the experience of ■ the de-composi-

    •l the Russian White Guard Army, to attain such a condition of

    ■ i lint m the ranks of the capitalistic armies there would be Red sec-

    Which would de-compose the Army as a whole and turn their bayonets

    Ui tfw capitalistic class. This was considered by both the Second and

    Congress of the Communist International in compiling the thesis on

    ■ inda and work, but unfortunately the work in this respect gave abso-

    I HO results. This must not stop the active Communist forces from con-

    the work commenced in this region. But, to the contrary, particu-

    \ HOW, the phantom of impending capitalistic wars is hovering before

    M « nd the armies and navies of the capitalistic States, manned by

    i|nil«nry, obligatory, or voluntary enlistment are almost entirely eonsist-
    h the most anti-militaristic youths inclined to adopt the Communistic

    Thr work and organization in this section must be placed at the
    1 t nil the future work of the Communist International and its mem-

    I «1 its strength and means must be devoted to it.

    Hie principal attention in the first place must be devoted to the

    ' of the Navy, where the soil is particularly fertile for active

    ,mt propaganda and work, particularly in the English and French

    1 1 is necessary to work under the following general conditions:
    All sailors, by the manner and nature of their lives, are devoid

    H ™ ideology, and they, as a matter of fact, are internationalists.

    I he conditions of service of sailors on submarines, cruisers and
    ■ ■I on ships which make distant trips are extremely difficult; they
    Very little rest, their maintenance is very unsatisfactory, and the
    ||wi In very dangerous to life.

    I!, The war did not bring to sailors the moral satisfaction and peace
    B lliey were expecting, but to the contrary, it is bringing on the coming
    lltmtM war on the seas.

    "In I he final summary one should not forget that sailors are least
    I Mihject to subordination and are very much inclined to insub-

    " n and disorders. In this respect the example of the Great

    I'M Revolution [Bolshevist] where an honorable part was played by

    I Btadt and Baltic Fleets, and the German Revolution, where the

    Dip ii I participants were sailors, are convincing facts. On the basis

    II thin the Bureau and the Russian branches of the Communist parties
    Irive to create in all the principal ports special nuclei of organizers

    ■llAtora who must strive with all their efforts to get into contact with

    [157]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    the personnel of naval vessels, to organize among them nuclei with 'I
    own people in them, and to distribute energetically special literature,
    nuclei on the ships must maintain a permanent contact in accord!
    with the movements of the ships with the port organizations of llir Q
    munist party and the latter must regularly maintain the contact inn
    themselves and inform one another of the movement of ships, coimin -i
    and conditions of entry. The port nuclei must not limit themselves tti
    establishment of contact and the transmittal of literature, but must ■
    also to the bringing together of the crews of ships and the proltfJ
    population of the ports and to the generalizing of their ideology, remold
    ing always that the fishermen principally are the source for the suppl]
    of the personnel of the fleet and that their influence can reflect ver) ■
    on the attitude of the sailors now and particularly during possible mobjl
    tions. Simultaneously the work already commenced in the occupied ''
    tory (on the Rhine, Upper Silesia and Constantinople) among tin- <«
    torial armies of the Entente must continue to grow and to spread mi<
    detachments already in England, France, etc., proper.

    "At the present moment it must bear in mind the youths whl< I*
    entering the Army on the latest drafts, among whom there is a parti uJ |
    favorable soil for Communist agitation and the propaganda of DA
    ideas. In this respect it is necessary to give the French, German and Enfj
    Communist parties full initiative in the sense of determining the tact ll I
    program of agitation obligating them to conform their work to loii
    that it is only for their own benefit that the capitalists and hoi
    create big armies and are preparing for their own game new confllrl
    peoples when they wish to live in peace.

    “The general slogan: Only if the proletariat be master in ever]
    will the cause for new conflicts disappear.”

    This secret document was signed by Zinoviev, chairman of

    Committee of the Third International: Katayama, the Japanese Conn

    who was in charge of the propaganda section in Moscow; and Am
    the secretary. It was dated in Moscow in December, 1921, and the Oil

    copy reached the United States by courier early in 1922, The Con

    party of America, obedient to the “iron discipline” of the Third Jul…
    tional of Moscow, became active along the lines laid out in the secrcl InstJ
    tions. The results were soon apparent to the officers of the Army and fN
    and in course of time the higher officers of Loth military establilitiMt
    recognized the symptoms. Then it was that Secretary Weeks made tin U
    ment quoted above, and Secretary of the Navy Denby issued the foil) –
    orders to the entire service:

    “1, My attention has been called to the fact that there is a init

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    itnda by societies having their origin in foreign countries to under-
    thr morale of the Navy and to insinuate into its personnel elements
    loyalty and disorder.

    1 have the most profound confidence in the loyalty and devotion

    issioned and enlisted men of the United States naval forces. I

    no fear that men in any considerable number may at any time, any-
    bo seduced from their allegiance to their country’s flag. It is not,
    H-, through any thought or suggestion that the United States Navy
    ■ the slightest danger from this propaganda, that I issue this warning.

    M. I fear only that some few of our men may be induced innocently
    Itl t, when on shore, to join societies having for their purpose the ad-
    < riL of ideas contrary to our form of government, or which may re-
    lawlessness. There are, of course, in a personnel as large as that
    llin Navy, some discontented men, and in the hearts of discontented men
    i p ilurtrines find ready acceptance.

    I. J am trying by this warning to save a few individuals who might

    inn affiliate themselves with societies teaching those things which

    Html be tolerated in an organization sworn to uphold the constitution

    llir United States and to obey all lawful orders. Should there be any

    ill mm in the Navy today, it is almost certain that if they do not disen-

    |<0 Ir themselves from affiliation with such organizations, they will ulti-

    ' \\ le detected*

    i, I am trying to lessen the number of prisoners in naval prisons.

    I not hope to show leniency, however, to any man who, in combination,

    dlnnr, in violation of his oath, committed acts of disloyalty to his

    nli v.

    ft, Because 1 have been one of you I know that all men have their

    M U of unhappiness — of imagined ill-treatment, homesickness and dis-

    i Such periods come to civilians as well as to men in the naval

    hrli't*. They are a part of life. We must not let them lead us into such

    i insertion or resistance to lawful authority nor particularly into

    »hIi by word or deed against a form of government that has proven in

    n a government of liberty and justice.

    The world is full of false thought today. 1 would save that ser-
    I which our country is so proud, and of which I happen to be at the

    ,i i he head, from the hurtful influence of improper theories of govern-

    ftil, nr false dreams of a better State to be created by anarchy and violence.

    ■ II "o far to save any one man from the consequences of misdeeds,

    i uch consequences take the form of physical punishment or only

    I deep remorse which must ever follow him through life. So I appeal

    I -liners and men of the service to be ever in alert in guarding them-

    I i liure and afloat from the preaching of sovietism, communism and

    (Signed) "Edwin Denby

    "Secretary of the Navy."

    [158]

    1159]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    It was only three months after the secret instructions from mJ
    quoted above arrived in the United States, brought bv Dr. Leo S llrlil
    member of the Communist party and of the Central Bureau of tlm S m «|
    lor Technical Aid to Soviet Russia, and therefore a courier to lir li
    with so important a document, that Secretary Denby found it neo
    issue his warning, and Secretary Weeks to issue his statement
    radicalism in the Army. It is easy to read between the lines thai H..
    strumous had been put into action promptly by the Communis!* „ni
    the ettect had already been felt in the Navy, Loyal Navy official, I, l |
    particularly watchful since the captain of an American ship in fk
    waters adopted the Soviet idea of permitting the crew to decide v I

    to make for a holiday ashore. That occurred but a few years a fA

    captain was quickly relieved of his responsibilities at that post

    Military authorities are loath to speak of sudden dismissals l'i

    service in recent months of men who were acting as Communis ..
    the ranks of the Army and Navy. It was thought best to dismiss tin in
    out making a noise about it" instead of court-martialing the men ,,,,1
    tencmg them to prison which would be furnishing material for \}u I
    munists ui stirring up other soldiers and sailors to resentment and rrl.n|||2

    By skilfully used propaganda and personal intercourse the Coiim
    succeeded in planting the seeds of Communism in the minds of many i.f 3
    American soldiers who saw service in Russia during the war and nl'l
    armistice on the German frontier and in Germany. Officers wen I
    at the Communistic ideas inoculated in the minds of troops who had mil
    in such organizations on their return to the United States. It is nol Mlftl
    possible that all such seeds have been exterminated, but much has l.n „ i

    A°iV Gr f ^J"? ° Ut the eVil in both branches °f the military eaUihli I,.!
    All of which has made the Communists more determined to push thi l| |
    with greater vigor.

    Whenever police or soldiers are called out on strike duty lit.
    muniats become very active in trying to alienate them from their di
    talkers are sent into the strike district to talk with soldiers and pot., n w|,
    ever possible; ''under cover" men they are sometimes called for ill*
    not let it be known that they are connected with the Communis! .,
    any radical movement. They present their arguments, skilfully ijihI
    solely with the view of making the soldiers forget their duty ov'sym.

    with the law violators to such an extent that they will be remis

    duty, and thus morale is undermined. These carefully selecti :
    never appear among the strikers, never address strike meetings, and |
    appearances they are not particularly interested in the strike excopl
    a humanitarian point of view.

    Another group of Communist workers are also on duly at all
    where soldiers are sent to keep the peace. This second group devuli
    to keeping the strikers agitated by speech and circulars and posEr. J
    uted among the strikers. They address secret or open meeting
    strikers, urging them to stand firm in their hostility toward the
    and m general adding fuel to the fire by class hatred. A third

    [160]

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    ■tp of ea Si-ini Sll 'V b ^ d SL°S Centml Executive Committee of the Com,,,,
    .rmiinr ! .rr^l .T 8 ?*! 1 disturbances or conflicts of any kind always brir"

    th?il3miS ni e ir, S rS lted t0 the °? caskm – rn the center, an appeal to the mem
    tne miiiiia on guard over property during ihc coal strike in Pennsylvania.

    Itself entirely to the soldiers, placing in their hands appeals printed
    ||l< Communists urging them not to oppose the strikers. One such ap-
    mI iiiuIs:
    "SOLDIERS! SOLDIERS!

    Do not shoot your brothers, the railway and mine workers!

    "They are not your enemies! Today they are fighting in order to ob-

    bill it Hurap of bread for their families. They are useful citizens; workers

    have produced millions of dollars' worth of wealth for the war profit

    |H't". Many of them fought on Flanders Field. They are now trying to

    III I iv I Home of that democracy and freedom they were promised, just the

    is thousands of ex-service men are fighting for the bonus that war

    era are opposing because it would compel them to disgorge some of

    [O0l stolen from the workers of this country.

    "Soldiers! Whether you are in the United States Army or the militias
    lir various States, do not shoot at the strikers! You did not enlist to
    Igo in the infamous occupation of strike-breakers and scab herders.
    i»r lo do it! Do not help the profiteers take the last crumb from the
    1 1 -. of the helpless women and children of the working class.
    '•Remember this, the workers are never your enemies!
    Sunn you may be in their ranks and you would not want to be crushed
    1 1 led force!
    'erhaps even now, in some other part of the country, your father or
    in lnother may be in the ranks of the strikers! Would you want them
    In murdered because they ask a mere existence?

    I is not treason to refuse to become an assassin of the workers!
    "Central Executive Committee of the Communist party of America,

    "J. Davis,

    "Executive Secretary."

    In Truth, a communist paper, of August 4, 1922, is found an article
    mi with the approval of the Central Committee of the Communist
    | of America, devoted to the need of constantly stirring up trouble

    n efforts to make everyone dissatisfied with the existing state of

    fa, In this article appears the following sentence: "In soldiers' organ-

    mi; the bonus issue may be injected to alienate them from the Govern-

    While the bonus question was before Congress the Communists

    ped to use the bonus issue for its own ends, whichever way the

    lion was decided. If it were passed by Congress the Communists were

    ped to launch an attack on the granting of a bonus on the grounds

    || was a move by capitalism to add more taxes to the poor working man;

    bated it was to be used to show that capitalism was refusing the

    I i "his just reward/'

    In another Communist paper is an editorial declaring that the deser-

    lium the United States Army were at the rate of "one every forty
    fcs" This editorial says: "The deserters are to Le congratulated.

    nliI have been better still if they had shown the same intelligence

    [1611

    REDS IN AMERICA

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    before they ever entered the army, but perhaps it is just as we]] tlinl I
    learned their lesson by bitter experience. They know now what \a<M
    they were. They will not be caught in the trap again."

    Among former soldiers, men who

  11. They know now what \a
    loyal organization and the fight will have to be kept up contimi I
    prevent increases. Knowing that this fight is well-nigh hopel
    Communists have devoted their attention more particularly to the Wot 1,1
    Veterans, an organization which is Communistic in principles and I
    is openly supported by the Communist party. Indeed, among ih. ij
    merits seized at Bridgman were official reports of the World Win Vnlm I
    which showed a close working arrangement between the two bodies, h li
    generally accepted that the World War Veterans is one of the I.
    expressions of the Communist party-

    The Soldier-Worker, of Butte, Montana, official organ of tin- U
    War Veterans of Montana, is as Communistic as the official organs ■ •” ‘

    Communist party of America and boasts of its connection with Gin

    movements. It prints with pride a letter of commendation from il><
    retary of the "International of Former Combatants," in France, li ||
    ports all amnesty and pacifist movements, attacks capital in ever]
    and is a part of a national group of similar papers; backing the WorU \»
    Veterans and the Workers' party of America preaching the samp dm till
    As an example of the kind of information conveyed in these paper?*, In'jl
    exclusion of news of opposite character, three short items from .■
    issue are presented herewith:

    "A report from Iielsingfors stated the French battleship i
    which, was the flagship of the English Baltic Fleet, with a base ;i! Il.-l |
    fors, has returned home, after a minor explosion which produrnl ……

    damage. Our correspondent, however, learns that there is a repi
    Finnish military circles to the eifect that the Cause for sending the Cm
    home was not an explosion but a mutiny among the crew on board <
    refused to operate against the fleet of the Russian Workers' RennW
    KronstadL As the mutiny threatened to spread to other ships, the hnlil. i
    was sent home."

    "Reports from Tilsit are that the crew of the French squad.
    Lihau raised the Red flag. The crews of the warships demanded nl ll lo risk your life for democracy, to destroy the beast of militarism,
    1 iMiike the world a better place to live in. You fought bravely and you
    Perhaps the German working people could not have made their
    Nihil inn and thrown off the Kaiser if you had not delivered such deadly
    f n\ the Kaiser’s military machine. You never had anything against
    i’i man people — only against the military clique. We know that and
    ||i|i” i i.iie it.

    ‘ Ynn have accomplished your object. Now you are lying about camp

    “ling. You want to go home,
    pou are not here to help us complete our revolution, but to prevent

    Y Government and all of the Allied governments are supporting

    •nine scoundrels who helped the Kaiser throughout the war — -the Ebert-

    iiuinn Government. The real German revolutionists, the working

    i, me fighting against the Ebert-Scheidemann Government, because the

    ii<i( ' »i -heidemann Government helped the Kaiser and will always fight

    Id hi"! the right.

    ' Vri your Government is recognizing them and dealing with them, and

    Bvcrything it can against the real German revolutionists, the Sparta-

    ibnojde, as they are called, who have always fought against the Kaiser

    il liitvc rotted in the Kaiser's prisons and been shot by the Kaiser's firing

    hlMiln during the war.

    [163]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    "Your officers won't let you talk to the people around you for
    that you may learn the facts about the revolution.

    4 They make you drill five to six hours a day for fear thai ||
    have time to think you may figure out for yourself why you are here,

    "You are being kept in Europe to prevent the rule of the
    people,

    "You know that the working people always get the bad end
    from the capitalists. Some of the American hoys who have been
    ilized have gone back home to ask for their jobs again. The !
    welcoming the men as 'heroes' and then giving them back their old |oi
    but paying them starvation wages, around a dollar and a half I
    The longer they keep you here, the better able they will be to cheal yofl
    of a job or cheat you on low pay w r hen you get back.

    "You came to Europe for democracy, but you are being krpl In
    for the big bankers of Wall Street and of Paris and London ami I
    You are being kept here to prevent the German revolution from ovrill
    ing the junkers and bankers who supported the Kaiser, and you in i
    kept here to shoot down French working-men who rebel for real li
    and you may be sent to England to fight there some more years
    breakers against the English working-people who are now trvinp
    the liberty they fought so long and bravely for. Or, you may be
    Ireland to shoot to death the new Irish Republic.

    "You came for democracy, but you are not being kept hen-

    As a part of the drive conducted by the Communist party of A

    against the Army and Navy recruiting for the military establishment!!
    party circulated a letter said to have been written by a prisoner in
    penitentiary to Eugene V. Debs, after his release, the name of ill. twHi
    is not given and it is not known why he is in prison, although th<- < ii
    says that "it is from a man who served a term of years in the Navy
    been rewarded for his patriotism by a long prison sentence.'' Thr i 11
    also states that "it is a fine bourgeois reformation they get at this walld
    inferno. 1 ' After quoting the letter in full the circular adds two p
    intended to check enlistments. They read:

    "This man who served the best years of his life in the Unilnl '
    Navy and is now in penitentiary warns young men not to be dci
    the fraudulent and alluring advertisements posted on city billb
    to steer clear of the Navy if they do not wish to enter deliberati
    period of slavery under tyrannical rules after having signed awn) I
    rights as citizens, including the right to make a complaint.

    'The warning voice of the imprisoned marine whose eyi m
    opened and who would save other young men from sharing in hi
    table experience is well worthy of serious consideration."

    The letter from the prisoner, which it is boasted was smuggled ilM
    out of the prison, is full of the complaints frequently heard in Arm
    and among enlisted men in the NaA ? y who have been punished fm
    tions of regulations. It recites punishments for offences which an I
    to everyone who knows anything about military discipline and the n

    h| 'i El contains no charge of anything except what is caused by chafing
    discipline and resentment at punishment for violating the rules. One
    i '|ilu however, says:

    I In- struggle of the oppressed will be won in time and then your

    liall be a household word to the new generation."

    The Communists have planted their agents in Government circles, in

    1 r->li i which it labors it organizes to overthrow the class in power. This

    li\ of necessity, develops into a struggle of force against force — of

    i I’d force of the oppressed class against the armed force of the class

    I power — the Government.

    “2 This being an accepted phenomenon based on historical fact, it
    lln liisk of the Communists to prepare and organize the working class
    li struggle against the master class, the capitalists, and against their
    M* n mi ill Army force, the Government.

    [164]

    L165J

    REDS IN AMERICA

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    3. The great mass of the working class can be consciously on |
    for this task. Weighed with the burden of false education, prejudli I
    terrorism of the master class and the Government, they cannot I. i
    into organizations, consciously under the control of the Communis!-..
    “4 It is the function of the Communists therefore, as a nioul
    scious, militant, revolutionary section of the working class, to q
    themselves into a party and by means of this party prepare the r< ■ i i
    working class for the struggle against the capitalist system and the 1 1
    ment*

    "5. The nature of the struggle— the overthrow of one class bl
    other— makes it impossible, as history has shown, for a party will) I

    program to carry on its most essential work in the open. The ||

    with the Government is so open and so frequent that the revolution.,
    gamzation working openly would he disrupted and ground to piece I
    superior force of the State. The Communists, therefore, are comnrllml
    function as an underground party— the Communist party

    ^ 1 * J? ^ under S™ un r Tf0mi itS { unction a * the directing and controlling I

    he Communist party must be made up of only the best, the most „ ( |’,
    the most trusted, tried and intelligent section of the working c3,sh I,
    exercise a rigid discipline, removing from its ranks all who me
    prehend the principles of Communism but fail to carry on the w,.,|. . I i
    party. Not understanding alone, but activity, willingness to sacriiiiN
    to do every kind of dangerous work must determine membership
    Communist party. r

    “9. The tasks of the Communist party and all the organic in.
    it creates must be clearly defined, in order that all may sery! thei n . I
    without conflict and waste or duplication of effort. The specif.- f,„

    strntt Pa Af i^ ‘^^ ^ differeBt StageS ° f the de velo P ment of th,
    struggle At the present preparatory period undoubtedly a lar;>r ,
    the work can be done m many parts of the country openly, leavL ….
    underground party functions which, though limited in quantity .ir^.i

    are oi extreme importance, without which no real Communist

    can be conceived of.

    “10, The main task of the Communist party is to organ*

    i i- -I Communist education and propaganda, thus insuring that the full

    nist message is made clear at all times. The Communist party

    ■ • iirry on all such work as cannot be done openly; it must build and

    mini I I lie Labor party and other open organizations and direct their

    I ll’H.

    “II. The Communist party must at least once a month issue its

    dealing theoretically and analytically with all the problems of the

    truggle and of the party. It shall give direction to and formulate the

    H for the work of all its open organizations. The attitude of the
    RtHliiminist party to its open organizations and especially the Labor party
    i M In- n favorable and encouraging one. It must, however, always point

    llir deficiencies in the activities of the Labor party. The Communist
    HilY uluill devise ways and means of reaching the membership of the Labor
    I «i v with its illegal organ in order to further their education- The Com-
    hiiul’il party must also issue all such literature as cannot be published

    “12. The Communist party must issue leaflets dealing with, the
    li* of the workers in a realistic manner, so that the masses will
    iv r that the Communist party understands the struggle, but it is
    mIiIc to work openly because of the nature of its organization.

    “I.’i. The Communist party must constantly make recruits to its
    fmiU from the membership of the Labor party, labor unions and other
    ■king class organizations. It is one of the main tasks of the Communist
    kfHlv t” develop and strengthen its organization.

    “14. The groups of the Communist party must meet regularly at
    . i mice a month.

    “15. The Communist party is the section of the Communist Inter-

    Uliiiinl in this country and is the only body capable of stating the official

    h.iii of the Communist International.

    hi, The task of the Labor party is to participate directly in the every-

    Iruggles of the workers, endeavoring to develop the struggles for imme-

    ||itli iiiwds into revolutionary mass struggles. It must conduct open propa-

    IMil’i and education, participate in the elections, issue papers and leaflets on

    I.. r. is of immediate demands, bringing the masses more and more to

    * innmunist position. As far as possible all editors of the Labor party

    Iti must be members of the Communist party.

    “17. Through the Labor party membership the Communist party per-
    ‘• all existing working class organizations acting as nuclei within the
    Ifliiiii/.iition. In the labor unions the Labor party must form a left wing
    hMmj-i a* nucleus and taking the leadership in it.

    “I J!. The Communist party shall endeavor to establish the same dis-

    i lint wage scale and regulations for all officials of the Labor party

    i || open organizations as prevail in the Communist party. It must

    ^^m he remembered that the real revolutionary party — the American

    litl if the Communist International — is the Communist party of America,

    id thai the Labor party is but an instrument which it uses the better
    in- out the work among the masses. Only through membership in

    [166]

    [167]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    the American section of the Communist International—the Conn

    party of America— can the American workers become members ol lit!
    Communist International,

    “19. As organs of the Communist party the Labor party and nihff
    open organizations must be under its direction and control. The disci|>lln
    of the Communist party is supreme for Communist party members. TB

    convention of the Communist party must be held prior to the com

    of the Labor party and determine all policies for the party and nil ||
    open organizations. It is the duty of the committees and of the mem I

    ship to carry out these policies in the Labor party and all other org;

    tions. In order that the work of the Communist party and Labor pari]
    may be conducted properly and the Communist party at the same I In

    be safeguarded from the clutches of the Government, the Executive C

    mittee elected at the convention of the Communist party shall diviili I
    two parts, the major part becoming the Number One Department am! J.
    ing itself to the carrying out in the Communist party of the policies I
    down by the convention and the Executive Committee, the minor purl |i
    coming the Number Two Department and devoting itself to carry in
    in the Labor party the policies laid down by the convention ami 1 1
    Executive Committee.

    “20. This policy of division of work shall be followed in all
    ordinate committees of the Communist party.

    “21. The functions of organizers of the Communist party and I ■
    party being different, and the safety of the organization making il m
    ative, the organizers of the Communist party shall, as a rule, not
    the organizers of the Labor party.

    “22. The Communists must seek to control all committees in the I A
    party. By better understanding of principles and more active participfll
    in the Labor work, they must win over the membership of the Labor Bj
    to the real Communist position.

    “23. Members of the Communist party must work as a nucloui
    the Labor party. Although all the policies are laid down in the Chimin
    party, the activities of the Communists in the Labor party evolvin|
    of these policies must be left to the understanding, better organization
    generalship of the members of the Communist party.

    “24. Communist party members act as a caucus in the Lab 01
    nuclei in the labor unions. Decisions on all important matters mujj
    made in caucus meetings.

    “25, As the situation becomes more revolutionary, the Laboi
    gaining the support of the masses, will become more revolution?! ;
    character and activity. In such a situation, the Labor party shall Fori
    amalgamate with the Communist parly and assume its name.

    “26. The underground Communist party, remaining as an orgnnl)
    within the open party, must continue to be the directing and con I
    body. It remains intact and must continually be strengthened. There ITltlj
    e. periodical purging of its ranks and the discipline made more rigid,

    [168 J

    i in
    >i .i
    III co

    ARMY, NAVY AND THE GOVERNMENT

    Oil from the open party and other open organizations must be introduced
    p 1 1 ii’ underground organizations.

    “27. Even though the Communist party shall have come above ground

    I Del as the section of the Communist International, the underground

    uii.ation remains as the directing organ of the open Communist party-

    iportant policies must first be taken up by the underground organiza-

    ind its decisions put through in the open party. The underground

    imtinually be reinforced, since even when fighting in the open, the

    II iliea of the open party will depend on the vigor, understanding,

    ■ -v and generalship of the underground organization. The open party

    •i’ln» u mass party cannot have the discipline and understanding of an

    llnlcrpvound organization and will respond to calls to action only in

    | ijmrtion as the underground membership is disciplined and exerts in-

    jtiwtic. This status will continue up to and through the revolution and to

    .Uiblishmexit of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat.”

    The thesis on tactics adopted by the Third International sets forth,

    other things, that:

    “The new international labor organization is established for the pur-

    ■ i>f organizing united action of the world proletariat, aspiring toward

    line goal: the overthrow of capitalism, the establishment of the Die-

    lliMnliip of the Proletariat, and of an international Soviet republic, for

    • ntnplete elimination of classes and the realization of Socialism, the

    ilep toward the communist commonwealth.”

    Commenting on this, the Communist party of America has officially
    b(l i hat:

    “This definition of the aims of the Communist International laid
    ii in the statutes, distinctly defines all the questions of tactics to be

    Dlvnl. . , * The world revolution, i. e., the decay of capitalism and
    iincentration of the revolutionary energy of the proletariat, its organi-

    iIIhm into aggressive, victorious power, will require a prolonged period
    revolutionary struggle. . . . The Communists declared, while the
    – urn was raging, that the period of imperialism was making for an
    I, of social revolution, i. e., of a long series of civil wars in a number
    lipilalistic countries, and of wars between the capitalist states on one
    niul proletarian states and exploited colonial peoples on the other side,”

    Hearing these statements in mind, with particular emphasis on the

    Him of the Communist International, through the Communist party of
    lirlrn, it is interesting to read a statement in Truth, which speaks officially
    ||io party, in its issue of August 4, 192-2, where it says:

    “Mere talk, regardless of its eloquence or volume, will not expose
    Lpitalists to the working class. The Communists must put forward
    j|te proposals. Tangible, immediate demands in line with the workers’
    Lj must be made on the Government. Our activity in Congress is sub-
    |ry to and dependent upon the mass struggle on the outside. The

    hoieie will do their best to kill all our propositions. They will refuse

    [169]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    even to consider the workers’ problems. This will materially aid B
    exposing the capitalist. This will help us to give a political characlfl. Ifl
    whole struggle . . . When we make” these* definite den,,,,,!

    Government, when we put forward our immediate legislative do

    we do so not with the idea of solving the ins olv ablest he contmdi

    capnalism-hut in order to rally the masses around practical concrotl
    of combat which will further draw them into the struggle againsl thl
    and expose its class character.” B

    Early iri September, 1922, a delegation of the Communist port)
    America sailed for Europe and established itself, where it disc, ,.i
    the Kussian Communist leader plans for an intensive campaign Ml
    Congressmen of the United States for the immediate recognition ol
    boviet Government of Russia by this country. One of the Amerii a, I
    mumst leaders stated that certain Senators are already in line fol i
    drive and are all the time working toward securing such recognition
    said that these Senators are in constant communication with lunch, — had a galvanic effect upon the ring of arch -conspirators in
    UW. It was immediately suspected that someone, on one side or the other
    Iim factional fight within the party, had been guilty of divulging
    • i Hid revealing the fact of the illegal meeting to the authorities as a

    > to defeat the rival faction. This factional fight had been almost en-
    ilv w’ltlcd before the Bridgman convention met and one of the reports at

    lOtlvention dealt with this feature of the situation in the United States.
    ■ delay in the carrying out of the destructive program of the party in
    i Miiinhy had been caused by this division in the organization.

    I in mediately upon receipt of information regarding the raid and the
    ■llllicnt breaking up of the convention before its work had been ac-
    Ipll ihcd, Moscow started a courier post haste to the United States bearing
    I 1 1 mi peremptory orders from the Executive Committee of the Com-
    Mi i International to both factions in the American party to unite at
    The minority faction was ordered to submit without further delay
    M will of the majority; and the majority was ordered to admit the
    ■rlty without prejudice. Both factions were reminded of the “iron

    k|il ” clause in the regulations of conduct and membership in the

    i! ninl organization. Expulsion from the party and from the entire
    uni^l movement was the penalty of any individual who refused to
    ilt i command to unite.

    Tin- courier by whom these orders were dispatched reached the United
    I I nic in September, 1922, and on October 1 representatives of the

    iy mid minority factions were called into secret conference in New

    !• In hear the orders from headquarters. There was nothing left to do,
    ■XlMllnion from the Communist party and the world-wide organization
    iih place for such radicals to make their bed. They could not join the
    In In, socialists or any other radical organization, because of the bitter
    I I li/il had been made on all these bodies by the Communists. Certainly
    • nlil not become conservatives of any stripe. They were branded with

    ism, and if this brand were erased it would leave a scar by which

    Id always be recognized as “traitors” to Communism. And the

    [171]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    records of millions slain without trial, by arbitrary dicta, in Russia Id I i
    whole tale of the “traitor” to Communism.

    This party division having been healed the organization immedijitfll
    turned its united attention to the needs of those arrested at the Brid
    raid. Through the energetic efforts of the American Civil Liberties I
    whose radical activities have been noted in another chapter, some nl tl|
    prisoners had been released on bond, but others still languished in li||
    Michigan jail, awaiting trial. Money was most urgently needed to
    these men out of jail, arid to prepare for the defense of the Commnnl
    when they came to trial. It was then reported that Frank P, WhJhIi iii t
    returned from Moscow, was to be the chief attorney for the defense. 1 1
    engagement of these men cost money, real money, and it is safe to
    that they would not be satisfied with contingent fees. It was common i
    in Communist circles in New York that Walsh insisted upon a I”
    S50,0Q0 for his services; one fourth to be paid at once, one fourth dr-li
    the trial opened and the remaining $25,000 before the first case will
    the jury.

    Numerous conferences were held by the leaders of the Commnnl*)
    to how these funds were to be raised. Moscow could be counted it|l|
    for certain amounts, but Moscow has been a bit wary of aendinfi I

    to the United States much of the money it goes to such pains I ‘

    here unless it is shown that it is absolutely necessary to make sticli expi

    lure. William Z, Foster, one of the delegates at Bridgman; It |

    Baldwin, draft dodger, of the American Civil Liberties Union; Eiij

    Debs, now out of jail after being pardoned for his anti -American noil
    during the war; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the active woman radical, oti
    r orkers’ Defense Union; and others were concerned in these confarOfl

    For several weeks these conferences went on, committees wen
    in all parts of the country, and plans were matured for estahli
    the connections possible to present a “united front” of “labor” in «Vfi n
    these men accused of conspiracy. One interesting phase was the
    American Federation of Labor was “hooked” in the plan. On On
    William Z t Foster was in New York, working on the plan of th« I
    Defense Council It was suggested to him by a fellow Communtnl ”
    would be possible to get the endorsement of from six to ten orgnul ill
    which were members of the American Federation of Labor; thesis ■
    ments could be sent to other member organizations; and when
    number had been obtained all the endorsements could be printed

    form and sent broadcast until the entire Federation could be said Id I
    joined in the Labor Defence Council. This plan was adopted and
    like a charm.

    The work of national organization was begun early i 1 1
    while a number of the Bridgman prisoners were still in jail unabli i
    the bonds necessary for their release. By this time it had been n
    inasmuch as the Communist party of America, which is an illegal mill II
    ground organization, could not direct the fight to aid llir Mild
    prisoners, the Workers’ Party of America, as a legal organization *

    [172]

    ytTlOx.tL coMuttree

    »OCER K, BALDBJN, Hw Y P ,k CJIT
    KOBMA\ R BAKU, C!.- r . In

    Dirttiet Olictr Intifrtu
    TENNIS E. feATT. Dmcil

    lEtfiim Acjjoji £«Sflr ffiBi, O. ff.

    Dii. Ftd. Utar
    EUGENE J. BROCK,

    Chairman Prttirrtiiit Ycttri’

    Lrtfar of Mtckfyam

    j. B. erow.v, Oiieio

    Kmtitinel Slt’y Falmrt-Lt/ivr F*rtl
    HUBERT W. DUCK, Ch.ir.j,.

    Editor Net* Majority, r 0, CKi-

    caftt Fnt. of Labor
    |OHN C O-AY. CbiU|«

    LENETfA M. a»P£K, a;,.^
    K. J3. CRAilEH, Mtiunpolii

    £d.’w/ e,l Mdi. lata, Ihriii
    EUC£.\E V. DEBS. Tom Hjdi*
    ELIZABETH t:tli.l..LV rLY.v.V.S,,. l : ul i
    JOHN C FLORA, Chiton
    jun.S’ IIAV.SES HOLMES, *«v Y«k
    MAX S. HAVLS. UcTdiDd
    IHANCIS 11511EH KANE, PiilUdrlpfci.
    Iik. JOHN A. LaRP, Cfci-CM-J

    Jt’F.n ffuiicimj CmAuIw I’hj’i
    CuhU
    HORITZ J, LftEt. <M«i 1 1 r atari Drill and FuIniJirii

    t’nion, /„ I, C. W. V.
    EL.l/.iiHJ in CURLLT iLV.N,.
    Ht.tHl K. LISVILLE,
    IEILMA BERMAK

    Kuioail b/wt Canxuiift
    , BBOWNSTEItf,

    Saiu i-uj ■.; Furritri (-.,■.

    Benjamin wahhel,

    r*BcA*si L’fLU&t
    JULIUS lAZAftU.

    J. I I vi- i ■.. — .’.>-.., j”fj. JH

    LENA tOOPMAW.

    ZadiM f ii!ir…,-n f«i« i«j| «
    S. E. BEAHDSLKV.

    flsfalluei JfttrinaJLaaaJ itxilrj

    – ■ .-i:”i Uuien Ltetl I
    U. WEEtE*.

    Ltt*l «. I. i. e. r. V.
    U. Q8ERW£1£R.

    Jj > trj r L.’lffi i, i.-u-l i-f .4r.d[j.

    /i. i’ ~> -r— . a/ J T-nff«
    LLQ HALFF BAUER.

    .(FtAuttl (J’ iU menial fiui aW

    0’i4H Verktrr L’nwh
    MORRIS E0EL3TEIN.

    f«r> UrlAtr (,:,., j, rorjt.n Cliuua
    N. D*: FHANK.

    t’b’Jnd ,f.Ja,, Aircrall irxd ftlicU

    Vtrltn nj A, I,-,, ff

    CO-OFERATLVC flTH COtKltlUE
    Of THE DEFLKOrtNTS
    EARL R. BROWDER, C!.E« e n

    WILLIAM P. QQI4HE, Mra i i n l,:,
    WIU.1.AU FOSTER. Chkifs
    C. E. RUTHENBERC. CU.cJ..^

    H.tTtOSAL OFFICERS
    ROBEST M, BUCK, CAArxtu
    EltEMt V. DEBS, riu-CWiu.
    HEV. JOHN A. RYAN. D.D..

    Hfrr rfl^mm
    Monrrz i. loeb, $ewtv?

    FRANCES C, LULIE. TttMr*
    WILLIAM Z. FOSTER,

    !”‘! t>ilt*4mi~i Crm.

    LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL

    FRANK P. WALSH, CLW c«, M rf for th. D*f.nd* Bl .

    For lb. d.Naa

    J’l’ndlhil yra

    3»«:r*| Sirvisi

    ‘i.i\.”i?’*i” ” 1 ~ rKlltllM

    ROOM 4M

    80 EAST ELEVENTH STREET
    New York City

    ■Vdtcona/ Secretary

    Wiluam 2. Fqste»

    Teiei/Jmne Stuviesant 6616

    Dear Friend: Apr11 8 i ,Ul

    «»■ *>, * ^e press has brought you info Pm ati&n „t tho B »».yi
    or the trial o£ the first of the so-called Hi C hi fia ^ SoSSi
    at St. Joseph. Every day it is bromine clearer that

    SleiihS™ 1 ? S 3 t « PlaX ^ th6 riBht of *”” speech «a fFM
    assemblage in America, as well as such du* processes of

    m »JSt .>, ; ?? l3h * a J torne y f ” the defense, has staled
    clearly that the provisions of the Criminal Syndicalist
    Acta, under which Foster and his associates hav^ been

    o?°m5m« tria ,H. Vi °, laU th6 constitution er the state
    Pv^i ^ *?**** Constitution of the United States.
    Evidence for this contention is fast becomin E abundant

    * group of men and women met together psacefully t M
    consider the business of their party organisation, oon-
    templates no a^ts of violence and cherishing no intent

    -ith r St B m«t 0r – f UM u°U ° f vi0l6n «. «s itself trenteg
    with utmost violence by the officers of the law. If ever
    there was a trial involving persecution and tyranny. It
    is this one. It cozes as the last echo of the disgrace-
    ful mania of governmental terrorism, which was one of the
    plagues of the war.

    The defense of these men and women, now on trial
    is an expensive one. Large sums of money must be raised
    to guarantee them justice. This money can come only
    fro.ii those who believe in the vindication of basic
    democratic rights in this country. We appeal to you to
    help us in this cause. Read the inclosed pamphlet giving

    the Story of the chsb nnfl then s«ad your contribution’
    in the inclosed envelope.

    Sincerely yours.

    3£<u. ui^u^ /l^^^^qXvw^.

    iwk^tfL ^

    W^idmyjpii

    BSiAU 13646

    T

    • A*'

    THE LABOR DEFENSE CO UNGIL – WOME N'S CLUBS

    1 iwimunists, should assume the leadership. This was particularly fitting

    I'liinsr William F. Dunne, the party candidate for the governorship of

    Vork, was one of those arrested at Bridgman as a delegate to the Com-

    i.i convention. This, of course, established the immediate connection

    1 Iwt'en the Communist party and the Labor Defence Council, for the
    liters' Party is not allowed to Jake any steps on any matter without
    • the approval of the Central Executive Committee of the Communist
    i Accordingly, on Sept. 24th, C. E. Ruthenberg, a Communist and a
    111 legale to the Bridgman convention, who was secretary of the Workers'
    sent out an official order to "To All Party Branches, District Organ-
    oid Federation Secretaries," which read in part as follows:

    "The Central Executive Committee of the party has decided that the
    i mi, must take the initiative in bringing into existence an organization
    till 1 1 will unite the workers in the defence struggle.

    "For this purpose the Labor Defence Council will be organized.

    "The Labor Defence Council will be a delegated body which will in-

    <ln.li- representatives of the Trade Unions, the Trade Union Educational

    ' e (William Z. Foster's Communist organization within the trade union

    ■ ivrment of the United States and so recognized by the Soviet Government

    1 Russia) the Workers* party, the Socialist party, the Farmer-Labor party,

    1 ■ talist-Labor party, the I. W. W., the Proletarian party, the United

    l iIIims, liberal organizations and workers' social, relief and cooperative

    ^jttiiizations,

    I lie purpose of the Labor Defence Council will be*
    "To conduct the defence of the victims of the Michigan raids and those
    lllii'Mrd in connection with the Michigan case in other parts of the country
    Hd l.!..,
    were set forth by it in a secret report in a single paragraph as follows:

    “To unite all radical, liberal and conservative organizations lo I
    the Labor Defence Council. The purpose of this council is to defend \\%
    Reds arrested in Michigan, to raise bail money, to hold defence moctliiflj
    and to carry on agitation in their behalf.”

    One of the first things done by the organization was the appoinhm- I

    a publicity department to flood the daily newspapers of the count r
    propaganda for the movement. “Press releases” were issued and |

    broadcast. Much of the material thus furnished was printed in rc| .1

    newspapers ignorant of the fact that they were printing appeals for 11
    ment aimed at the overthrow of the country. One such release,
    first sent out, was entitled, “Defence Is the Need of the H<
    marked for "immediate release," and read as follows:

    "Immediately upon the publication of the dastardly Daugherty ii
    lion and the arrest of the so-called agitators at Bridgmam Mich,, the 1 ■■
    gressiye section of the labor movement united in a strong protest 11
    these intolerable attacks upon our fundamental constitutional rights. 1 il
    bodies all over the country condemned the proceedings in no urn
    terms. Special mass meetings were called for Sunday, Oct. 1. The < !lili
    Federation of Labor denounced 'the unlawful invasion of a meet in;
    'the indiscriminate arrest, without warrants or due process of law, ul 111

    and women/ The Minneapolis Trades and Labor Council den<

    attack 'of certain labor-hating, labor-baiting detectives* as 'the evej pfl
    methods and tactics of tyranny, and of financial tyrants and exploit. 1
    control of Government-'

    [174]

    ,, one ol tli
    our!" ft m

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL-WOMEN'S CLUBS

    "New York will take its first decisive action against these attacks upon
    rights of labor at the huge protest meeting, arranged hj the Labor De-
    [9)1 CO Council, for Friday evening, Oct. 6, at the Central Opera House, 67th
    i.rri and Third Avenue, The speakers will include two of the arrested
    111 11, William Z. Foster, the noted secretary of the Trade Union Educational
    1 Igue, and C. Ruthenberg, secretary of the Worker's party of America;
    1 vr Baldwin, secretary of the Civil Liberties Union, and J. Louis Eng-
    iltthl, editor of The Worker"

    The hand of William Z. Foster can be seen in this publicity. It was

    Ie to appear that this was a spontaneous movement of the labor unions

    ml (he citations from the Chicago and Minneapolis federations were pur-
    1 Mflly designed as a trap, for both of these organizations are extremely
    tdical and have indorsed much of the work of Soviet Russia, especially
    in lliis country. The fact, however, that the Workers' party was back of
    whole movement showed its connection with the Communist party of
    Hncrica.

    1 in

    Trusted Communists were in charge of the organizing work of the
    bor Defence Council in the chief cities of the country. For example,
    Philadelphia the work was in the hands of Morris Kushinsky, whose par-
    name is Hoffman and who was district organizer of the third district of
    Communist party* Immediately upon receipt of the instructions from
    ■ rln nberg, Kushinsky, alias Hoffman, called a meeting, on Sept. 19. of
    I !ity Central Committee of the Workers' party to begin the work of organ-
    M-'. the Labor Defence Council of Philadelphia, One of the first things
    tie was to urge the foreign-born Communist members of the party to be-
    iih- citizens of the United States to save themselves from prosecution under
    i\;i which affect only alien agitators. The famous Philadelphia "sucker
    l" was brought out and checked off with a view to seeing how much cash
    nlil be raised from this source- This is the list of the Workers' party and
    Mains names of Philadelphians who, they say, may be called upon for aid.
    I lir list are the names of Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, wife of the governor of
    mnsylvania; David Wallerstein, prominent lawyer and member of the
    mI liberties Bureau; Francis Fisher Kane, former United States district

    ey; T, Henry Walnut, former assistant United States district attorney;

    1. Helen Murphy, a well-known woman physician: Mrs. Walter Cope, a
    in r,( Francis Fisher Kane; Miss Margaret Cope, niece of Mr. Kane:
    1 George Burnham, of the family which owns part of the Baldwin Loco-
    nlive Works; six members of the wealthy Biddle family, which is con-
    -i.l with the Drexel interests; and Asa S. Wing, who was in charge of
    1 local work of relief for the Near East. There are several hundred names
    1 this list.

    Foster and Ruthenberg, both defendants in the Bridgman cases, were

    irtfrularly active in organizing the local Labor Defence Councils as

    IIH lies of the national body, and travelled over a great part of the East

    a J nig at meetings in various cities. Practically all of these meetings were

    [175]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    used to spread Communist propaganda as well as to raise money for I
    defence of Foster, Ruthenberg and the others.

    The question of financing the defence on as large a scale as was planned,
    presented a considerable problem. With lawyers* fees of unusual size to Im
    paid, bail money to be furnished, anticipated fines and support of the fiiin
    ilies of the prisoners, as well as the providing of a kind of sinking I'm. i
    for the future contests with the authorities, the Communists were in rliffn ill
    ^t\es to raise the money required. Large sums in the aggregate were raised
    ;; in the meetings held as often and in as many places as possible. The Ainm
    f ican Civil Liberties Union also contributed largely both with funds ami
    legal advice — the services of 800 lawyers were offered by ibis orgamzalli
    — hut in addition to this a call went forth to Moscow for additional finain
    (_ aid. Moscow may be counted upon to provide money when necessary. Mill
    in the end the American people provide the funds- This is the result itf
    the carefully kept "sucker lists," collections taken at the meetings, and tin
    funds which Moscow gets directly from the American public, inclmlini
    sums collected by Russian actors, dancers and artists in this country, wliMl
    were referred to in a previous chapter.

    There are many means by which the Communists have planned to J
    cure cash from citizens of the United States, this money to be used rilln

    in full or in part for the overthrow of this Government by violence. V'm

    industrial organizations are disguises for raising such funds. The connfll
    tion of the Friends of Soviet Russia with the Moscow Government in I mi
    well known to need repeating. This organization issued a circular wild
    indicated that Sydney Hillman's organization, the Russian-American lml
    trial Corporation, was in very close touch with the Friends of Soviet Itu – 11
    and an interesting part of the scheme was to use the old plea ol <
    "starving'* children. The circular reads:

    "Friends of Soviet Russia starts big campaign for Russian*Amc*ilr||
    Industrial Corporation and children's homes in Soviet Russia.

    "The Friends of Soviet Russia, Local New York, has just opninl
    joint campaign for the Russian- American Industrial Corporation ,m I ill
    Children's Homes in Soviet Russia.

    "The corporation, formed recently in the Amalgamated, ban I
    purpose the promotion of industrial activity in Russia by raising Buflfl
    capital to start large factories. A million dollars is needed for lli
    capital, and thousands have already purchased stock, which sells at 111! I
    share. Every worker who wishes to see Soviet Russia prosper nm i I
    his financial assistance to this project. Further details with regard
    corporation and the campaign to be conducted will be published IjiI i

    "The second big item on the program of the Friends of Soviet Id
    is the drive to raise enough money to support ten thousand starving ■ I <i
    in Soviet Russia, As a result of the terrible famine millions of littll
    dren have lost their parents and are now helpless. To save them I'm
    vation, and death from the freezing blasts of winter, an interiuilion il '
    is being conducted to rescue these millions of children. The quotJi

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL — WOMEN'S CLUBS

    i" the Friends of Soviet Russia to support is ten thousand. The method of
    ing money is as follows:

    "Organizations interested in saving these children can do so by adopt-
    "iie or more of them. Five dollars down and two dollars a month for
    twelve months will support one child for a whole year- This means $290
    (01 I en children per year. Those interested in adopting children should at
    Mi e communicate with the local office, 208 East Twelfth Street. To carry
    |0th of these drives over the top the Friends of Soviet Russia will call a

    i.il conference of labor organizations interested in Russian Relief arid

    Itnconstruction."

    The "Amalgamated" referred to in this communication is the Amal-
    |« mated Clothing Workers' Union of America, which is closely associated
    nli I he Communists in the Russian regime. That fact, and the fact that
    Oil Friends of Soviet Russia is a Moscow-controlled organization show
    |ilninly enough the destination of funds raised in this way. In addition to
    uiie facts, however, is the fact stated by Litvinov, among other Russian
    iifliriuls, that there is no longer any danger of famine in Russia.

    In a document found at Bridgman at the time of the raid of the illegal

    vention of Communists was one on Work Among Women, in which it is

    ■I forth that "the famine appeal is the most practical means for penetrating

    ■ Milieu's clubs, leagues, etc." And already work has been directed by the
    i mm musts to win support of their cause among women's organizations of
    nil rlasses. An elaborate program for this work was adopted at the Bridg-

    i convention, going into such detail as the canvassing of cities, block

    l\ block, and block organizations for the Communists. The thesis adopted
    i" m In as follows:

    "The interest of the working class demands the recruiting of women

    I he ranks of the proletariat fighting for Communism.

    "Wherever the question of the conquest of power arises, the Communist

    i s must consider not only the great source of weakness to the prole-

    i hi. mi struggle of an uninformed mass of housewives, farmers 7 wives and

    en workers in the industrial field, but also the fact that on the other

    I I, proletarian women once awakened are among the moat tenacious fight-

    idf elements in the class struggle.

    "The experiences of the Russian Soviet Republic proved in practice the
    i(n|i..riance of the participation of women workers and peasants in defence

    ■ ■I i In'. Republic as well as in other activities of Soviet construction.
    Tlil» alone must serve as a lesson in all countries; while here in America

    have recently had several thrilling examples; notably in the part work-
    ||i| .hiss women played in the Chicago packing strike and the miners'
    i ■ '■If: in Kansas, in Pennsylvania and West Virginia,

    "Communism, which alone affords women economic and social equal-

    f, mill the necessary conditions for motherhood without conflicting with

    *uiintri's social obligations or hindering her creative work for the benefit

    ict.y, should be the aim of all women fighting for emancipation. But

    Biiiinimni&m is also the final aim of the entire proletariat. Consequently,

    truggle of the proletariat w 7 oman must be carried on in the interests

    [176]

    [177]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL-WOMEN'S CLUBS

    of both the men and the women of the proletariat under a united leadcrsnll
    'one and indivisible* to the entire proletarian movement.

    "With Karl Marx we affirm that there is no specific women's question
    and no specific women's movement. But in present day society there m.
    hundreds of thousands of working-class women in separate women's 01
    ganizations and millions of workers* and farmers' wives with a lower slain
    than a wage slave's, isolated from the general stream of organized endenvC
    who must be reached and drawn into the struggle for Communism by spl
    cific methods of approach.

    "It is therefore imperative that women's committees be created to dl
    vise and carry into practice the specific methods that will win the worn–.
    of the working class to the Communist ideal and that will unite them foi
    and link them up with the general proletarian struggle.

    "Women's work that immediately presents itself may roughly he I
    sified in four categories.

    "(1) Work among the women organized in trade unions or organltl
    tions affiliated with trade unions,

    "(2) Work among unorganized women,

    "(3) Work in women's organizations other than trade uni
    program.

    * ! Sub- committees for each category could he named to facilitati till
    work in the first three types of activity, while emergency work could I”
    assigned to a sub-committee appointed when an emergency arises 01 |j
    anticipated.”

    In an interesting article, published May 1, 1922, The Woman Putrid

    says that “the so-called ‘Pan-American Conference of Women’ at Ball! iA

    called by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the International \\
    Suffrage Alliance arid honorary president of the National League of Wniiu
    Voters, was in reality “The Women’s Third International.” The urtl tl
    is too long for quotation here, but seven short paragraphs give all
    Americans food for thought. It is not charged here that the women in! |
    ested in this meeting, the first of its kind held in the United Stall
    working for Communism directly, but it behoves all loyal American wmm h
    and men as well to “watch their step” in these times surcharged v ||
    danger. These paragraphs read:

    “The two former internationals were held in Zurich, in 1919, n
    Vienna, in 1921, under the names, ‘International Congress of Women
    ‘Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.’

    ;fi Trequent changes of name/ as advised by Nicolai Lenin.
    sorted to by the International feminist-pacifist bloc as often as nece
    the entire movement originates with the International Woman’s Sullni
    Alliance.

    “The work is divided up, like an army’s artillery, cavalry and inl iitll

  12. the entire movement originates with the International Woman’s Sullni
    Alliance.

    “The work is divided up, like an army’s artillery, cavalry and inl iitll
    into three mobile divisions:

    “The political, under Mrs. Call and her ‘International Woman Siilli
    Alliance’ and ‘League of Women Voters.’

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL-WOMEN’S CLUBS

    “The pacifist, under Miss Jane Addams and her ‘Women’s International
    League for Peace and Freedom. 51

    “The industrial, under Mrs. Raymond Robins and her ‘International
    League of Working Women’ and ‘Women’s Trade Union League,’

    “The three Branches are employed precisely as a wise general would
    I ngage artillery, cavalry or infantry; using all three together wherever
    necessary and each one alone for special objectives.”

    Voluntary organizations which are carrying on agitative propaganda or
    tvhich have objectives to a greater or less extent in harmony with the pro-
    ■ram of the Communist party of America are so numerous that it would be
    Impossible to list them. They may be found in every state in the union,
    ■nil several of the larger ones with headquarters in metropolitan centers
    ire active in every state. In some instances, the work of such organizations
    || of so much value to the revolutionary forces that recognition is freely
    ‘u.l officially accorded by the Communists, In other instances, the ob-
    inlives are praiseworthy, the personnel is above suspicion, and it is only
    mi pausing to analyse that the adherence to collectivism as opposed to in-
    dividualism, or the tendency toward dependency on the state which is so
    i horacteristic of socialism, becomes apparent. Between the two extremes
    ill grades of variations are to be found. As an example of the more radical
    lype, the Women’s Trade Union League may be mentioned. The League
    teas originally started by Mrs, Raymond Robins, who was until quite recently
    mi. I Cor many years, its president. Miss Agnes Nestor and Miss Rose
    Ichneiderman figure prominently in its activities, the latter of whom is
    |0w president. Its object is to organize trades unions composed of women,
    (Hid to federate those in existence. Its work is so much in harmony with
    I luil of the Communist party of America that at the Bridgman Convention
    fee latter adopted a thesis which obviously looks upon it as occupying an
    p port ant strategical position in the united front of its lawful and open
    huchinery. So far as is known the leaders of the Women’s Trade Union
    I i ,i;-ue have never repudiated this overture on the part of the Communist
    Ht-Ly hut on the contrary from time to time in its annual conventions, the
    I . i ne has adopted resolutions indicative of its sympathy with the Moscow
    Ipviel government and in accord with the program of the Communist party,
    ii ‘demands” among other things that public utilities now run by the state
    i turned over to workers’ control. In view of these and many other facts,

    the “Woman’s International League for Peace and Freedom is closely aligned
    the Third International in interest and objective is clearly shown in an adver-
    flt which recently appeared in “The World Tomorrow”, and cited by The
    in Patriot, in which it is stated that Miss Jane Addams of Hull House, Chi-
    ta listed as a stockholder in the Russian- American Industrial Corporation
    •y Hilhnan) alone with Nicolai Lenin, Eugene V. Debs, Charles P. Steinmetz,
    ongressman LaGuardia. The Woman’s Patriot also quotes the Federated Press
    In as stating that Anna Louise Strong, for many years Moscow correspondent
    Federated Press, and for the official American Communist organ, The Worker,
    r to fill numerous lecture engagements during the winter and can be reached
    ill House No. BOO 5, JHalsted St., Chicago, HI, Press dispatches from Moscow
    l.\ indicate that some of the funds of the Russian American Industrial Cor-
    on in Russia had been misappropriated.

    [180]

    [181]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL-WOMEN’S CLUBS

    the Women’s Trade Union League may be considered as a part of the united
    front of the open and legal machinery of the Communist party of Am
    regardless of whether the League or its leaders would desire such a deaig
    nation. On the other hand, it would be unjust to regard all individual
    members of the League as communists. Obviously, they are not. Many ol
    them have a purely nominal connection with the League, or though working
    for its organic interests, are ignorant of the uses to which the League in
    being put.

    The same is found to apply on appraising the nature of the aclivilir*
    of some other organizations. From the stand-point of hypersensitive human
    ita nanism, many of them have objectives which are excellent and desirabll
    provided we do not take into consideration the cost either in mori<'\ 01
    destructiveness to the state. It should be noted, however, that in aim Oil
    every instance, some individual or group among the leading spirits of ttfl)
    particular society, can be found having direct or indirect connections wltB

    the Communist party of America, while the numerical majority are q

    above suspicion. For instance in such a class undoubtedly belongs the Ami I
    Scan Association for Labor Legislation. It beseeches legislators for the adop
    tion of social insurance by the state. To it we owe the present workmen's con)
    pensation laws which are on the statute books of the various states. Com
    pulsory health insurance is a part of its legislative program but up to tltn
    present, largely owing to the bitter opposition of physicians and Elic ml
    ministrative difficulties encountered in England, the Association has fntlod
    to achieve this end here. En passant, it should be said that these meai til
    were born of revolutionary socialism in the decade following I860. I 'In
    effect of its adoption means a lightening of responsibility on the piui oE
    labor in the maintenance of a healthy well-balanced society, and quick adfljl
    tation of the working classes to the idea of dependency on the state. Samui '
    Gompers at one time a member of the A. A. L, L. resigned, repudiating ill
    its words and works. Social Insurance legislation is class legislation in, '
    socialistic. The Soviet government of Russia has attempted with a mofl
    or less show of success to establish a complete system of social insuruni

    The most conspicuous generality which could be deduced from ;i
    of the names of those connected with the management of the American j\|
    sociation for Labor Legislation is the fact that aside from Andrew Kuril
    seth, radical president of the Seamen's Union, probably not one includU
    in his personal experience a history of having worked continuously foi Hf|
    length of time at manual labor, certainly not Thomas Chadburm its prml
    dent, nor Adolph Lewisohn, its treasurer (1923).

    There are doubtless many ^people who have contributed to the su|)|l0|
    of the American Association for Labor Legislation who are far abovi ll
    charge of consciously desiring the success of a subversive movemenl
    we subtract these from the membership and leaders of the orgaiu:
    there remains a large number who are prominently connected willi t)||
    radical movement and in some instances indirectly with the Comni

    party of America, it is still an inexpJicable mystery, how the Lusk <

    mittee failed to give this organization due consideration, Amorr n : ■ i

    [182]

    ipicuous officials are or have been in the past such well-known radicals as
    Mm. Raymond Robins, organizer and president of the Women's Trade
    l nion League, which has just been considered and which is an important
    pari of the lawful open machinery of the Communist party of America, and
    i. i associates Miss Agnes Nestor and Miss Mary Anderson; the Rev. John
    Waynes Holmes, the radical pacifist, and his friend and co-worker, Rabbi
    Itflphen S. Wise; Owen Lovejoy, of whom more anon; Miss Lillian Wald, of
    the Henry Street Settlement known as a member of the interlocking director-
    ial of radical organizations; Miss Jane Addams, famous for her interest in
    Iho Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; and a host of
    •»1 liria of like thought.

    In general, there is a mutual sympathy for the objects which this class
    'I organizations desire to attain, an interlocking personnel in the director-
    , and programs which dovetail into each other that suggest common in-
    spiration and mutual financial resources. They present the appearance of a
    united front, and might be deemed the shock-troops of an insinuating army
    b| borers, whose province it is to wedge ignorant inertia aside and make
    ini.m for advancing communism. To call such organizations "socialistic"
    ic opposed to communistic is in reality a distinction without a difference.
    I hese systems differ in degree and not in principle.

    Among the papers uncovered by the raid on the convention of the Com-
    munist party of America at Bridgman, was one entitled, "Next Task in the
    1 i nmumist party of America", consisting of orders from Moscow, signed
    I'V the Executive Committee of the Communist International, Bukharin, Ra-
    II., and Kusinen. It is given in full in Appendix F. The careful reader
    hill he amazed at the progress which this program has already made, not
    i i In? result of the open support of the Communist party of America, but
    fa I lie result of ceaseless propaganda by this type of voluntary organiza-
    tion. The scar resulting from the repercussions of the Russian Bolshevik
    i« volution on American social and political life is already a permanent one,
    A« one glances over the names of those who make up the personnel of these
    Ion-communistic radical groups, there will always be found the name of
    ho inolated individual, or group of individuals whose connections and friends

    be classed as dubious, or as having associations with those who are

    known Communists.

    As for the "pale gray" organizations, the kind which bear all the ear-
    Barks of respectability, in number they are multitudinous. Also the clever
    bay in which recognized organizations, may be used hy the radicals for their
    I • 1 1 1 j toses is in many instances instructive. To attempt an enumeration
    Mould be outside the scope of this book and to designate any definite or-
    " it ion as a part of the united front of the lawful propaganda machin-

    of the Communist party of America by examination of its personnel
    fltnl objectives would in many cases only raise a debatable question. But
    l|l ii I many are made use of with or without their official wish in the matter
    |i nppurent. Of such is "The National Information Bureau" which will be

    ili-red for a space in that it has been of assistance to some of the dis-

    il organizations,

    [1831

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE LABOR DEFENSE CO TJ N CIL — WOMEN' S CLUBS

    According to its literature, the National Information Bureau wna I
    tablished in 1918, and at present has offices at No, 1 Madison Avenue, Na|
    York, the office building of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Complin
    "Special reports are issued to members on request, on any organization will]
    in the field of the Bureau's formal approval. The Bureau also report i tfl
    members, as far as possible, on any enterprise in such related fields as I hi
    following:

    Civic Reform

    Americanization

    Health Work

    Religious Work
    (non-sectarian)
    Propaganda
    (non-political)

    Nesrro Schools

    Soldier Magazines
    Child Welfare Magazines
    Semi-fraternal organizations, lubd

    unions, etc., seeking support frOI

    non members*
    Miscellaneous sem-commercial entfll

    prises with a genuine or spin

    humanitarian appeal.

    "Reports are now available to Bureau members on approximately l,nin
    agencies, New Investigations will be made promptly on receipt oi |l
    quiries." (Bulletin No. 8, 1921.)

    "By arrangement with the Charity Organization Society of New Yoll
    the Bureau is enabled to secure, for its members only, reports on loofl
    New York agencies." This fact places the National Information DurnAl
    in direct connection with what is generally known among social workrtl
    the country over as the "New York Charity Trust."

    "TJte Bureau also issues exclusively for its members a special a
    ary bulletin." (Italicized for emphasis.)

    "Organizations are approved on the basis of (a) complete hijomwtlm
    supplied by the organizations themselves and supplemented by necr.
    investigation; (b) compliance with the standards adopted by the Board I
    Directors of the Bureau." (Italicized for emphasis,)

    The Board of Directors has established a set of standards expn
    in ten items, most of which, if not all, are entirely laudable. Two an 1 In I
    reproduced to show that in these respects the standards are so flexible llll
    approval or disapproval, in any particular instance, will rest not so
    on the standard as on the interpretation of the standard by Bureau a I
    of Directors*

    "2. A legitimate purpose with no avoidable duplication of the worl Ol
    another efficiently managed organization.

    "3. Reasonable efficiency in conduct of "work, management of institution

    etc., and reasonable adequacy of equipment for such work, both material I

    personal.*'

    The Bureau also states itself to be "an impartial investigating agr

    does not express a judgment concerning the purposes of organizations wl

    the value of these purposes is open to legitimate difference of opinion," pitl
    pably a standard which has wide latitude of interpretation.

    The Bureau apparently seeks to gain its financial support from orgnni/d
    tiona, firms and individuals willing to pay for the service, who desire invi

    gallons made of "national, social, civic or philanthropic organizations solicit-
    ing voluntary contributions," There are naturally many people both among
    the wealthier and the well-to-do classes who desire to be satisfied that any funds
    which they contribute will be properly disbursed, and the National Informa-
    i inn Bureau is apparently the organization, from its point of view, which is
    able and equipped to give them satisfaction. Presumably, then, the Bureau
    in constantly receiving applications from such people, and in time would have
    I ted large numbers of those who are pHlanthropically inclined. "Oyci 1700
    investigations have been made; forty per cent show undesirable conditions"
    (1921).

    In detailing the scope o£ the work of the National Information Bureau,

    ihnlion has been called to certain dangerous potentialities, and it remains

    i. examine the personnel of its organization as shown by its reports.

    Mi. Paul Cravath was apparently one of the earlier officials. He is widely

    I flown in New York as an attorney, and it is a matter of common knowl-

    |(|go that he had acted in a professional capacity for the banking firm of Kuhn,

    I Deb & Co., or for some of its partners as individuals. He appeared for

    Mi. Olto Kahn for instance, before the Federal Trade Commission at hear-

    n i appointed to investigate the facts as to the possibility of the existence

    I -i moving picture trust. Literature describing the work of the Bureau in

    BO year 1921, presents a list of names of the officers and directors,

    keny of which are quite above the suspicion of being consciously involved

    in nny subversive organization. There are two divisions of the Board of

    I Juniors, the first "representing the contributing public," and the second

    resenting organized social work." Of the names in the former division,

    in

    il of Robert W. DeForest is perhaps the most conspicuous- He is a well

    mown attorney in New York City, an official in the Metropolitan Life In-

    ilNiuce Company, and a trustee of the Sage Foundation, etc., etc., etc.

    Among radicals he is widely and favorably known because of the fact that

    I. la or was president of the corporation which publishes The Survey, a

    iizine which the Lusk Committee Report very conservatively classifies

    UN "« Liberal paper, having the endorsement of Revolutionary Groups".
    n nditorial policy exhibits a tendresse for Soviet Russia which approaches
    in .hi intellectual way near to that which is exhibited by wordy braPS

    kles of Tk-e Communist, The Lusk Committee also brought out the

    i . i that The Survey was "subsidized by the Russell Sage Foundation and
    jinn heen receiving at the rate of $13,000 a year for the past nine years."

    The Lusk Committee Report also records the tact that Freedom, a paper
    published by the Ferrer group of anarchists at Stelton, N. J., and advocating
    I he "principles of anarchist communism," bad this to say editorially: It may
    well he asked. 'Why another paper?' when the broadly libertarian and revo-
    lutionary movement is so ably represented by Socialist publications like the
    Itvvolutionary Age, Liberator, Rebel Worker, Workers World, and many
    Others, and the advanced liberal movement by The Dial Nation, The World
    Tomorrow and to a lesser degree, the New Republic, and Survey. These
    publications are doing excellent work in their several ways, and with much
    "f that work we find ourselves in hearty agreement."

    [184]

    [185]

    HEDS IN AMERICA

    THE LABOR DEFENSE COUNCIL-WOMEN'S CLUBS

    The explanation which has been advanced in defense of Mr De Fori I
    to the effect that as a busy business and professional man, he hardly hll
    time to give detailed attention to many activities to which he lends his
    is a specious one. He alone is responsible for the use of his name

    Among those given as members of the directorate of the Natiom.l In
    tormation Bureau representing organized social work" is the famili;,

    oi Owen R Lovejoy, general secretary of the National Child Labor C

    mittee °f New York, It should be noted that Lovejoy is secretary o

    ttureau (1921), presumably indicating his lively interest in the work,
    radicals of every hue from the Atlantic to the Pacific, Lovejoy's nami
    always hailed with satisfaction. He. was formerly active in the Amcrlrflii

    Association for Labor Legislation. He is listed in the Lusk Conn n

    Keport as a member of the executive committee of the Civil Libertifi 111
    reau, of which Roger N. Baldwin was director, this Bureau afterward* mi i
    mg into the American Civil Liberties Union, a pan of the open oi |« M .1
    ^achmery of the Communist party of America. The roster of thai Exe. nil
    Committee reads more or less like the membership of a New York in, ,1
    among them being: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Dr. James P. Warbassr-
    Pvorman M Thomas, Agnes Brown Leach, Zona Gale, Max Eastm;,,, Krnlll
    Greene Balch, Oswald Garrison Villard owner of The Nation, Prof
    Nearmg James R. Maurer, Alice Lewisohn, Paul U. Kellog, editor ol

    burvey, Rev. John H. Holmes, Frank Bohn and Jane Addams. Mr I n

    also wrote the so-called "Dear Gene" letter to Debs at the time when till
    latter was sentenced to Atlanta Penitentiary and hi which Lovejov mm I, , ,j
    his feelings at this event by comparing them with the falling shade's ..I

    As general secretary of the National Child Labor Committee, I.- I.
    been welcomed in at least one High School of the City of New York, u
    after making a speech, he solicited pennies from the students for tli.
    port of the Committee.

    In Bulletin No. 8 issued by the National Information Bureau n l l„i i
    Labor Committee, of which Lovejoy himself is an official

    In this approved list there are of course many societies and „
    bona which are far above criticism both as to their functions and r I /, ■
    ^sonnel of the officials. There are however some which are quite In il„
    contrary. For instance, approval has been extended to the Amerir,.
    Liberties Union, an important constituent organization in the open li
    machinery of the Communist party of America, for all practical m,
    a continuation of the Old Civil Liberties Bureau of which Lovejoy I,
    was a member of the Executive Committee, and an organfcalio.i
    ^caused so much anxiety to the Government during the war Apnmv il |i
    also been extended in a list of 1923 to the Women’s Trade Union I
    ol which, as stated, Mrs. Raymond Robins was the organizer and i …
    and which was discussed with more than friendly spirit in the d…
    seized during the raid on the convention of the Communist party a! Hi
    4a has heen shown this organization is a part and not an unimpoi l.ini

    [186)

    ill- united front of the open legal machinery of the Communist party of Amer-
    h *i, The American Association for Labor Legislation has also been approved
    In the 1923 list, an organization which has also been considered and of which
    Mi. Felix Warburg of the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., is or was a
    » >’ -president, along with Miss Lillian Wald, Ernst Freund and Rabbi
    llophen Wise. In the approved list are also societies of all stripes among
    iIkiii the American Union Against Militarism; (1921) the American Jewish
    ‘ I’lnuiittee, (1923) organized to “protect and prevent the infraction of civil
    |0d religious rights of Jews throughout the world”; the Federal Council
    nl the Churches of Christ in America, (1923) of which whole books have
    I mii written; the Foreign Policy Association, (1923) which stands for “a
    liberal and constructive American foreign policy”; the League to Enforce
    I Vane, “organized to promote an effective League of Nations with the United
    llfttos as a member”, the National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People, (1923) an agitative pro-Soviet organization for propa-
    Undizing negroes; the National Consumers League, of which Mrs. Florence
    I. My (formerly Wishnewetzky ) is the General Secretary, and John R.
    ‘•Iiillady, also on the directorate of the National Information Bureau, is the
    I’fcmitive director; the Voluntary Parenthood League, which specializes in
    llir propaganda of birth control, and which from an examination of its per-

    A and objectives may be regarded as in the periphery of the radical

    Yemeni; the American Relief for Russian Women and Children of which

    Oil pro-socialist and pacifist, Jane Addams is the chairman; the Committee
    [01 I he Rescue and Education of Russian Children; the American Jewish
    I “oil Distribution Committee of which Mr, Felix Warburg is the chairman;
    I many others.

    If letterheads are to be believed, the National Information Bureau has
    HI ended within the recent past its seal of approval to the Friends of Soviet
    lin m, the open, legal branch of the Communist party of America. It has
    I >’ set the seal of its approval on the many constituant organizations of
    tin iViends of Soviet Russia and also upon the American Committee for
    il’i Relief of Russian Children of which Capt. Paxton Hihben is the exeeu*
    || > secretary, of whom much has already been said.

    Information of the type which the National Information Bureau col-
    il and correlates is lifeblood to those who are actively engaged in the
    ■ nl. of propaganda, good or bad. “Sucker-lists” such as were uncovered
    “i i lie raid upon the convention of the Communist party of America at
    Htiil”inan must be constantly replenished and if a mechanism does not
    Mitil capable of supplying them, it must be organized.

    [187]

    CHAPTER TWELVE

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM
    FUTURE PLANS OF COMMUNISTS

    The Communists’ earliest program in the United States included the

    of the negro masses in its campaign to bring about the overthrow of
    iln ( rnvernment; of this country by violence. This program recognized
    \\u\l [he negroes had many grievances, that race hatred was strong among

    il , and that they were easily inflamed to violence. Accordingly it

    \win decided to use them in the great conspiracy. The Left Wing Socialists
    fitnl the I- W. Wl, from which came the nucleus of the Communist party
    nl America, had drawn no color line and had urged the negroes repeatedly
    ‘■> meet violence with violence, to “fight back,” and to demand their
    (‘.”lils”‘ of the Government and of individual whites with threats of upris-
    imless these “rights” were granted. Thus it was that the negro
    |ii”;-ram became one of the prime vicious plans of the Communists.

    During the first year of organized activity by the Communists in the
    I ultcd States a great deal of attention was paid to the negro question.
    \ ii umber of educated negroes, most of them from Harvard, were found
    lUfliciently discontented and sufficiently unbalanced to make good Com-
    munists. They were enlisted in the work and from that time on have been
    1 1| hing violence on every occasion. The race riots of 191.9 came at
    tin height of this radicalism among the negroes who were secretly sup-
    ported and urged to greater violence by white Communists and the
    helical negro leaders. The Communists made capital of these riots and
    D)i ‘ ^incident racial feeling which was aroused. Soon after this, however.
    Ilii’ Communist leaders turned to other features of the conspiracy against
    ||| Government, and the interest of the mass of negroes waned. But more
    tacriitly the Communist leaders, acting under instructions from Moscow,
    I ni’ again turned their attention to this question, and their activities
    I ivr resulted in renewed Communist expression by the negroes, through
    llicir radical press and in committee work among them.

    The negroes came back from Europe, and from service in camps in
    lliln country, with renewed desire for betterment. They had also^ by their
    mpnience in the Army, learned the use of organized force. The radicals
    lh lliin country were quick to seize upon this feeling among the negroes to
    ■ in Ii violence and urge them on to take by force what they wanted. By
    rry means this class consciousness was cultivated by the radicals, and
    I id i by the Communists. The dissatisfied negroes were aided in starting

    [189]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    newspapers devoted to urging the negroes to join the radicals. Whr-n llin

    Communist party appeared the preliminary missionary work amoiic I tin
    negroes had been done in the name of “Bolshevism,” which became a OOfl
    mon term among the negro agitators. Inflammatory cartoons and aketchl –
    appeared in the negro radical press and gradually but surely this pr«J
    became Communistic, openly and avowedly. Many of the radical rioffrt
    papers are now officially recognized by the secret, illegal Communist part]

    One of the most inflammatory cartoons that has appeared in the
    press depicted a negro in the uniform of the United States Army stnndlllJ
    armed with sword and rifle on the soil of France, his feet upon a rop« till]
    leads to the .background of the, picture where the United Stales of Amoi |« I

    is portrayed by a tree, against which is a Statue of Liberty and by wl

    is a figure of the devil, entitled “Obstruction.” At the negro soldier’s M
    »a large decapitated head of a white-man— “Obstruction”— with label I d

    Jim Crow Him 5 —”Burn Him”— “Lynch Him”— C: Kill” “Mob”— “Sim \

    The general caption of this cartoon is, “Must He Carry On?”

    Inflammatory reading matter is also furnished to the black read B I
    A single paragraph from The Messenger, one of the radical paper* I’m
    negroes reads: “As for social equality, there are about 5,000,000 mulnllii
    in the United States. This is the product of semisocial equality. Tl I. ■
    that social equality galore exists after dark, and we warn you that, we exit
    to have social equality in the day as well as after dark”

    Communist agents carefully sought out the various negro ore

    bona in this country, consulted with the leaders, and studied the mot I VI
    behind each organization and leader as well as the methods used to all l|j
    the desired end. For several months these organizations were watchi
    finally, acting upon the reports of these agents, the Communist parh I

    ma My gave approval to the African Blood Brotherhood, This is the

    radical of the negro organizations, and while the door is not barred to otlli El
    who may later prove that they are radical enough to unite with the Co
    munists, this is the only one thus far formally approved. A docuni
    found at^Bridgman, after the raid of the illegal Communist Convnntd
    included “a brief statement of the Program and Aims of the African Din
    Brotherhood.” This began with an enumeration of the aims, eighl In
    which included “a liberated race; absolute race equaIity~poIi7ir.il, ,.
    nomic, social; the fostering of race pride; organized and uncomprm
    opposition to Ku Kluxism; rapprochement and fellowship within tlir .In
    masses and with the class-conscious revolutionary white workers; indn li
    development* higher wages for negro labor, lower rents; a united
    front,” In discussing these aims this statement, which was in the I
    an official report, or thesis, to the Communist party, says:

    “A liberated race— in the United States, Africa and elsewhere, el-
    ated not merely from political rule, but also from the crushing wii;l.i
    capitalism, which keeps the many in degrading poverty that the few m
    wallow in stolen wealth.

    “Absolute Race Equality. In this question are inextricably hound »

    [190]

    d E 2 £ £

    J- P W CJ | „ ther movements or tendencies inimical to the interests of the negro

    108. To effectively oppose the bigotry and prejudice of the Ku Klux

    i we must(a) organize the negro masses; (b) create a strong negro

    ■deration out of the existing organizations that -we may present a United

    lit; and (c) for the purpose of fighting the Klan ally ourselves with

    ‘ groups opposed by its vicious activities, viz.; the workers, including

    i I r wish and Catholic workers- As, for the purpose of throwing off our

    iiprrssion, the enemies of the capitalist system are our natural allies by

    in- of being in the same camp and opposed to the same enemy, so the

    ies of the Klan are our friends in that they fight the foe we fight. The

    ■ masses must get out of their minds the stupid idea that it is necessary

    ‘ || two groups to love each other before they can enter into an alliance

    • I In fit their common enemy. Not love or hatred, but identity of interests

    il’ moment, dictates the tactics of practical people.

    ” Kapprodhement and fellowship within the darker races and within

    Lass-conscious and revolutionary white workers. For the purpose of

    iug an effective struggle and of weakening our enemies, we must (a)

    i ililish fellowship and coordination of action within the darker masses

    ■(I lb) between these masses and the truly class-conscious white workers

    eek the abolition of the capitalist system that oppresses and exploits

    M ■ Mack and white workers, and must, therefore, necessarily work toward

    1 time end as we, whether they consciously will to help us or not. By

    I iug the abolition of the capitalist states, which are instruments of the

    list-imperialists for the exploitation of the workers in the colonies and

    hi home and the maintenance of the supremacy of the capitalist class, the

    1 conscious white workers must perforce contribute to our complete

    iii lion, even as in 1863 the white workers in the Northern States of the

    I Mile I States contributed to our partial liberation because of their fight
    H linst the slave power competition of the South, and in fairness to large

    ■h of revolutionary workers who acknowledge the leadership of the
    HhmI International, it is well to state that the Third International has em-
    Ihmically ordered its members to help the darker races and all other op-
    ■ il peoples in their struggles for complete liberation.

    “Industrial development along genuine cooperative lines whereby the
    his will be equally distributed among the masses participating, and

    II i hogged by a few big stockholders and dishonest and inefficient officials

    ing exorbitant salaries. The African Blood Brotherhood is sternly op-
    r ‘I to the grafting of individuals and corporation enterprises upon mass

    vi -nii’iits for the reasons that (a) such procedure is manifestly dishonest

    • I misleading. Enterprises supported by mass movements should be of
    Hi li u nature as to equally benefit every one in the movement, not merely

    [1911

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    a handful of officials; (b) The Africau Blood Brotherhood does not

    sider any commercial enterprise good enough to base the second liberation
    movement upon the mere chances of its success or failure. No movi
    so based can long survive the collapse of its commercial enterprises, \\
    believe in fostering and encouraging cooperative enterprises that will bi til
    fit the many rather than the few, hut without basing the movement JpQ
    them.

    “Higher wages for negro labor* lower rents. To gain for negro Labi
    the full reward of its toil and to prevent capitalist exploitation eilhei OJ
    the job or at the source of supplies we must encourage industrial unionl
    among our people end at the same time right to break down the buiii’i
    which capitalist-stimulated prejudice has created against us in th
    identity could not he lost Their autonomy practically unimpaired.”

    This interesting document was read to the ‘convention on Augwtl H

    and discussed- A special committee had been previously appointed I

    sider the negro question ‘and its work find after dplihfiratinn drew ii|i
    single page a program for work by the Communist party, with official
    proval, giving an interesting light on the methods employed by I lie ill
    organization in stirring up strife and cementing radicals. This pn
    reads as follows:

    “Victory of the workers can be achieved only by geniune and <
    solidarity. Such solidarity is impossible of attainment as long
    antagonism befuddles the minds of the workers, dividing them into
    camps, thus rendering them an easy prey to the machinations and hi.it
    of their capitalist oppressors.

    "Race prejudice is an evil and menaces the workers' cause 1 . Il
    therefore, be combated resolutely and persistently in all of its banH'nl lm
    The leaders of the working class must wage a relentless war a ■■ ;iin '
    segregation, disfranchisement, peonage and lynching*

    "The negro masses should be led to see the similarity betwn
    race struggle and the struggle of the entire working class. The whit,
    ers, on the other hand, should be shown that the class struggle of tin
    regardless of race is one great battle against a common enemy, and il
    win, they must support the oppressed races in their struggle a;

    i cution and aid them in their fight to secure political, industrial and

    ul equality, without regard to race, color or creed.

    "At the present time, an organization is gaining a foothold in this

    (miry whose avowed purpose is to keep the negro down, and whose un-

    jfrOwed object is to combat the revolutionary, radical and progressive

    . I mts of the working class. The Ku Klux Klan is a decided menace to

    lie working class, and especially the negro. This organization is receiving
    lli< ltd recognition in that candidates openly espousing its program are
    i mining for public office. It becomes imperative, therefore, that steps be
    ■kern to expose and fight this organization. ,

    ''In order that the negro may be reached with education and propaganda
    kiiI that he may be organized for activity, the following methods are rec-

    ended:

    "1. — Nuclei shall be established in all existing negro organizations,
    hh as fraternal, religious and labor organizations, cooperatives, tenant
    i Miners' leagues, etc.

    "2. — Colored organizers and speakers shall be sent among negroes in
    iruVr to inform them and win their confidence,

    *"3.— Newspapers and publications shall be established or, when this

    • nol feasible, news service shall be established by friendly cooperation with

    l.-iiid newspapers of liberal tenets-

    "4. — Friendship of liberal-minded negro ministers shall be sought, as

    ||n in men are at the present time the leaders of the negro masses and many

    nl them 3Te earnest but lack scientific knowledge.

    "5. — Conferences on the economic conditions among negToes shall be
    I- 1 I from time to time with these ministers, educators and other liberal
    .1 ments, and through their influence the party shall aim to secure a more
    N titable hearing before the negro masses.

    "6. — By means of its membership the party shall penetrate the existing
    brums, literary societies, lyceums, schools, colleges, teachers' institutes.
    Mr., of the colored people, and establish forums of its own for the enlight-
    btiincut of the negro population.

    **7. — Where other forms of activity are impossible or impracticable,

    i certain Southern districts, cooperatives may be formed-

    "8, — The party shall penetrate existing anti-Ku Klux Klan organiza-

    ■|mih and shall form organizations wherever none exist. As this is one of

    Mil most violent forms of suppression of the negro at the present time,

    formation of such anti-Ku Klux Klan organizations shall be fostered

    ■Ith all energy."

    As a result of this attitude on the part of the Communist party of

  13. As this is one of

    Mil most violent forms of suppression of the negro at the present time,

    formation of such anti-Ku Klux Klan organizations shall be fostered

    ■Ith all energy.”

    As a result of this attitude on the part of the Communist party of
    Mtirrica and the natural desire of the radical negroes who seek limelight
    ■d association with whites, there has been a marked increase in activity
    Ulimng the negro masses. The agitators are now touring the country, nuclei
    Kf being established in whatever organizations of negroes are found, re-
    Klous, political or social, and the red gospel of Communism h being
    ■inched. A similar movement had been carried out just before the race

    [192]

    [193]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    riots that startled the country a few years ago. An Associated Negro Pn

    waa swung into line to carry inflammatory racial articles to the vh

    radical negro newspapers. Some of the papers are not actually orgmii i
    the Communists but are trying desperately, by assuming a radical ntttlud
    to become the recognized organs in order to receive some financial suppufl
    from the Communist funds- Recently an editorial was printed in our ui ‘
    paper, which could have no other purpose than to stir up strife exact]]
    the Communists wish. This editorial was entitled, “An Eye for an !
    and read in part:

    “The truth about conditions in the South is coming out bit by li
    Lynching must go. The news agencies dare not tell the truth. Bin

    every lynching, as expert investigators of lynchings and race riots I |

    is a cause traceable to the corrupt moral and political system of the S I

    There is hate and poison and venom in every one of us — and il in |n
    hate and poison and venom! . . . What Southern negroes should ilu
    to repay the crackers in their own bloody coin. An eye for an eye ant] a Iimi||
    for a tooth! Fight and agitate and lynch back* if need be!”

    Another radical negro paper prints an article on “The Passing ol ili«
    World Robbers,” referring to the Christian Caucasian races which ml
    “a topsy-turvy philosophy of life, out of harmony with nature/’ miiii<i|Z
    the Christian religion. After two thousand years of this, the article :

    . . . The long road reaches a turn, and indications are tlmi ih»
    hideous nightmare of twenty centuries is drawing to a close- From tt||
    ends of the world the whisper runs that the day of European vandn 1 1
    nearing its end and the children of the Far East, together with siu-ln |
    Europe's sons as are susceptible to reform, will again administer ll»' iilliilifl
    of mankind and the civilization that was founded upon fraud and dm i
    will be one with Nineveh and Tyre. Beyond the Carpathians, ltiin«|
    mother of the New Day, sits nursing the Infant Era. …
    brigands, humanity greets your passing with a sigh of relief. GimJ i
    good luck, G

    you

    I"

    Another paper prints a paragraph, reading, "Hail the Revnl

    Long live the people! Down -with the capitalist domination anil i<*p|n||
    tion of Africa and Asia! The dawn's in the East!"

    As a result of the Bridgman raid there came to light an inh n I
    document from Moscow, signed by the "Executive Committee of llu < «
    rmmist International," Bukharin, Radek and Kusinen, entitled "< •
    ing the Next Tasks of the Communist party of America." It was <.n
    marked "not for publication." In this document the Communists ..
    structed to stir up racial strife, not only among the negroes, but lm{V
    nations. It urges the Reds to foment distrust between the Amerkim Fid
    and the British, the Japanese, the French, and between any two
    four, in the hope that this will lead to war and thus to destruotli

    capitalist nations which will open still wider the way for Coi

    They order that the class struggle be continued with increasing in I*

    [194]

    lor, among other things, to relieve the pressure upon Soviet Russia.

    'I-', insist that new and more impossible demands be made upon the

    eminent of the United States, not in the hope of their being granted,

    HI that may furnish additional grounds for propaganda and attacks upon

    I- ^nvernment and thus intensify the class struggle. Suggestions are made

    i ubjects upon which the demands may be based and the fight waged.

    This document^ smuggled by an authorized Soviet courier into this

    i iMiniiy for the guidance of the Communists here as commanded from Mos-

    BW, is cleverly constructed, full of suggestive hints, orders the establish-

    1 1 of what has become the Workers' party, contains reprimands for

    Hilihikes made by the Communists in the past, and plans for the future,
    li mm taken to Bridgman by J. Lovestone and reads as follows:

    "In the earlier stages, the Communist movement usually lacks the
    kfOfld, directing viewpoint from which can be found the guide-posts for
    ■ villous steps. Inexperienced Communists, for example, attack imperial-
    i in only in general, in its universal aspect, without exact information

    I minute attention to the unique manifestations of imperialism within

    llm fliven country. They do not in any way direct their attacks for the
    liirpoee of playing up against each other the antagonistic interests of vari-
    Wl imperialistic groups. Also, the representatives of false tendencies in
    llm 1 nbor movement they attack in general terms, with indiscriminate

    ! le cries having perhaps the desired application to some, but having

    in regard to others perhaps the exact opposite of the desired result. In a
    ■Ord, they strike around with their eyes closed, against all opponents of

    i nunism in the same manner as against all opponents of their own

    ow Communist groups. They fight as a little sect fights against the

    5 outer world.

    "Such primitive methods of battle, even when combined with the

    1 1. Rtest zeal and heroism, are not dangerous to the enemies of Communism.

    "The Communists begin to be effective in the political struggle only

    ■lien they adopt concrete strategic aims for their movement based upon

    \$ thorough examination of the facts. With a determination, purposeful drive

    i these aims, with the subjection of every phase of our movement to

    , jliU principle, our movement begins to be effective.

    In order to assist the American comrades in working out and for-

    laling their line of action, the Executive Committee of the Communist

    IjlHnrmitional proposes for their examination the following main points:

    "1, — As the greatest force opposing the proletarian world revolution

    I i is at the present moment to be the counter-revolutionary world alliance

    I \merican, English, French and Japanese capitalism, it is of vital inter-

    II .i the proletarian revolutionary movement to work against the estab-

    i. i nt and consolidation of this alliance, to attack its advocates most

    inllili^sly, to cut its tap root, if possible, to disturb its growing unceasingly,

    din I adroitly to make use of the conflicting interests within it. The narrow

    Kftlluuulism of the American Japanophobes and Anglophobes is not liberal

    humanitarian nor friendly to labor, and is not in the slightest degree

    [155]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    more acceptable to us than was the attempted bourgeois nationalism of tfl
    League of Nations. And yet, to the extent of its own cupidity, it real]]
    hinders and disturbs the process of uniting the counter-revolutionary forci –
    in the capitalist world. To the extent that this narrow nationalism (Japan
    ophobia and Anglophobia) attacks and tends to smash the outside world
    robbers (and also, let us hope, to smash itself) — to this extent it is doing ibS
    historic work of self-destruction of the capitalist world system; and in ihjl
    work it must not be hindered by us. Therefore, though we will not, in t9
    role of social-patriots, help the chauvinists in their predatory venture .
    we will make use of chauvinistic blindness on behalf of the proletariat
    revolution.

    "2.-— Soviet Russia, as the mainspring of the international revolution
    ary movement of the proletariat, must be supported in every way. It muni
    be supported with economic help through the self-sacrifice of the workfll
    of all countries. And, most of all, it must be helped through the cl

    struggle of the workers in all capitalist countries against their own I-

    geoisies. The fiercer the class struggle of the American proletariat rn|y
    the less will be the pressure of the international counter-revolution upofl
    Soviet Russia^ In this respect the Communists must learn how to make n
    of the conflicting interests of the various factions of the bourgeoisie, hell
    to turn the greed of the bourgeoisie for profits, and how to exploil tffl
    various- tendencies growing out of greedy speculation, to the adv.:
    of the Russian Revolution, and thus to the advantage of the proletarian
    world revolution,

    “3*- — The prerequisite of victory for the working class 13 thai il*
    working class unite itself for the class struggle. To bring about
    unification, isolated action participated in solely by Communists will
    suffice. It is necessary to bring about common mass action of wol
    who are not yet Communists. For this purpose the Communists m
    penetrate the working masses to the utmost, must work together with tli
    must live and fight with them and lead them forward in both major
    minor battles. The uniting of the workers in general class-struggle orgi
    zations, and the joining of the various ones of those organizations into 1 I
    relationships — this and not merely to attain Communist purity and p
    fection of program — is the task now facing the Communist party |
    America. The consciousness of the working masses is naturally vets ■ ■
    clear at this time, half-bourgeois, and undeveloped from the standpoint
    of the revolutionary vanguard. But, generally speaking, it will Iiikm struggle- As, for instance, the existing mass movements of small far^
    inn* (who are, in a sense, semi-proletarian), and even movements of
    Eddie-class farmers under some circumstances. Another instance is the
    figro mass movement for racial betterment, which movement often at-
    Empts deliberately to avoid proletarian class character but must include
    boat masses of toilers. Communist strategy must utilize these movements
    n* auxiliary forces, or, at least, must win them to benevolent neutrality in

    I In- class war.

    “4. — In the present period of the dissolution of the capitalist system,
    Hi.- most important tasks of the Communists of all capitalist countries is
    iln- revolutionizing of the proletarian class struggle. The fighting pro-
    hiiuiat is to be led from one stage to another in the revolutionizing
    fcocesa by means of suitable slogans. They must help the proletariat to free
    Iliielf from the illusions and false traditions that limit its vision and fetter

    II k activities and to counteract the fossilizing influence of the trade union
    Inu-nucracy. One must organize the proletariat for the historic training

    Dhool, in which it will learn to become the conqueror of capitalism.

    “Only the Communist party can do this. The organization and train-
    hg of the Communist party as leader of the revolutionary movement is,
    Eerefore, the fundamental task of the Communists*

    “The Communists must now take the lead in the struggle against the
    reduction of wages. This struggle, in its various forms, is especially
    Bapted for uniting the largest masses of workers in one organization for
    tlm common struggle. The conservative labor leaders will find them-
    Elves placed in a most difficult position through this struggle, where they
    .ill soon he forced plainly to unmask their cowardly wobbling and their
    iMiirherous role, and where they will bring upon themselves the wrath of
    \W. struggling workers* In America almost nothing has been done so far
    in lids direction, but it must be done thoroughly before one can ever think
    nf the victory of the working class in the revolutionary struggle.

    “The organization of the unemployed is an equally important and diffi-
    • nil task. In this movement, just as much as in all other minor battles, the
    Cninmunists must select their slogans according to the circumstances, and

    nsify them as much as possible, from the immediate needs of the

    . In v to the general worker’s control of capital-industry. Right now they

    [196]

    [197]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    must make a special demand for state support of the unemployed out of I lie
    military budget.

    “The Communist party must remember that it is not its purposr In
    reform the capitalist state. The purpose of the Communist is, on the rod
    trary, to cure the working masses of their reformistic illusions, thi
    bitter experience. Demands upon the state for immediate concessions to tl
    workers must be made, not after the fashion of the Social-Democnilli
    parties, which try to make those demands within the limits whirl’
    state can grant them while retaining its strength intact. Communist dein.ml.

    for immediate concessions to the workers are formulated, not to be ‘rem

    able’ from the point of view of capitalism, but to be reasonable from
    the point of view of the struggling workers, regardless of the stall
    power to grant them without weakening itself. Thus, for insl
    a demand for payment out of the Government treasury, of full union;
    standard wages for millions of unemployed workers is highly reasoimli|(
    from the point of view of the unemployed workers but damaging I mm
    the point of view of the capitalistic state and the capitalistic wage compi ‘
    tion wjiich the state defends.

    “We suggest a few examples of the type of demands that may be ninth
    It must be clearly understood that those are merely examples for illii
    tion, and are not binding, nor are they to be concretely regarded even |
    advised by the Comintern.

    “1.— That all combinations or agreements having the purpose oi ■
    ducing the rate of wages or the purpose of common action against I /i 1
    organizations, shall be made in law a criminal conspiracy.

    “2. — That no injunction shall be issued against workers for
    toward raising the rate of wages or reducing the hours of labor-

    “3. — A constitutional amendment forbidding such laws as the I
    Industrial Court Law.

    “4. — A constitutional provision guaranteeing the unlimited righl
    peaceful picketing.

    “5. — For disarming of all private detective cops in strike regii
    elsewhere. All organizations for the purpose of forming armed ‘
    to engage in activities against strikers to be declared criminal conHhli

    “6. — That no process of law, criminal or otherwise shall i nil

    forcibly to detain any regularly elected labor union official f I

    union duties during the process of a labor dispute-

    “7. — Constitutional amendment forbidding the use of military

    forces in any matter connected with a labor dispute.

    “8. — Legal provision for the maintenance of order in strike ftfl

    by the appointment of members of the labor unions involved, such i ‘

    to be nominated by the labor organizations, and armed from :i>
    supplies for the purpose of maintaining order during the period -I
    strike.

    “9. — Constitutional provision abolishing the United States Labni
    and prohibiting the Executive to interfere in labor disputes.

    “10, — Favoring a close alliance of the United Mine Worl

    America with the railroad brotherhoods and all other unions, for common
    mlion to raise the standard of living of all workers in both industries.

    “11- — General amnesty for all persons imprisoned as a result of strikes
    in other incidents of the labor struggle. General amnesty for all persons

    victed of crime in any way relating to the labor movement, or into whose

    iiiuiinal trial any evidence was offered against the defendant regarding the
    I’tiir-r’s views of the class struggle or political views. General amnesty for
    ill prisoners convicted of political offences.

    “12. — For the Plumb plan, amended to give labor a majority of
    directors.

    “13. — Immediate bonus of $500 to every soldier or sailor enlisted in
    Ilia United States forces during the World War; $1000 to those having
    hern granted wound stripes. A payment of $5000 (in addition to all
    I lyments otherwise provided for) to the dependent of every soldier or
    Kflor who died in the service during the war period. Funds for this
    fiirpose to be taken from military and naval budgets, respectively.

    “14. — For the unrestricted rights of soldiers and sailors to organize
    In unions. Immunity for all grievance committees of private soldiers
    ■ lailors. No private soldier or sailor to be judged by a court-martial
    BOept composed entirely of private soldiers or sailors elected for the pur-
    MM within the military unit concerned.

    “15. — Absolute prohibition of foreclosures upon farm property for

    Iftbte.

    “16. — For national credit, to the full value of his farm, to every

    I, er holding less than £20,000 WO rth of farm property, the money to be

    mlvjiuced out of the national treasury at interest to cover the cost of
    llin loan transaction.

    “17. For national credit, to the full extent of their holdings, to

    I |1l farm cooperatives, on the same basis.

    “18. — National monopoly, and operation at cost, of all grain elevators
    . Icept those in the hands of bona fide farmers* cooperatives, or which in
    I future may be established by such organizations.

    “19. — The liquidation of the Ku Klux Klan, invoking the criminal
    spiracy laws in prosecuting all persons connected with the organization.

    “20.— Condemnation of the Washington Conference as a preparation for
    \ new World War. Condemnation of the imperialistic partitioning of the

    Wast and other regions for exploitation.

    “21. Warning of World War to grow out of secret and other arrange-

    mkmiL made in Washington Conference, condemnation of this in advance
    I* imperialistic War. m , .

    “22. For the immediate recognition and unrestricted trade with Soviet

    llimin. For the re- establishment of postal agreement with Russia.

    “These and other similar demands must be considered only as start-

    |np points for broader, sharper, more universal slogans. In their agitation

    ■ lint Communists must point out that the problems will not be solved through

    I llinnc measures, but that we support these demands of the masses so that

    iU very course of events itself may unmask the capitalist state and the

    [198]

    [199]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    opponents of the working class, and prove to the masses the necessily nl
    the final struggle for power against the capitalist state itself. In lliU
    unmasking process, the Communist must make use of every dev
    discredit the opposition. At times they must develop a direct attack, brflfij
    every mistake, every crime, every refusal of the demands of the toil In
    masses and constantly demonstrate the solidarity and identity of the capitfl
    ist class with the capitalist state,

    “The Communists must participate as revolutionists in all gem I ll

    election campaigns, municipal, state and congressional, as well as \

    dential. Not in the same manner as the social-traitors and cenl
    not in order to avoid violent revolution and substitute parliamentaH
    activity for revolution, but, on the other hand, in order to use even (hi*
    election campaigns to revolutionize the workers and lead them fo[
    to sharpen their class consciousness and to bring them together and
    them under Communist leadership. Class conscious, courageous and
    Communists, as elected representatives of the worker, can always I ml

    the possibility in the various institutions of the bourgeois state, ii

    way or another, to give effective object lessons to revolutionize the worldlU
    class. Besides the Communist party can conceal its underground appiiTfl
    tus and develop it very effectively within the outer framework of the legtj
    campaign organization and the election activities.

    “In all these minor struggles, as well as in the final revolution!!]
    battle of the proletariat, the party organization must be the leader i
    struggling workers.

    “Its weapons are manifold and vary, according to the situation, f..,m
    entirely legal propaganda, from election campaigns, from modest movemi nfl
    for increase of wages and from peaceful demonstrations to the revoluti
    strike and to the various forms of revoluticmaiy ulaas struggle.

    “In agitation and propaganda Communists cannot be satisfied
    mere dogmatic presentation of Communist principles of the propagund
    of the armed struggle under all circumstances. They must not permit tin m
    selves to appear to the masses as fanatic bomb enthusiasts who know nnthltt|
    about the realities of life. They must understand how to lead the wn
    masses from the struggle for the satisfaction of their first concrete
    on to such a battle that the struggling masses themselves will begin to 1. i
    in success and victory.

    ‘The legal party press is under all circumstances a most im|

    weapon to the Communist party. Just as the political movement ol ill
    workers of America has remained very backward in regard to matt*
    organization, so the revolutionary labor press is also as yet very
    Its development is at the present moment the most urgent task of the
    As long as the party does not possess at least one or two legal dnilii
    the English language it is still crawling around on all fours. Tin-
    must do everything in its power in order to secure decided mflnein
    direct or indirect control over as many existing papers of varioim t/ilutf
    organizations as possible. Especially it must try to win control ovt

    T200J

    I. boi union press. In addition, the party must publish an illegal official
    ■ an.

    “All good possibilities of both the legal and illegal activities must
    |m utilized by tie party energetically. He who wants to liquidate the
    illegal activities is no Communist at all, and neither is that type of con-
    inlrotor who does not want to know anything about legal activities.

    “Under existing circumstances it is impossible for the Communist party
    In the United States to be a legal party. Of course the party can develop
    m|hh labor organizations- It can even build a legal revolutionary workers’
    hrganization. It can even also launch a legal revolutionary Labor party,
    ll must launch also such legal party, with the purpose that the Communists
    ten openly enter its ranks without permitting the police to know which
    U I lie members are Communists and which are not. But the underground
    Irganization whose membership consists entirely of Communists must not
    It liquidated. On the contrary, it must be built ever firmer and stronger.
    1 1 must guide and control the legal revolutionary party through its mem-
    i ■ i , Every Communist, that is, every member of the underground party,
    Bust submit to an iron discipline and must act in accordance with the
    ■lurcrtions of the leading organs of the underground party in all legal as
    will as illegal activities.

    “As a matter of course, all real Communists in the United States
    i- ill subscribe to this. The Executive of the Communist International knows
    lluit the Minority of the Party Executive does not deny the advisability
    i.f taking advantage of legal opportunities, although this Minority opposes
    Efl rapid and energetic procedure of the Majority in founding the legal
    Evolutionary party. The distinction is, in the judgment of the Executive
    Kommittee of the Comintern, without good ground. The fact that the
    Party Executive is proceeding rapidly and energetically with the formation
    . I | lie legal party organization is not a fault. It would have been a fault to
    |til with the launching of the legal party until the underground organiza-
    tion had developed ‘sufficient strength.’ The development of the under-

    md organization can best be furthered through these very activities

    I its members in the ranks of the legal party. Historic progress is not
    mirii a simple matter as to leave us the liberty first to complete the develop-
    i, mil of the underground party apparatus, and only then to begin the
    fciilding of the legal party organization. In this manner the very best
    Uiiportunities for the launching of the legal party would be lost.

    “The centrists would have a free field for their efforts at founding
    L independent opportunist party. This opportunity must not be left to
    Kern The Communist party must take the initiative in the formation of
    ll,,- new legal party and must take the control firmly into its own hands.
    1 1 must be careful to assure itself the actual control over all the leading
    inifons of the legal party. For this reason the legal organization must take
    tlm permanent form of a party organization. Some other loose organization
    fnnti would be very much more difficult to control and to guide. Further-
    more, the development of a solidly orgmiimH legal party, in which members
    ..I the Communist party have at least the majority on all important com-

    [201]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    mittees, will make possible the control of still other anti-capitalistic ■
    izations through this legal party.

    “For the foregoing reasons we draw your attention to the follow III!
    for your guidance:

    “I. The Communist party of America is as yet far from havln|
    iafactory connections with the masses. The means of contact muni In
    structed with the greatest possible speed.

    2. Connection with the masses essentially implies a public op< I il
    Secret operations, even with the widest possible ramifications, cunnul I
    satisfactory mass operations, The means of public contact with the in
    must be principally:

    "a.— A legal press, including at least one daily English lego I

    paper, acting with the necessary disguise as a central party organ.

    "k — Organized grouping of sympathizers within the trade unfolll
    "c- — An overground political party.

    "3. Certain indispensable accompaniments to the highest dnvi'lii| '
    capitalist form of society leaves weaknesses in the capitalist struclutd iIih
    have to be taken advantage of by a Communist party of action 111
    Government of the United States will not now permit a 'Communis I'miI]
    to exist but it is compelled to permit 'parties* to exist in an ahnn
    restricted variety, for the purpose of its own preservation. The ni|ill !l ■
    class builds its regime upon the rock foundation— the mass illusion
    social questions are solved in the sphere in which these parlicH iijm
    The state attempts, wjierever it can, to exclude a truly proletai iim ■

    tionary party from the public field. It attempts first, to exter

    revolutionary party into subservience to capitalist law which maki '

    tion impossible, or third, at least to confine the revolution u v i
    operations to the narrow sphere that can be reached secretly-

    "A Communist party must defeat all these attempts. It mu*1
    exterminated. It must unequivocally refuse to obey capitalist InW,

    must urge the working class to the violent destruction of the n I

    machinery. It is equally the duty of a Communist party to defonl In *
    means that may be necessary, the capitalist government's attempl lit t
    fine the revolutionary party to the underground channels in which ti
    more concealed from the masses than it is from the governmr ml

    "4. The program of the legal party will have to bo ..,,.
    restricted. Special measures and slogans which, while not Hlolh
    illegal Communist purpose, will objectively have the revolutionary -"

    upon the masses, must be adopted. The Legal party must at all i

    as far toward the Communist program as possible while continulu
    existence.

    "5* The entire membership of the underground party, tlw n -I <
    munist party, must join the open party and become its most imlivr i l
    Communist party members must, at all times, hold the position* nl I. ..I.
    ship in the Legal party. In addition to the entire Communist pint i i
    ship, the Legal party should admit to its ranks the more advanced lvml

    [202]

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    who accept the principle of the class struggle, and the abolition of capital-
    t-ni through the establishment of the workers* power. Working class organ-
    lilt Ions that subscribe to these principles can he admitted to or affiliated
    iv II li I he Legal party, as a body, within the judgment of the central
    i m inlive committee of the Communist party.

    "6. The Executive of the Communist International has resolved to
    |Upport the position of the majority of the Central Executive Committee
    •<l i ho Communist Party of America in favor of the immediate construction
    nl (i legal political party on a national scale, which will act as an instru-

    i of the illegal Communist party for participation in legal activities,

    m| h u« electoral campaigns, etc. The executive of the Comintern takes this
    I- i nl ion after having been informed that the Minority of the Executive
    \ principle (which no humble worker in the class struggle is allowed
    I*, forget) and will come forward with naive proposals for liquidating
    ■I illegal machinery of the party. Such tendency is very dangerous to a
    (inilclarian revolutionary party. The actual liquidation of the underground
    |i.uiy would mean the liquidation of the revolutionary movement. Party
    ■lumbers’ who persist in such a view must be ruthlessly expelled from
    1 1” illegal party.

    “8. The underground organization of the Communist party must not
    …I into disuse, but, on the contrary, must constantly extend its illegal
    •u n hinery further and further, in proportion to the growth of the illegal
    1 1 1 1 1 1 v . While coming out in the open, the Communist party must not make
    Hi. mistake of being trapped in the open by exposing its national or dis-
    in.i Communist party headquarters, records or illegal machinery, its un-
    [iMfi round printing arrangements or the personnel of its Central Executive
    Committee, The central executive committee headquarters (of the party

    f203]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    THE NEGRO PROGRAM

    proper) must continue to be guarded in secrecy (and even the probli m
    redoubling its security from discovery should be constantly studied}. M<.

    underground machinery of the Communist party is not merely for «

    gencies, but for constant and permanent use. Down to the lowest tmll

    the group of ten — every branch and stem of the party structure i

    continue to keep its secret addresses and meeting places and to use thl
    constant underground functioning- Every member, no matter what hii
    is in the legal party, must also perform his duties in the undcrgri
    organization.

    "9. The party underground press must continue. The mean* ol' puli
    lishing unknown to and in spiEe of the capitalist authorities must bn nlwAfl
    kept in hand and in use. Under bourgeois rule, no matter how "M-. < .1
    it may be, a Communist party must never relinquish its facilities for nmli I
    ground press and, under the circumstances now prevailing in the I lull. .1
    States, the active functioning of tjie underground press cannot be abalfiil I III)
    it would be foolish to print any considerable amount of literature titldi |
    ground that could be printed legally. The legal political party will In il '
    to take upon itself the printing of a large portion of the literature tllfll |
    not definitely illegal. It may also he made sponsor for a great in.nr, |

    Communist newspapers. Legal newspapers must form a very largo \u\l\
    of the work of a mass party- The illegal press must carry the propiiKmit|(

    that the legal press cannot carry, thus making sure that the full C

    message is made clear at all times.

    "10. The intellectual workers in these legal institutions of thn
    must be subject to the same discipline, wage scale and regulation
    ground party workers. It must always be remembered that the real ■ '
    tionary party — the American section of the Third International — is tlm < •■,
    muiiist party of America and that the Legal party is but an inwli imn*t}|
    which it uses to better carry on its work among the masses. Only tin

    membership in the American Section — the Communist party of Ai

    can American workers become members of the Communist Intern

    "Dear Comrades: It would be entirely useless to quarrel ovei tin
    tion whether extensive or intensive methods are preferable in your <.mi
    munist work- You must learn how to make a practical combination nl |i
    of these methods under all circumstances. Unite for your common ww
    for the liquidation of either the legal or illegal revolutionary activit]
    for the liquidation of the really damaging liquidation tendenri.
    labor movement.

    "It is, as a matter of course, very necessary that you make all |»n

    tion in your underground party convention for the public convenl I

    which the legal Revolutionary Party is to be launched- But before i
    as after the party convention the minority members of the parly v\v

      i
      that brand. So, it is seen, the law which provides for the deportah-
      aliens also forbids, in effect, their deportation.

      The law under which the Government functions in the handling ol
      situation today is Section 6 of the Criminal Code, which reads:

      “If two or more persons in any State or Territory, or in any pi mi
      subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, conspire to overthrow, p||(
      down, or to destroy by force the Government of the United States,
      levy war against them, or to oppose by force the authority thereof, 01 I
      force to prevent, hinder or delay the execution of any law of the Ihillwj

      Slates contrary to the authority thereof, they shall each be fined not more
      than five thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than six years, or both ”

      This law would seem, at a casual reading, to be sufficient to enable
      I he Government to crush the conspiracy of the Communists, for example,
      which aims at the destruction “by force” of “the Government of the United
      States.” But many times courts have interpreted this section of the Criminal
      Code to mean that an overt act against the Government must be committed
      before any offence has been perpetrated. Therefore, the conspirators in the
      woods at Bridgman, Mich., who were met in secret convention to plot the
      overthrow of the Government would be considered, under these interpre-
      i ,il ions of the law, to have been entirely within their rights. Fortunately,
      Imwever, a number of States, and Michigan is one of them, have stringent
      inti-syndicalist laws to protect the Government of the United States which
      urcms unable to get a law through Congress to protect itself.

      Some of the men arrested in connection with the Bridgman secret, il-
      legal convention, notably Ruthenberg and Foster, have repeatedly referred
      in the typewriters and mimeograph machines as the weapons the Michigan
      Authorities captured at Bridgman and sluTringly asked if it were thought
      they were planning to overthrow the Government with those “weapons.’
      And yet one of the results of the late war in Europe was the tremendous
      increase in the use of propaganda as a weapon. It was used by the Com-
      munists to destroy the efficiency of the army of Russia under the Czar, and
      la being used today by the Communists to influence even the highest officials
      Of this Government so that the danger of Communism will not be understood
      Or appreciated. Propaganda is now recognized by military authorities as
      I distinct and very potent military tactic. Our own military authorities
      imtien it a definite place in the category of warfare, beside gas, liquid fire
      ind other methods which bad to be combated in the World War The Italian
      campaign, the retreat of the demoralized Italian armies, was the definite re-
      rult first of a weakening of morale affected by carefully planned and clever-
      ly placed propaganda. ■

      One of the features of the operation of the laws under which the Gov-
      nnment is striving to counteract or crush the Communist movement is the
      confusion of authority. The immigration question comes under the Depart-
      ment of Labor; undersirable aliens may be kept out by the immigration
      imthorities legally, amj a few are so kept out- The passport problem is m
      I he hands of the State Department, which may refuse to grant a passport
      lo whomever it pleases; and it sometimes does refuse passports. The Ireas-
      ury Department has to do with smuggling, and the Post Office Department has
      to do with the mails and their misuse by radicals. The Department of Jus-
      tice is the legal branch of the Government, to be called upon for advice
      mid information. But there is no law that compels one department to ask
      for the records of the Reds, native and foreign, before they are admitted,
      or granted passports, or tried for the misuse of the mails or for smuggling.
      In fact it has happened frequently that Americans and aliens have been
      permitted to go freely about their plotting against the Government, armed
      with passports, admitted freely by the immigration authorities, when in the

      [2123

      [213]

      REDS IN AMERICA

      various files of the different departments was enough evidence, if collected
      and used, to convict the man or woman affected of nearly every crime shofl
      of murder— and sometimes actually of murder. Communists have m»
      trouble getting passports to use going back and forth to Moscow. Tin –
      passports are frequently forged and used by other messengers of the Con
      muniats. The Department of Justice must have a vast amount of information
      regarding the activities of individuals connected with the Communist parti
      of America and its information is available to other departments of lh«
      Government if asked for; but there have been cases, it is reported, wh«S
      even after information has been furnished upon such request it has not hrr n
      regarded.

      Many times efforts have been made to strengthen the law so thai ilir*
      Government could handle the Red menace effectively without waiting I’m
      bombs to be exploded or persons slain. Almost invariably such efforts \\iw-.
      come to nought because of opposition in Congress and because of the acl
      of the propagandists of the Communist party and of those whose work d)
      rectly plays into the hands of the Communists. Lawyers loving limellghl
      have a habit of appearing and defending “free speech” which with thoffl
      means nothing but unrestrained license. Hundreds of people rally to figh
      any bill that has a patriotic motive back of it, such as a measure designer]
      to prevent the overthrow or the attempt to overthrow this Governmenl b]
      violence. Such was the fate of the Sterling hill, which passed the Senate bul
      was defeated in the House. The writer holds no brief for this pardculfll
      bill, but many loyal lawyers have studied it carefully trying to find a i
      why any real red blooded American would oppose it. But it was opposed
      strenuously that it was defeated in the House of Representatives, Il wn«’
      entitled, “A hill to prohibit and punish certain seditious acts against I In
      Government of the United States and to prohibit the use of themailn I
      the purpose of prompting such acts,” and read as follows:

      “Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Unilnl
      States of America in Congress assembled, That it shall be unlawful for nut
      reason to advocate or advise the overthrow, or to write, or knowing!) ||
      print, publish, utter, sell, or distribute any document, hook, circular, \m\n
      journal, or other written or printed communication, in or by which tim ■
      advised the overthrow, by force or violence, or by physical injury to pfti’Btifl
      or property, of the Government of the United States or all goveramt nil
      advise or advocate a change in the form of Government or the Constilulhtfl
      of the United States or resistance to the authority thereof by force 01
      lence or by physical injury to person or property; and it shall be milnwfill
      for any person by force or violence to prevent, hinder or delay the <
      tion of any law of the United States or the free performance of any «l ll
      officers, agents, or employees, or of his or their public duty, or to nil- w\\\
      by force or violence to overthrow the Government of the United Slain

      "Sec. 2. That the display or exhibition at any meeting, gather In
      parade, public or private, of any flag, banner, or emblem intended I'
      person or persons displaying or exhibiting the same to symbolize or iml

      E214]

      THE SHORTCOMINGS OF OUR LAWS

      I purpose to overthrow by force or violence or by physical injury to person
      or property, the Government of the United States or all government, is here-
      by declared to be unlawful.

      "Sec 3» That every document, book, circular, paper, journal, or other
      written or printed communication in or by which there is advocated or
      mlvised the overthrow by force or violence or by physical injury to person or
      property of the Government of the United States or all government, or in
      or by which there is advocated, or advised the use of force or violence or
      physical injury to or the seizure or destruction of persons or property as
      (i means toward the accomplishment of economic, industrial, or political
      changes, is hereby declared to be non-mailable and the same shall not be
      conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or by any letter
      carrier; provided, That nothing in this Act shall be so construed as to
      nuthorize any person other than an employee of the Dead Letter Office duly
      authorized thereto or other person upon a search warrant authorized by law
      to open any letter not addressed to himself: Provided further, That any
      author, publisher, or party affected or aggrieved by the action of the Post*
      master General in excluding materials from the mails under this section
      shall, upon filing a bond to cover the actual cost of such proceeding, be
      entitled to a hearing de novo before a judge of the Federal district or cir-
      cuit in which the party affected or aggrieved resides. The court shall have
      power during the pendency of proceedings in court to suspend the order of
      I he Postmaster General; Provided further, That no such court proceeding
      shall bar or interfere with any criminal prosecution under the terms of this
      Act."

      "Sec. 4- That it shall be unlawful to import or cause to be imported
      ir.to the United States or any place subject to its jurisdiction any matter
      declared by section 3 of this Act to be non-mailable or to transport or cause
      to be transported any such matter from one State to another or into any
      place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

      "Sec. 5, That whoever shall use or attempt to use the mails or the
      Postal Service of the United States for the transmission of any matter de-
      clared by section 3 of this Act to be non-mailable or who shall violate any
      ether of the provisions of this Act shall be fined not more than $5000 or
      imprisoned not more than five years, or both, and if an alien, shall be, upon
      the expiration of his sentence, deported from the United States and forever
      barred from reentering the United States or any Territory under its juris-
      diction.

      "Sec. 6. That every foreign-born person who has become a natural-
      ized citizen of the United States who shall commit any of the acts forbidden
      by this Act shall, upon conviction thereof, forfeit his citizenship in the
      United States; and any foreign -born person who has declared his intention
      to become a citizen shall, upon his conviction of any offence under this Act,
      forfeit his right to become such citizen, and all proceedings had in the
      matter of naturalization of any such person shall be cancelled and become
      null and void, and he shall thereafter be ineligible for naturalization in the

      [215]

      REDS IN AMERICA

      THE SHORTCOMINGS OF OUR LAWS

      United States, and shall be subject to deportation as in the case of othl I
      aliens, as provided by law* 1 '

      There was little opposition to this proposed act when it was brouj-hi
      out of the Senate Judiciary Committee and presented to the Senate, Bill
      when it came up in the House, the opposition was active both on the flooi
      and on the part of lobbyists against it. Perhaps the most active opp<;
      at this stage was Jackson H. Ralston, a Washington attorney who repfl
      sented the American Federation of Labor and who had also acted as counMl
      for Louis F. Post, former Assistant Secretary of Labor, at a hearing befofl
      a Congressional Committee on charges against Post arising out of bjj
      actions and policies in connection with deportation preceedings. Anil v i
      the passage of this act or one of similar import is necessary, and is knowfl
      to be necessary, if the Government is to be able adequately to handle such
      individuals engaged in Communistic activities directed toward the overthrow
      of this Government by force and violence.

      A certain group of lawyers, not always the same personnel but in
      variably with many of the same individuals, seems always to be seeking
      ways to embarrass the Government and interfere with its functioning wlirn
      it attacks radicalism in any of its forms. These lawyers do not seem to carl
      as to the merits of their case, as was shown when they brought charges oj
      illegal practice against the Department of Justice, charges which wefl
      quickly shown to be utterly without foundation, a fact that the vcrioni
      tyro would have known upon cursory examination of the "evidence 1 ' tin \
      presented* The makeup of this particular group of lawyers, whose activil ll j
      seem to have been directed to hindering instead of helping the Governmonl
      in its fight, a right inherent in every Government, to protect itself, is in

      ting.

      This self-appointed committee of lawyers, which signed the chm,
      against the Department of Justice, included Felix Frankfurter, Ernst Fn Uixl
      and Frank P. Walsh, who were identified with the American Civil Liberlli

      Union, an organization, as has been shown, which includes known C

      munists on its committees working directly and constantly for the ovi
      throw of the Government of the United States by force and violent*
      Frankfurter, from his chair at Harvard, became so active in his work »0,nuo

      to defend the Bridgman conspirators. Zecharia Chaffee Jr a j«U*g»

      i.f Frankfurter’s at Harvard, the man who advocated in print and in public

      tJSffi ttfe should be no law against sedition and ««*£«

      rIk, one of the lawyer signers of these charges. An°te was M*

      i i, her Kane of Philadelphia, whose name is on the Workers party amxec

      “and who was formerly United States district attorney in his district.

      ASenate w^mittte report declared that Kane’s statement before the com;

      miltSv™ the impression that his tendencies are strongly Socialistic

      nburne Hale of New York, who resigned as captain m the Army in the

      axrintemgence Section when official information was sought regard-

      n, ; Ludwii C. A. K. Martens, the “Bolshevik Ambassador,” was one of the

      ” lf!n< Dean Tyrrell Williams, of the Washington University Law School, of
      S, LouTs Jackson H. Ralston, mentioned above; R. G. Brown, of Memphis;
      Alfred ll Ko Baltimore; Roscoe Pound, another Harvard professor
      „ David Wallerstein, of Philadelphia, were the other members of hi
      ..articular group- Some of them are almost invariably found on the side
      !,l the criminal whose activities the Government is trying to curb.

      [216]

      [217]

      APPENDIX A

      THESIS OK COORDINATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITY IN THE AMEMCAS

      "If the workers o£ this country would fight American capitalism on all
      ! i .Hits they must make common cause with the Latin- American masses. In
      i n ico, Cuba, Chile the exploited masses are fighting out a class struggle
      Which is part and parcel of our own. There is a, fundamental interrelation
      U i ween the proletarian movements of the Western Hemisphere, The sooner
      ili. working class of the United States, as well as of Latin- America, becomes

      scious of this interrelation, die more quickly will it be able to utilize

      llio power arising from it.

      American Imperialism

      "The United States is no longer a national State: It is an empire, in
      which the chief foreign field for exploitation is Latin-America. The capital
      with which Latin-America is exploited is American capital. The Standard
      Oil Company, the Harvester Trust, the Copper Trust, the United Fruit Com-
      utitiy and other combines hold enormous fiefs in Mexico, Central America,
      lite West Indies and South America. Back of these is the Money Trust.

      "Of the 35,000,000,000 that American capitalists have invested abroad,
      III, 188,000,000 is in Latin America- This has givwn the American capital-
      UIh the power to inspire or frustrate Central American revolutions, seize
      iKHilrol of customs, issue currency and completely dominate the policies of
      Rational governments in many Latin-American states.

      "When direct pressure fails, the capitalists have always at their dis-
      posal the services of the State Department and the military forces of the
      1 luiled States. United States marines maintain Taw and order' in Haiti
      tn.<l Santo Domingo for the National City Bank, In Nicaragua, American
      Utiopa patrol the streets and the American flag flies over the National Palace.
      Ccneral Crowder, as the representative of the United States Government, is
      furring upon the National Government of Cuba a loan of 850,000,000 in
      defiance of both houses of the national legislature. There is not a country
      mi Central America of the West Indies over which does not hang con-
      llnntly the threat of American invasion.

      Wall Street Extending Its Sway

      "With a large part of Latin-America already in its grasp, American
      . uniial is steadily fastening its grip upon wider and wider areas.

      "Before the war the interests of American capitalists in South America

      [219]

      REDS IN AMERICA

      were negligible. In 1916 they involved $285,000,000; today the investor
      in municipal and government bonds alone exceeds $600,000,000, \V»II
      Street has already become master of the destinies of Venezuela, ColomUl
      and Peru. Native Latin- American capital has never been a factor in Oil]
      of the Latin- American countries, It is true that before the war Europi
      capital, principally British, predominated in Argentina and Uruguay
      was a serious competitor in other South American countries. But tin I
      all been changed. The United States now leads the field and is inn,, |
      its investments, while European investments fall off.

      Danger to American Workers

      "Latin- America supplies an outlet for surplus capital and ennblJ
      American capitalists to derive added strength to resist the demand
      workers in this country. The oil, copper and fibres of Mexico, the coppm
      of Chile, the beef and grain of Argentina and the many other raw m.i i
      of Latin-America constitute a fund on which American capitalists coil If
      draw in an emergency, as in case of strikes.

      "At present gangs of Latin-American workers are brought int..
      country on a system of contract labor, or engancho, to work in si
      tries. With the spread of American imperialism, this system is bouti
      grow.

      "Moreover, to hold in subjection the ever increasing masses of I till
      American workers that are falling under American exploitation n
      military machine will be built up, which will be used against the Aim
      working class,

      Strike-Breaking in Latin-America

      "A short time ago there was a general strike in Cuba. Am
      battleships sailed into Havana harbor and under the threat of am I
      vention, the strike was broken. In Venezuela, the brutal did
      Juan Vicente Gomez, backed and supported by the approving Unite*!
      Government, crushes every liberating impulse of the toiling mo
      similar condition prevails in Guatemala, where the amiable Orel I nwi
      At the point of the bayonet, American marines compel Haitian ami i ■
      can laborers to toil in chain gangs out on the hot roads. Tin* iu.il.
      the exploitation of the ragged Mexican worker by American indull
      magnates is more akin to the system pursued here and in addition ir
      with the whole hearted co-operation, sometimes more or less di u i . .
      the Obregon Government.

      The Latin-American Workers cannot Fight Alone

  14. The Latin-American Workers cannot Fight Alone “The introduction of an exotic capitalism into Latin-Arnern tries has opposed to a backward and unripe proletariat the highly <!■ i bourgeoisie uT the most powerful capitalistic nation of the wot hi all the military resources of the United States at its command. '! 'I.. [2201 I'HKSIS ON COORDINATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITY IN THE AMERICAS Ir h n equal. Isolated, the Latin- American workers cannot hope to defend lltrir interests successfully against their mighty adversary. They need us well as we need them. A proletarian revolution anywhere in Latin- Aitirrica is well-nigh impossible until theTe is a revolution in the United llnles. Wall Street, with its billions of dollars, imperilled, would crush II immediately. American imperialism, economic and political, is the in- •himient of exploitation throughout the western world. In Latin- Am erica, A« in the United States and Canada, the Class Struggle is a struggle against Willi Street. A United Front Against Wall Street "What the workers of this country know from contact with capitalism 1 1 1 1 1 h t be supplemented by the actual experiences of the workers who have endured these hardships to which colonial people are subjected. The iimlftariat of all the Americas must be welded into a fighting unit to |0mbat American capital wherever its influence extends. "The objective forces of the struggle have already called forth several hither inadequate attempts at common action, and both in Mexico and Aiftcntina there have been repeated moves toward AlI^American unity. However, the only real organization claiming to speak for this country Hid Latin America is the Pan-American Federation of Labor. Being in (Piility a barefaced effort on the part of Samuel Gompers and his machine In rxploit the impulse toward solidarity, the Pan-Amercian Federation of I j.iibor has never won the confidence of the Latin-American masses, who, in I ml, regard it suspiciously, as another instrument of the Monroe Doctrine. Ii lias been used by the Gompers machine to thwart the Latin-American Ivorkers in their efforts to combat the American imperialism. "The Pan-American Federation of Labor has failed, hitherto, because II Jid not truly voice the aspirations of the La tin -American proletariat. There can be no successful joint movement except on the basis of the ■lis Struggle and a militant fight against American imperialism. An Nation must be built tip that will fight American imperialism at wiry step, as well as carry on the struggle against capitalism, through itiit strike action, international agreements, etc., under the leadership of Iia Red Labor Union International. This means that the militant minorities the few labor organizations that now belong to the Pan-American Federa- ii if Labor must try to win over their separate national bodies to such | program as will assure the participation of the great mass of Latin- Lnerican workers now on the outside. In this work the Communist parties ••I i lie various countries must take the leading part. The Communist Parties "But this is only one phase of the Communist task* The struggle is [. ..I ideal as wfill as pr.nnomic. The Communist parties will have to educate El workers to an understanding of their common interests, give them '321] REDS IN AMERICA political directives, prevent them from wasting their energies in fullll pseudo-revolutions engineered by political adventurers, and marshal tharj for the overthrow of capitalism and American imperialism. The Comm l| parties of all Americas should he in constant touch with one another. 1 1" must formulate an ail-American program and function as a unit in 1(1 support. The Communist International is and must remain the head uml center of the revolutionary proletarian movement in all countries, bul till needs of the unified struggle in the Americas require supplementary COH tact with the Communist parties directly involved. This does not implj autonomy, but is merely an administrative measure made necessary by tluj unity of capitalism in the west. Why American Workers Must Lead "The United States is the radiating center of western capitalism U well as imperialism, a circumstance which gives the American work In | class the advantage of a central perspective. Furthermore, the fori « | capitalism not being so highly developed in Latin-America, the I nt 111 American proletariat, while often finely militant in temper, is inexpert | and immature as a class- The frequent revolutions in Central and South America have often little to do with the Class Struggle, although thi – ■ is raised at times by political opportunists whose purpose is to gain |i*i sonal support by playing upon the feelings of the masses. Socialist p appear that are socialist only in name. Although there do exist spl revolutionary parties in Latin- America, the proletarian movement many respects perverted and distorted, beyond anything we know in th| United States. With some notable exceptions, the Communist parti|i| in the revolutionary struggle and manoeuvre openly to attain tin nl regardless of the desire of the capitalist state to suppress it. It ih m at the present time (and circumstances make it the most urgent mimnlUti need) to resort to the first of the before- mentioned methods of open i with the working masses; which means to maintain an open politiml , with a modified name and restricted program. The second of 1.1mm I conditions must be reached by the Communist party of America. Wi to have an open Communist party as soon as this can possibly he all I “As to whether a legal Communist party is possible the test i;t ivli the Communist party program including the advocacy of the prim Ipl mass action and violent overthrow of the capitalist state together willi ilftll tion to the Communist International can be publicly advocated without hvtlij suppressed* “V— NUMBER TWO “A legal political party with such restrictions can not ropltu* Communist party. It must also serve as an instrument in ihn ■ • control of the Communist party, for getting public contadt with ihn til Ml It must mobilize the elements of the workers most sympathetic to till I I munist cause, with a program going as far toward the Communist pingi as possible while maintaining a legal existence. It must, with fl ftl of action in daily participation in the workers’ struggle, apply i tactics and principles and thus win the trust of the masses and nr\\ ■>■ il for the leadership of the Communist party. It must organize lli- thetic workers into a framework that will later become the fraim an open Communist party, taking care systematically to educato llm > [33U 111 the ‘legal’ party in principles, tactics and discipline, so as to fit them to EftQOme members of the Communist party. Thus the building of a legal ilitical party with a modified name and program will prepare the field liu an open Communist party strong enough to stand in the open and cap- w]l of leading in the revolutionary struggle, «VI— FUTURE SUPPRESSION “The overthrow of the capitalist system can only come through the tWont overthrow of the capitalist state. To accept this view is to accept I j ip certainty that the capitalist state will find itself in violent conflict with llm masses led by the Communist party. While Ithe capitalist state retains llm governmental machinery, and as the struggle grows sharper in approach- liifj; the final struggle, the capitalist state will inevitably strike again and dn at the revolutionary party in the effort to destroy it. After the Conv imiuist party shall have established itself in the open, it must be prepared fur, and must expect to be driven out of a ‘legal’ existence from time to time. | Ihn Communist party must at all times be so organized ijhat such attacks idii not destroy it. It must perform its functions of leadership in the class II niggle no matter what tactics the ruling class adopts— open as far as pos- illile, secretly as far as it must* “VII— UNDERGROUND “The underground machinery of the Communist party is not merely a Imiporary device, to be liquidated as soon as the Communist party with j lu full program can be announced in the open. The underground machinery I In for permanent use. It is not a machinery to be used only as emergency | nrensions. It is for constant use. It must continue to operate not only while [ llm legal party operates under a restricted program, but also at all times, lirfore and after the Communist party, with a full Communist program and •hull not exist in the open. There is never a time, previous to the final over- ilium of the capitalist state, when a truly revolutionary party does not have h> perform a considerable amount of work free from police knowledge and .difference. The Communist party will never cease to maintain its under- llMuind machinery until after the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the form of the Workers’ Soviet Republic. “VIII— CONTROL “Throughout the Communist movement of the world, the system of Presidiums’ prevails, by which matters of necessarily secret nature are I kopl in the hands of the most reliable and most trusted members of the unity. This is a necessary feature of a revolutionary organization. As the I on i munist party of America grows to dimensions containing many thou- rmds of members, it will be necessary to maintain this principle. At times hrn the Communist party as such maintains itself in the open* the member- (2271 REDS IN AMERICA THESIS ON “RELATIONS OF ONE AND TWO” eliip which constitutes the present Communist party within the Numbri I . [the legal branch — Ed.] will, with some variations, constitute the oleic, best known, and most disciplined membership, to be entrusted witll ill more confidential matters and the illegal work of the party generally. I li does not mean that the whole party membership will not he required I” I work that conflicts with the capitalist law, but that the work of tin mi ■ secret nature must be kept in the most trusted hands. “During the time when the Communist party operates, not undoi M own name and program in the open, but through a ‘legal’ political | • with restricted program and different name, the same principle is uppllfj by having full control of such legal party in the hands of the Coimmitilll party. This is accomplished by having a majority of all important mittees composed of Communist party members, and by means of nwiUl and compulsory caucuses of all the Communist party members within legal unit, hound by the unit rule, a principle which will prevail in effective form when the Communist party is itself in the open. u tlfl membership develops loyalty to the party and respect for its discip] will he possible to lessen the purely mechanical control and avoid ili«- friction that is inevitable for the present. There is an unsatisfactory U in the present condition. Committee members, persons in responsibl- lions, and all especially active members of such legal party should I- tieally without exception, members of the Communist party. Thr ; must make systematic efforts to bring this about. Definite efforts mm ‘ ‘ made to bring every member of such legal party who shows himaoll i ■■ ‘ equipped with Communist understanding and capable of leadership the Communist party. Every such active member must he tested ■ | readiness to accept the Communist party program and discipline, mi decisions of the Communist International, and upon passing the hi be brought into membership of the Communist party. “IX— EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES “The party must endeavoT to reach at the earliest reasonable tin condition where all members of responsible committees of Number Tw | ill legal branch — Ed.] such as the Central Executive Committee, Oi’lu.i t ecutive Committee, sub-District Executive Committee, etc., shall hr im of Number One (the illegal branch— Ed.). The personnel of com h Number Two should consist of its majority of the personnel of llir sponding committees of Number One. The remainder of the prrmmi the Number Two committees should generally be Number One uu wherever possible. The organizers and officials of Number One*, and I Two committees shall generally’not be the same. [228] “X— INDUSTRIAL I “We must hold before ourselves as a goal to be attained at the earliest iHiHHible time the functioning openly of Communist party caucuses m the ,.„!,■ unions, known as such inside the respective trade union meetings. -Keeping this in mind as a goal, and that the framework and human IMilcrial being organized into an open party, at present existing legally, U intended ultimately to be welded into an open Communist party it is a Lical course to form now wherever practicable nuclei of Number Two In the trade unions, one of the purposes to be the training of trade union members of Number Two in the principle of discipline. “However, it is not always practicable to operate by the method of Number One and Number Two nuclei in the unions meeting regularly as two distinct systems. And in a large proportion of cases, the circumstances I actual life compel that; “(a) Caucuses of Number Two can no more be announced openly in a union than could be caucuses of Number One, and that: “(b) In some cases the existence in a union of a substantial number hi unionists willing to go a long way with us but holding anarchist or syn- lUmliBt views, makes it necessary to hold the greater number of caucuses WITH such elements under a name other than the name of a political party, In, the purpose of defeating the ‘right wingers’ and for the additional pur- ■ >„ho of training such anarchist and syndicalist elements in the principle Lf disciplined action as a first step toward making Communists of them; and “(c) In other cases where the general conditions in a union make it | „ WC ssary for the Number Two members to operate t0 ^^™”?™; |»r sympathizers as a disciplined caucus under a name of ANOTHER legal I ihHlrument of the Communist party. ‘These conditions make necessary an adjustment of the caucus system, Itvliich will generally assume the following course of development. While machinery of Number One nuclei is being established their caucus I Ltmgs take 7 precedence over all others. After the Number One nuclei fove been firmly established and the members have learned to function umt- nllv they will begin to give more and more attention to Number Two cau- , uaes and Number One caucus meetings will take precedence only when new I Lues or crises arise and are to be called as frequently as these conditions imike necessary. Between such meetings the Number One nuclei function , ihroueh the Number Two by means of a steering committee. “The standard open caucus of the left section of the union must be I lmia under names and slogans of immediate significance which will win ,l„ greatest possible mobilization of the left section of the union against I rmictionaries, on issues of the daily struggle.” 1229] APPENDIX C. “ADAPTATION OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF AMERICA TO AMERICAN CONDITIONS.” “As you look at our party (both Number One and Number Two) you iii/ ob 8 e7ve that something is wrong. It doe, not Wior .as ,t ough l„ It does not function a, a party must in order to fulfill its aim ot lead « or if ^strong enough, participating in every political and econom c L; e of the working cL, of this” country. In short, our party a, it is day is a mechanical instrument which will function as a dead mach me I time but it i. unable to carry on any activity which needs life, bought and interest and arouses the enthusiasms of the comrade, so they „ill come asking for a chance to work whether easy or hard. “If you go through the history of our party and especially if you ,,„dv is function ng in the recent past you will find that every step which been taken la mechanical procedure. Any instruction coming from wtrelTrbeing carried J needed to be spiritualized wi* the fire „l real sincerity was only executed m a technical manner, io see mat early take tne instance of the election campaign in New York or the >n- c ion concerning the opposition. In both case, there is needed life ” rinThe wo kf and what do we sea? In both cases the comrades da- I uedTh leaflets’ (if they did) without participating in any of the cam- r This clearly shows that the membership of which our party » corn- ed is actually stranger to the vital functioning of the party orgamzat.on. “After a long period of organization work, after clearing up our mam h.rtical differences (the latter being accomplished by the few comrades who Sand the American situation and who really strive to figh ^ ^Amen a which the general membership does not) we arrived at the point where T erv ounJ of our energy should be concentrated to start our act.vities, Mm is to filt in the open American capitalism and participate in every , strugg fof The workers. If we dare to face the facts we find that we unablfto do so and although we go forward in our decisrons and al- Igh a” very small group of comrades do all in f*?*^™”^ I„ general does not move and does not understand and CARE, about the de fciC What the membership in general does is to obey an ^aginahve „ ilitarv discipline (which satisfies their romanticism) and carry out every EfiZ Sutmentally taking part in it That is the «°n in general „,„] if we were to give a few more facts the matter would be clear tor tur- llier study. [2311 REDS IN AMERICA ADAPTATION OF COMMUNIST PARTY TO AMERICAN CONDITIONS “Many comrades say the chief reason for this situation is becausn lU vast majority of the party are foreign speaking comrades. If we \\ U accept that we would sanction this situation as unchangeable unle would get enough English comrades in the party. The cause of thin id til tion is not that we are composed of foreign speaking comrades bul “It- reason is that OUR MEMBERSHIP IS NOT MENTALLY PRESENT IN AMERICA. They didn’t join the party, or better they did not create ill party as a working class defense and fighting organization, but they cfi it under the strange influence of European happenings. The party moil bership gets its spirit and its hope, not from America where they ouglil 111 fight, but exclusively from Europe and it is this foreign spirit and hopi keeps them in the party. Once losing that, the party would not bo nhlfl i keep them together. The party itself is a strange thing to them. The it like they would join any other club. They don’t have the conception ihdl the party belongs to them and that the party’s interest is their interc i I on the contrary they have no interest in the party so far as the fij America is concerned. They pay their dues to be entitled to call them Communists. Their conception is an abstract one, which satisfies it being purely a Communist. Later, that means that men with such a II Hon are individualists and so we dare to state that our party is compow it In a great majority of members with such an individualistic conception. II members don’t understand the political structure of the American stair ( so they don’t understand the political situation in America. As a muW . ■■( fact they are not interested in the things they do not understand. “This, then, is our party membership. Must we say that tin which is created (as Trotsky says) ‘by the proletariat for its defeiwi struggle for emancipation’ can not and will not fulfill this aim, unlrw I hi conditions in the party (the conceptions of the party members) arc chnnj Today we have romantically inclined members in the majority who do ■ thing mechanically to justify themselves as Communists, because tin not been shown how to function as a live part of the American m’ Because of this conception the members don’t see any chance foi American capitalism and they Avait for the coming of the revolution fn abroad. “Our party is not able to lead and to influence the masses. Tin rather hard words but true, nevertheless. The influence we haw ami | will gain, will be the influence of our program in general and we, ih* , will not be able to make any use of it. “Every one of us feels this situation but it seems we wait foi known force to bring about a change. We know that our party memli is not capable of leading the masses and is not capable of carry hi party’s program with spiritual participation in it. Those of us wl waiting for the coming of the English elements into the party arc ov< ing the fact that if the party as it is composed today is not capal»!< then it will always be (unless it is changed) a dead part of our hu.l will hinder us in our work. The fact is that our party will always hean influences. “The main cause of this situation in our party is that our members I have not the slightest knowledge of the political state and industrial ma- eliinery. Yet no one has told them that to be a real Communist means to light there where you are; that they must get acquainted with the conditions prevailing there. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM “The most important step in the solution of the problem is a correct and thorough understanding of the problem itself by the membership. With- I out a clear knowledge of the difficulty by the rank and file it will be lmpos- tihle to accomplish the solution. The comrades must make up their minds to tackle the great obstacles and master them. They must see clearly the hut that the revolutionary movement and its development in this country • Irnends on them and that means that their policy should not be to wait until we have enough English comrades and let them do the work. Rather REDS IN AMERICA the very fact that they are here compels the members as Communist* sume full responsibly for the movement here in America that „„■„,!„■,•„ in the Communist party in the other places of the world demands. Ihe second step should be to dissolve the federation organization „ml have ^ nothing else than propaganda committees. “The kind of federation organizations we have today was the result ill a compromise between two groups at the Unity Convention, one of whirl, had no federation whatever and the other with federations having autonomy, 11 .was hoped by this compromise that the control of the federation ,m„.,bj| (that is, party members) would be taken out of the hands of feuVmliun leaders, and the federation organization would serve simply a3 I. propaganda organs of the party. But this has not been the result. n . T* u fac ‘ s c ° n «rning the control of the member*? V | M , really controls the membership, the party or the Federation Bureaus? ihe members of the various federations are entirely inactive „»,t,.| when they get instmcUons from the Bureau concerning some work in llin , own language organization or concerning work in some other organ,/,,,. ot their own language. l 1 – tt l n ” Being , 1 > – Sani l ed f ° r , 3SVeral y f a ” fa Ian g™ge federations, they kn little or nothing about the party leaders. While their ignoram-,- ,,l party leaders causes a terrible indifference toward the selection of m officers, the members engage in bitter factional fights inside the fed, tions over the selection of federation officers. “Most of the federations have large property interests which *sz£r^r*^ nd * of the federatio » iead – – ‘• “Reflect on these important facts and consider them carefully and ‘ <, I act as a means of communication between the central executive body ,,i H, VPTATION OF COMMUNIST PARTY T O AMERICAN CONDITIONS .V and the membership in the language they understand and to carry on Uganda to the masses in the tongue they know. There is no other good .m^on for their existence. , , “In proposing the dissolution of the federation organization we advocate ,1., dissolution of every phase of their organisation (which gives tliem dLt connection and leading power). This means also the transfer of all institutions and property belonging to the federations over to the party “We offer in the place of federation organizations, propaganda com- mittees and editorial boards and an advisory committee. The function of the last named is to prepare plans for the work to be done m their language … organizations like Sick and Benefit, etc. We propose no national propa- ,mida committees but only district propaganda committees which shall carry ,in the work according to party instructions, as a suh^ornmittee m he district, adapted to the conditions in the various districts. The trans ation Of party instructions can be done by translating secretaries m the national urbanisation and sent down through party channels. t “The United States is so large that there are whole sections with prob- lems peculiar to themselves that seriously interfere with the efficient oper- niion of the organization and which it is next to impossible to solve from the national organization. The establishment of district propaganda com- n.iUees would solve this perplexing question. There are many other reasons ll.nt favor the establishment of these committees and insure a much more nfiicient organization than could ever be the case under language federation bureaus* SUMMARY “In closing we can emphatically state that the future of the party is hopeless unless this situation is changed. The question of tactics can be tlrcided upon by a few comrades who are at the convention, but they will not have the backing of the members. This is so vital that we can not expect nny real results from our work in this country until it is solved. A Lom- ■ minist party, not even in possession of its own members, can not hope to nxert the slightest influence over the masses. “In the course of discussion there might arise some other problems for solution, but every one of us must agree that this one is the main problem confronting the Second Convention of the Communist party and the Communist party itself. . – “Finally the solving of this problem will not be accomplished simply by dissolving the federation organizations. The members must realize and feel this problem in all its seriousness, and with the dissolution ot the federation organizations must break the mental ties with other parts ot the world and become rooted and grounded in the movement in America. [2341 [235] APPENDIX D . “NEWS LETTER SERVICE” MARKED “RUSH ONE TO EACH GROUP,” SENT OUT AUGUST 4 FROM THE “NATIONAL OFFICE, COMMUNIST PARTY OF AMERICA, SECTION OF THE COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL.” ‘The Executive Committee of the Communist International has in- formed us that Comrade Cook, member of the Presidium of the Comintern i.nd the Presidium of the Red Trade Union International has been ordered to return home immediately with full instructions from the Communist International regarding the various problems confronting the American party. All districts are strongly urged to hold themselves in complete readiness for immediate arrangements of meetings to listen to the report from the Comintern. . “The special representative of the Comintern, Comrade Brooks, is now working actively with the Central Executive Committee and is proving of great aid to us. „ , * “Reports from every district are very favorable regarding the return ot opposition members to the party. We must not lose sight of the fact that it h the duty of every party member to du his utmost to help liquidate the opposition and get them back into the party. “The Executive Committee of the Communist International has in- itructed us to postpone holding the convention until the arrival of Comrade Cook with its instructions. The Central Executive Committee acted on this natter and by a vote of five to five decided not to delay holding the convention. All efforts are being exerted to have Comrade Cook arrive here on time so that at least the delegates may have an opportunity to listen to the report and instructions from the Executive Committee oi the Communist International. “On the recommendation of Comrade Brooks, the Central Executive I Committee elected the following new special committees: (1) A com- mittee to prepare a report on the prevailing political and economic condi- tions in the United States. (2) A committee to prepare a new thesis on die relations between One and Two. (3) A committee to revise the agenda for the convention. , “After listening to the Central Executive Committee discussion on trie ijostponemRTit of the convention. Comrade Brooks, Special Representative of the Comintern to the Communist Party of America, proposed the lollow- [2371 REDS IN AMERICA ing resolution to the Central Executive Committee; The theisis adopted by the Third World Congress on the subject of organization explicitly prohibited the formation of closed factions within Communist parties. I have ascertained here in America that two existing tendencies in the Cora» munist party have already crystallized into definite factional structure* which are waging against each other war to the knife on questions big or small. I am convinced that the actually existing differences of opinion do not by any means justify such factional formations and merely represent the continuation of the worst traditions within the ranks of the American Comrades, traditions which are repeatedly condemned by the Communis International. 1 am convinced that this situation can lead to complete paralysis of the party’s activity and to new splits, fatal to American CoHQ munism. ‘* ‘Basing myself on the above mentioned thesis of the Third Congrflll and acting in the spirit of all the decisions of the Communist International bearing on the American question, I call on the comrades of both faction! immediately to take proper steps for the factional regime and to creatfl real guarantees for party unity which is so extremely endangered, Km this work I am entirely at your disposal, (Signed) ” ‘Brooks, Special Representative of the Executive Committoo of the Communist International.* “A motion to approve this declaration was carried unanimously. Fill thermore, a committee of seven, three members of which are representative* of the Comintern in various capacities, was chosen to present plans foi thi unification of the party to the convention and recommend methods as to tU selection of Central Executive Committee material. This committee is ROW busily engaged in its work. “Comrades, this declaration must be accepted in letter and spirit by every member of the party. Apropos of this situation in the party ili| ganization and advantage must be taken of the situation to advance com 1 1 u tive proposals seeking to eliminate these weaknesses. Thus the amalganinlln Ol craft into industrial unions becomes an issue dictated by the nece ot the struggles and ceases to be an abstract theoretical bone of contc Ihe main criticism of treacherous or inefficient leaders and the fight ( them must be based on their shortcomings in the actual struggles, l li- the abstract and invariably ineffective criticism on the basis of differs in the theoretical conception of the class struggle or the state will way to concrete issues on the basis of which an alignment of the wm can be effected. “6. In cases where dual industrial organizations are involved struggle the party must not only take the initiative to offer its services foj till creation of a unity of purpose, unity of tactics and a united front in -, but also the creation of organizational unity. While in such cases llu addresses itself to the leaders, the executives of the organization El propagates the membership of such bodies to the same so that tin- 1. …1. . ship that stands in the way of unity will be discredited and evenliiallj t242J I liminated. But in all such cases, elimination is not the sole object of ll.o application of the tactics of the United Front of Labor, but only one of ils purposes. . . i “7 Not only those workers who have immediate interests in a struggle ibould “compose the United Front. All issues of importance must be made class issues and the working masses rallied to the support of the workers Immediately concerned. Only by thus broadening the struggle will the working masses become class conscious. _ “8 Separate delegated bodies, councils, etc., for the organization and direction of the united working class action on the economic field must be organized only if there is no danger of serious conflict with existing bodies ,4 the same character. In all cases where such directive bodies are created thev should be formed, if at all possible, on the initiative and by action of the unions involved. Our party organization will supply the initiative where Ihe forming of such bodies becomes necessary. No basis for even a shade i»f suspicion or dualistic intention must be given. ■ _ “9 The creation of a United Front of Labor on the political field in the United States is the problem of the development of independent political action of the working class. The working class of Europe has for a long “rnie participated independently in political activities Not so m the United States Here the problem is not to unite existing political groups and or- ganizations for common action, but to awake political class consciousness among the workers. The class struggle has reached such a degree of inten- 3 itv here that every battle of the workers reveals the political character of the struggles that is teaching the proletarian masses the necessity for class conscious political action. The numerous efforts of all km ds of labor or- ganizations to form a labor party in the United States is evidence of this Fact These struggles indicate a step forward in the progress oi the class straggle toward revolutionary working class action To oppose this tern dency toward the formation of a labor party would be folly. “10 The capitalists realize the potentialities of even a tame and not in the least revolutionary independent labor party for the development of the class consciousness of the workers. Their tools in the labor movement have, therefore, consistently opposed its formation. But when its formation can no loneer be prevented these capitalist tools will assume the leadership of the movement for a labor party and will exert every effort to reduce such a party to a mere machine for their election, and to prevent it from becoming a real weapon for the workers in the class struggle. To make the labor party an instrument of the class struggle and the revolution the participa- tion of the Communists is an imperative necessity. It is not in the interest of the proletarian revolution nor can the Workers party assume responsi- bility for the largest political power of the workers remaining dormant. Ihe party must not oppose the coming to life of this power because it has not let the standing and influence among masses to set it at work in the name of and for the purpose of Communism. _ “11 To promote the development of the political action of the working class into revolutionary action the Communists must become a factor in the [2431 REDS IN AMERICA THE WORKERS’ PARTY ON THE UNITED FRONT Labor party that may be formed. We can achieve this end only if we antioi pate the formation of such a party and now adopt a policy through whk’li we will become established as a force in the political struggle of the wo r 1 and thus an important factor in the labor party. The participation in I United Front m local political struggles will give us a strong posi; in relation to the labor party, “12. Attempts to misuse the name of Labor party in the format i a demand for payment out of the government treat) of full, union, standard wages for millions of unemployed workers is highl) reasonable from the point of view of the unemployed workers, but das ing from the point of view of the capitalist state and the capitalist m competition which the state defends. “We suggest a few examples of the type of demands that may bo n. ,1 It must be clearly understood that those are merely examples for illustN and are not binding, nor are they to be concretely regarded even as advllftd by the Committee. L That all combinations or agreements having the purposr oi ducing the rate of wages for the purpose of common action against la bo I organization shall be made, in law, a criminal conspiracy. “2. That no injunction shall he issued against workers for activitli toward raising the rate of wages or reducing the hours of labor. . , ” 3 .” , A constitutional amendment forbidding such laws as the Kan Ml industrial court law. “4. A constitutional provision guaranteeing the unlimited ricl.r «.| peaceful picketing. “5. For the disarming of all private detective cops in strike r«l | or elsewhere. All organizations for the purpose of forming armed bodllfl to engage in activities against strikers to be declared criminal conspl r -rf’ i n ° P rocess of law * criminal or otherwise, shall be ollov torably to detain any regularly elected labor union official from his unl duties during the process of a labor dispute. “7. Constitutional amendment forbidding the use of military oi no iorce m any matter connected with the labor dispute. “8. Legal provision for the maintenance of order in strike r. nj by the appomtment of members of the labor unions involved, such moml to be nominated by the labor organizations and armed from the pub Mi supplies for the purpose of maintaining order during the period ..I thl strike. “9. Constitutional provision abolishing the United States Labor Boird and prohibiting the executive to interfere in labor disputes. “10. Favoring a close alliance of the United Mine Workers of Amai ica with the railroad brotherhoods and all other unions, for common action to raise the standard of living of all workers in both industries. “11- General amnesty for all persons imprisoned as a result ol strikes or other incidents of the labor struggle. General amnesty for nil persons convicted of crime in any way relating to the labor movei | or into whose criminal trial any evidence was offered against the defendnnl [250] NEXT TASKS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY IN AMERICA regarding the latter’s view of the class struggle or political view*. General tmnesty for all prisoners convicted of political offenses. “12. Kor the Plumb plan, amended to give labor a majority ot oircc- 1B ‘”13. Immediate bonus of $500 to every tidier or sailor enlisted in the United States forces during the world war; $1,000 to those having engranted wound stripes. A payment of $5000 (m addition to all JaJS otherwise provided for) to the dependents of every soldier or Luor who died in the service during the war period. Funds for this pur- pose to be taken from the military and naval budgets, respectively. “14 For the unrestricted rights of soldiers and sailors to organize unions. Immunity for all grievance committees of private soldiers or sailors No private soldier or sailor to be judge* by court-martial except composed entirely by private soldiers or sailors elected for the purpose within the military unit concerned. “15. Absolute prohibition of foreclosures upon farm property tor debts. “16 For national credit, to the full value of his farm, to every farmer holding less than $20,000 worth of farm property, the money to bo advanced out of the National Treasury at interest to cover the cost of Ihe loan transaction. ■ “17. For national credit, to the full extent of their holdings, to all firm co-operatives, on the same basis. “18 National monopoly, and operation at cost, of all gram elevators except those in the hands of bona-fide farmers’ cooperatives, or which in future may be established by such organizations. “19 The liquidation of the Ku Klux Klan, invoking the criminal conspiracy laws in prosecuting all persons connected with the organization. “20 Condemnation of the Washington conference as a preparation for a new world war. Condemnation of the imperialistic partitioning ot the Far East and other regions for exploitation. “21 Warning of world war to grow out of secret and other arrange- ments made in Washington conference. Condemnation of this in advance us imperialistic warfare. . – « . “22. For the immediate recognition and unrestricted trade with Soviet Russia For the reestablish™ ent of postal agreement with Russia. “These and other similar demands must be considered only as starting points for broader, sharper, more universal slogans In their agitation the communists must point out that the problems will not be solved through these measures, but that we support these demands of the masses so that the very course of events itself may unmask the capitalist state and the opponents of the working class, and prove to the masses the necessity of the final struggle for power against the capitalist state itself. In this un- masking process the communists must make use of every device to discredit the opposition. At times they must develop a direct attack, brand every wtnkp everv crime, everv refusal of the demands of the toiling masses and mistake, every crime, every [251] REDS IN AMERICA institutions of the bourgeois stat f 2 „„ P^^ty in the variou. object lesson, ,„ revoIutioSsHhe ™Z “7 ” T^f’ t0 gi ™ effec ” 1 ” party can conceal its undergronnd ZaZs ndd T^’ ^ C °^ MUI within the outer framework ■ T tl.t P ? i ■ 0p ll ver y effectiv.iy election activitiel. ° f *” kgaI Cam P al S n “Station and I In of JjrttSSrfSr We ” »***»* evolutionary ba.tl. workers. P y or S anlzatl ™ “*”* be the leader of the struggling ent Irly l^rop^Zf f^ aD lT h “””^ » *” *™*-. ” ments, fo/increasf T wages and f X ^TTi ^ m ° deSt I1 ‘”” ^g-F **. and A SAStfZJZX^** nothing about tK^i» rf^ M ^ J^, ^ enth ™-t 8 wlu, working masses from tte Jn-X” t ,7 ™* ™wfer*md how to lead Hi, needs on to such X tha it l v Satlsfaction ° f *eir first B1 „ believe in succl a „d victory ” StrU§gImg ™ SSeS themselves will begin „. W eaDon h t e o I ^ 1 r Party P – 6SS “‘ Under aiI ci ™umstances, a most in weapon to the Communist party lu<n •«, t!,„ „„?■,.• i importunl workers in America has remaned very b ckwarT n^ T, 9 "™' "' ""' organization, so the revolutionary kbor pfeL ls alsoT, ,° """'"^ 7' Its development is at the present 1™™ ,1 yet ver '' Wr '' A, long as the party doesnot L™ eTs at T Ulgent * 8sk ° f tho ! I the English language fis sti Si arou^oVallT ^n"'" must do everything in its nowr in ^ a ™ un a on all fours. Il„- ,,,„i, direct or indirect ".Sol "o^ Z£*. L^J 'S^STr ^ Stations as possible. Especially it in* trt ?^ P ? 0M hl1 " i«*i -tivitL i S iia^a,, a s h :t s z srw T252] 'NEXT TASKS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY IN AMERICA flpirator who does not want to know anything about legal activities. "Under existing circumstance a it is impossible for the Communist party m the United States to be a legal party. Of course the party can develop open labor organizations. It can even build a legal revolutionary workers' organization. It can even also launch a legal revolutionary labor party. ll must launch also such a legal party with the purpose that the communists can openly enter its ranks without permitting the police to know which of llie members are communists and which are not. But the underground organization, whose membership consists entirely of communists, must not lie liquidated. On the contrary, it must be built even firmer and stronger. It must guide and control the legal revolutionary party through its mem- bers. Every Communist, that is, every member of the underground party, must submit to an iron discipline, and must act in accordance with the directions of the leading organs of the underground party in all legal as well as illegal activities. "As a matter of course, all real communists in the United States will Hubscribe to this. The executive of the Communist International knows that the minority of the party executives does not deny the advisability of taking advantage of legal opportunities, although this minority opposes the rapid and energetic procedure of the majority in founding the legal revolu- tionary party. This distinction is, in the judgment of the Executive Com- mittee of the Communists, without good ground. "The fact that the party executive is proceeding rapidly and energeti- cally witji the formation of the Legal party organization is not a fault. It would have been a fault to wait the launching of the legal party until the underground organization had .developed sufficient strength. The develop- ment of the underground organizations can best be furthered through these very activities of its members in the ranks of the legal party. Historic prog- ress is not such a simple matter as to leave us the liberty first to complete the development of the underground party apparatus and only then to begin the building of the legal party organization. In this manner the very best opportunities for the launching of the legal party would be lost. "The centrists would have a free field for their efforts at founding an independent opportunist party. This opportunity must not be left to them. The Communist party must take the initiative in the formation of the new legal party and must take the control firmly into its own hands. It must be careful to hold itself the actual control over all the leading organs of the legal party. For this reason, the legal organization must take the permanent form of a party organization. Some other loose organization form would he very much more difficult to control and to guide. Furthermore, the devel- opment of a solidly organized legal party, in which members of the Com- munist party have at least the majority on all important committees, will make possible the control of still other anti-capitalistic organizations through this legal party. "For the foregoing reason we draw your attention to the following for your guidance; "1. The Communist party of America is as yet far from having satis- [253] REDS IN AMERICA 1 NEXT TASKS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY IN AMERICA factory connections with the masses. The means of contact must be coni structed with the greatest possible speed. Ki 2, Connection with the masses essentially implies a public operation. | Secret operations, even with the widest possible ramifications, can not ba satisfactory mass operations. The means of public contact with the masses must be principally: "(a) A legal press, including at least one daily English legal news- paper, acting with the necessary disguise as a central party organ. "(h) Organized grouping of sympathizers within the trade unions. "(c) An overground political party. "3. Certain indispensable accompaniments to the highest developed capitalist form of society leaves weakness in the capitalist structure that has to be taken advantage of by a Communist party of action. The Government of the United States will not permit a Communist party to exist, but is com- pelled to permit parties to exist in an otherwise almost unrestricted variety for the purpose of its own preservation. The capitalist class builds its regime upon the rock foundation— the mass illusion that social questions are soiv< <l in the sphere in which these parties operate. The state attempts, wherever it can, to exclude a truly proletarian revolutionary party from this publid field. It attempts first to exterminate the revolutionary party, if possible, or second, to terrorize and corrupt the revolutionary party into subservience to capitalist law which makes revolution impossible, or third, at least to confirm the revolutionary party's operations to the narrow sphere that can be reached secretly. "A Communist party must defeat all these attempts. It must not he exterminated. It must unequivocally refuse to obey capitalist law and muftt' urge the working class to the violent destruction of the entire legal machinery. It is equally the duty of a Communist party to defeat by any means that nuv be necessary the capitalist government's attempt to confine the revolutions v party to the underground channels in which it is even more concealed from the masses than it is from the government. "4. The program of the legal party will have to be somewhat restrirfr I Special measures and slogans which, while not stating the illegal communis purpose, will objectively have the revolutionary effect upon the masses mil I he adopted. The legal party must at all times go as far toward the communis program as possible while continuing a legal existence. "5. The entire membership of the underground party, the real Coinmn nist party, must join the open party and become its most active element. ( ! munist party members must at all times hold the positions of leader«lii|. the legal party. In addition to the entire communist party membership, tllf legal party should admit to its ranks the more advanced workers who an i i.l the principle of the class struggle and the abolition of capitalism tin. the establishment of the workers' power. Working class organization* subscribe to these principles can be admitted to or affiliated with the '■ party as a body within the judgment of the central executive commiUi the Communist party, "6. The executive of the Communist International has resolved to lUp [254] port the position of the majority of the Central Executive Committee of the Communist party of America in favor of the immediate construction of a legal political party on a national scale, which will act as an instrument of the illegal Communist party for participation in legal activities such as elec- toral campaigns, etc. The executive of the Comintern takes this position afteT having been informed that the minority of the Executive Committee of the Communist party of America accepts in principle the tactics of the legal work of various sorts at the present time, but rejects the tactics of the immediate construction of a legal political party on a national scale with the Communist party as its nucleus. The ruling of the Communist International must be ac- cepted as obligating every membeT of the Communist party of America, min- ority or majority, to work diligently in the immediate construction of a legal political party. As a rule, party members who fail to participate whole- heartedly in the legal work or who sabotage that work must leave the party. "7. But in carrying out these instructions, the party must guard itself against the tendency to repudiate or neglect the illegal work— the tendency will be found especially among intellectual party members who have little experience in the brutal physical phases of the class struggle to which the rank and file workers are always exposed, but from which the intellectuals engaged in legal political work are sometimes shielded. Upon finding them- selves in the easier life of political activities many will forget that no matter what maneuvers may be made upon the public stage the final class struggle must be until its end a brutal fight of physical force. A certain element of the party membership will inevitably forget this fundamental principle (which no humble worker in the class struggle is allowed to forget) and will come forward with naive proposals for liquidating the illegal machinery of the party. Such a tendency is very dangerous to a proletarian revolution- ary party. The actual liquidation of the underground party would mean the liquidation of the revolutionary movement. Party members who persist in such a view must be ruthlessly expelled from the illegal party. "8. The underground organization of the Communist party must not sink into disuse, but, on the contrary, must constantly extend its illegal machinery further and further, in proportion to the growth of the illegal party. While coming out in the open, the Communist party must not make the mistake of being trapped in the open by exposing its national or district communist party headquarters, records of illegal machinery, its underground printing arrangements or the personnel of its Central Executive Committee. The Cen- tral Executive Committee headquarters (of the party proper) must continue to be guarded in secrecy (and even the problem of redoubling its security from discovery should be constantly studied). *The underground machinery of the Communist party is not merely for emergencies, hut for constant and permanent use. Down to the- lowest unit — the group of ten — every branch and stem of the party structure must continue to keep its secret addresses and meeting places and to use them in constant underground functioning. Every member, no matter what his work in the legal party, must also perform his duties in the underground organization. "9. The party underground press must continue. The means of pub- [2551 REDS IN AMERICA lishing unknown to and in spite of the capitalist authorities must always ha kept in hand and in use. Under bourgeois rule, no matter how liberal it may be, a Communist party must never relinquish its facilities for underground press and, under the circumstances now prevailing in the United States, the active functioning of the underground press can not be abated. But it would be foolish to print any considerable amount of literature underground ihiil could be printed legally. The legal political party will he able to take upon itself the printing of a large portion of the literature that is not definitely illegal. It may also be made sponsor for a great many legal communinJ newspapers. Legal newspapers must form a very large part of the work l the mass party. The illegal press must rarry thn prnpng.tnda that the leg’il press can not carry, thus making sure that the full communist message i« made clear at all times. “10. The intellectual workers in these legal institutions of the party ami be subject to the same discipline, wage scale and regulations as underground party workers. It must always be remembered that the real revolutionary party — the American Section of the Third International — is the Communis party of America and that the legal party is hut an instrument which it Uflol to better carry on its work among the masses. Only through membership in the American section — the Communist party of America — can Amencmi workers become members of the Communist International, “Dear comrades, we hope that, in your coming party convention, all ul you will give evidence, in your resolutions and actions, of firm, organic unity and that your party will prove its ability to measure up to the great respon sibilities that stand before it. “With communistic greetings. “Executive committee of the Communist International. ‘ N. BUKHARIN, “K. RADEK, “O. W. KUSINEN, “Secretin i [256] APPENDIX G “OUR BOLSHEVIST MOLES” (Under this caption tlie London Morning Post published in December, 1922 aTd January, 1923. a series of articles showing from authent^ docu- ments tit £2 of the Communists in Great Britain. By special per- ZTionofthe editor of the Post the substance of the armies is herewith TeprZedto illustrate the similarity of the Communist work in foreign lands wtth tliat in America and as evidence of the mternaUonal **£*?£ the gigantic conspiracy to bring the entire world down to the level of he Torkefs when the “dictatorship of the proletariat” shall have been estab- ” Just as (he Moscow Communists hoped to make of the coal miners’ strike in the Vnited States the first step toward armed insurrection against heGoVrnment in the summer of 1922, so the same group planned to use hl BritishToal strike at the same time. Following b first an editorial from ,Z London Morning Post of December 23, 1922, the date of the beginning of the series. Then, in sequence, are the articles.) We are able to begin today the publication of a series of articles ; de- scribing in detail the organization and the methods of what, we say .deliber- ate v I one of the most dangerous revolutionary conspiracies with which thi ^country has ever been confronted. The informal wc shall publish s drawn from the secret documents of the Communist party. That party is now the dominating force of the Labor party, which is numerously rep- resented in Parliament. Those members of.the Labor Party who are not either overtly or secretly, Communists no longer exert any influence, nor do they possess a coherent policy. Unable to check the revolutionary in the past, the men who are fond of describing their views as moderate and who deprecate methods of violence, are now dragged impotently in the wake of the Communists. In the opinion of the Communists, the old-style Labor leader is no longer worth consideration, and accordingly the order has E one forth from Moscow that he is to be superseded by the genuine revolu- tionary. It must not be imagined that Communism is accurately represented in the House of Commons by the few noisy persons who have already earned the contempt alike of the House and of the public. Men much more formi- dable are directing the Communist party in this country, which, as we shal urove take their orders straight from Moscow. We shall show, also, that fhe Communists are formed into a vast secret society with its centers in every town and district, and its agents in every walk of society, i here is here disclosed no ordinary manufactured political agitation, such as the 1257] REDS IN AMERICA “OUR BOLSHEVIST MOLES elder Socialist movement, for which the Communists express the lively contempt. r In the documents from which we shall draw indisputable evidence, il is clearly shown that the great mining strike was initiated and directed by he Communists as the first step towards revolution; and the failure of thai treasonable conspiracy was the subject of severe rebuke on the part of tho lTr^ US r an BoL * cv *’ Karl Radek. It was, indeed, by reason of th defeat of the Communist plot on that occasion that the new Communist or. ganizahon, of which we shall give a full account, was instituted. It was die a Si r^° SC ° W V ?. d r iS baSCd th T r0U ^ * 9 « s ^« -how, on wha ,- in r .Vr ^ ■ e ^T^f T ” te ™ ati °”^ The Communist par., in Great Britain m recognized by Moscow, and as a condition of that reco* mtion every member of the Communist party must accept and carry execution the instructions of the Theses. Members are bound to perform work both legal and illegal when they are ordered to do so. Those w! fad m obedience <W be excluded from the party." The Theses of ^ Second Congress of the Communist Internationale contain definite and m l nute instructions for the dissemination of Bolshevist doctrines, not onl) among the proletariat," but in every grade of the community. Every oh, vert to Communism becomes a potential or active agent of revolution worl ing under strict and detailed instructions. Groups" or "nuclei" are con',, tuted m all distnets, which are under the direction of regional commiL which m heir turn are guided by the central body, which is always ealT, Zk° nd ° n -' ^ S l heme ° f or S anizati – *» been elaborated, as readers will perceive with consummate ability. Its main purpose i, to ^MuTT^ 11 ^ m – e T y branch ° f solution, fronfthe teaching of children to the preparation for armed insurrection. The Theses dem , practical results. The leaders of revolution in Moscow are no £r con with mere dissemination of doctrine or the issuing of maniSs centra authority in this country is the Executive Committee of ^ Co mumst party; which as we have observed, is the most active force i„ ,1,.
  15. The leaders of revolution in Moscow are no £r con
    with mere dissemination of doctrine or the issuing of maniSs
    centra authority in this country is the Executive Committee of ^ Co
    mumst party; which as we have observed, is the most active force i„ ,1,.
    Labor party; and the Executive Committee in this country is rl
    to the Executive of the Communist Internationale at Moscow, and is
    by the decisions given by Moscow.

    w uJ UCk t tHe ° Ut ! in n ° f the Ver ^ dan £ er °us revolutionary or K amz«|

    whose workings we shal expose. It should be remembered that wf a ■
    dealing not with the wild project of a few half-crazed vislnarieT b

    Snn^rl b ° d V CUnnin |>. and “scrupulous men, who have’n
    planned the revolution in this country but who, with the help of th I
    party proper, or at least with their connivance, have actualfy carHed n
    execution the first measures of the revolutionary campaign W
    serious is the menace that we hope none of our reaoVrrSm A
    information with the comfortable Lugln that fc B S h £L£Z
    much sense to engage in revolution. Doubtless that ™„,M~ T •
    ally accurate, but the Bolsheviks, who XS^^t^ 1 \
    agamst that contingency also by formulating the prinffldS ff iS en i
    and opportunity, a resolute minority can always “stampede th’ maj”,

    [258]

    That is perilously true. The danger, some of whose secrets— but by no
    means all— we unmask, is a present and an active danger. It demands not
    only the strict attention of the Government but the lively consideration of
    every honest citizen. The Communist is the sworn and deadly enemy of
    society. Destitute alike of morals and of natural scruple, he is no more to
    be tolerated than a wild beast ; and for the same reasons.

    At a special Conference of the Communist party of Great Britain, held
    in London last March, a Commission was appointed “to review the organi-
    zation of the party in the light of the Theses (of the Communist Interna-
    tional). – . and to make detailed recommendations to the Executive
    Committee and to the Annual Conference for the application of the Theses.”
    The members of the Commission were Messrs. R* Palmer Dutt (editor of
    the Labour Monthly), M. Inkpin, and M. Pollitt (editor of All Power, an
    organ of the Red International of Labor Unions). The following were the
    terms of reference:

    (1) To draft such revision of the Constitution as may seem necessary
    to bring it into accord with the Theses,

    (2) To examine and report on the existing divisions, areas and other

    units.

    (3) To draw up a full scheme for the co-ordination and direction ot
    groups and nuclei in the Trade Unions and other working-class organiza-
    tions, and to make recommendations as to the first steps to be taken in the
    practical operation of the scheme.

    (4) To consider the organization of the party centre and make recom-
    mendations.

    (5) To bring under review the party press and other form of propa-
    ganda in order to make possible a more effective fulfillment of the Theses
    in these respects.

    The Report of the Commission has been represented to the party,
    and was adopted by the annual Conference, held at the Battersea Town
    Hall on October 7. It is a remarkable document, and is worthy of very
    careful study by employers, Trade Unionists, Co-operators, Government
    departments and by all who are fighting Bolshevism. Unfortunately, the
    report is only for members of the Communist party. It is, therefore,
    necessary for the writer to describe this document in detail, so that those
    who may be directly or indirectly affected by the underground burrowings of
    our Bolshevist moles will be familiar with their methods and plans. The re-
    port fills nearly seventy-nine pages, and it must be admitted that the plan of
    reorganization and the new methods of waging the Bolshevik war on society
    are diabolically clever.

    The new organization and methods of the Communist party are, as
    the report indicates, founded on the Theses of the Communist International.
    These were issued in August, 1920, and in December, 1921. Extracts from
    the Theses have been published in the Morning Post. Every organization
    recognized by Moscow must accept and carry out the instructions of the
    Theses; and ”members of the party who repudiate the conditions and theses

    [259]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    OUR BOLSHEVIST MOLES”

    adopted by the Communist International must be excluded from the party.”
    Members must be prepared to undertake both legal and illegal work whrf
    required to do so by the party leaders or by the Communist Internatinn.il
    The form of organization which has hitherto been generally adopt™!
    by the Socialist parties does not lend itself to the kind of revolutionary
    activity desired by the Communist International. After the miners’ strike
    last year the British Communists were severely criticized by Karl Raddl
    because they had failed to obtain from the strike revolutionary results. The
    failure was explained as being due mainly to defective organization on thl
    part of the Communist movement in this country. The new organization
    scheme to be described in these articles is the sequel to the criticisms of
    the Moscow Chiefs of the Communist party.

    Before describing the scheme of organization recommended by the Com-
    mission— and now in process of development— it is necessary to look at llt<-
    Theses of the Communist International, on which the new organization ,.f
    the Communist party of Great Britain is to be based. The theses of tho
    Second Congress of the Communist International, Moscow, August, 1920
    contain the instructions that are of immediate interest. Clause 8 calll
    upon the Communists to replace "the old leaders by Communists in all
    kinds of proletarian organizations, not only political, but industrial, 00 messages, individuals, &c, and of maintaining lines of communication’
    with the Centre and also between localities and between workshops.

    (6) INFORMATION Organization of all necessary information con
    cerning the District through the local information groups and colled inn
    and transmission of information to the Centre.

    This information from the District Committees is tabulated and clullf
    fied by the corresponding departments of the Organization Bureau at. llir
    Centre. The District Political Bureau also consists of seven deparlrinnli
    which correspond to the departments of the Political Bureau at the Contrl
    These include the following:

    (1) INDUSTRIAL COMMITTEE. For the direction of the nuclei In
    the unions and the workshops and the fractions on Trades Councils mini
    Local Labor Parties, in accordance with the lines laid down by the Central
    Industrial Committee.

    (2) ELECTIONS AND MUNICIPAL COMMITTEE. For election
    work (Parliamentary and municipal) and direction of municipal repreiM
    tatives.

    (3) LABOR AND CO-OPERATIVE COMMITTEE. For co-ordination
    of work inside Co-operative Societies and Guilds, Labor clubs, and miacfll
    laneous local Labor organizations, and undermining and propaganda worll
    in local Social Democratic organizations.

    [262]

    (4) EDUCATION COMMITTEE. For arranging the training classes
    of candidates for party membership, special training of party’s workers, or-
    ganizers, &c, and instructions of workers outside the party.

    (7) POLITICAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY COMMITTEE. For prop-
    aganda and undermining work in Government and bourgeois institutions and
    special intelligence*

    A REPORT TO MOSCOW

    The purpose of this elaborate machinery of organization is indicated ii,
    the above extracts. The main purpose is to obtain control of the mdustnal
    orgarTizItions of he workers. Before this scheme of organization had been
    dS the Executive of the Communis, party of Great Britair .reported to
    Moscow that “the Party has 200 propagandists of Communism, and the party
    has nudeialmost in every trade union, and efforts are being pushed forward
    fobnn these into touc/with each other according to the -«- ^mem-
    terms of the Theses of the Communist International . . . All the mem
    LiTof the party are bound to take an active part in the unemployed aglta-
    on it L very a y eute, and whatever has been done to turn the situation to ac-
    count ma Communist sense is due to the work of the party. (The Communist

    ^SoSU in a locality are combined in small group.
    These groups correspond to the German Zehnergruppen, or lens and
    ‘■are composed of members living within easy walking distance of one
    another.” Where the party is strong “these group areas may cover a street
    or a block; in other words, a ward.” There is a Group Leader, who will be
    responsible for his group and must see that the members are carrying out
    hTLtructions received from the Local Party Committee Th« Committ »
    directs and co-ordinates the activities of all the groups (also nuclei and
    W ons) in the locality, and reports to the District Party Committee. No
    slackness is allowed; every member is under strict supervise n H, a mu
    be a working member, “since he could not be a member of the parly a all
    unless he were a member of a working group. This is the vital secret of the
    Theses . ■ Every member has some special qualification, which can

    be used in some sphere” of the party’s work. It will be the business ,,
    Party Committee so to organize the groups that they are composed or
    members best suited to the work in hand.” For thisreason persons )0tmn B
    the party must serve a period of probation before being admitted to mem-
    bership.

    THE COMMUNIST PRESS

    Before coming to the actual nature of the work which the Committee’s
    groups and nuclei of the Communist party will have to do, it is necessary
    briefly to summarize the plans for the entire reorganization of the Com-
    munist press. The report of the Commission states that the main party
    organ muat be “a mass organ, i.e., an organ of workmg-class life and einig-

    [263]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    “OUR BOLSHEVIST MOLES

    gle. Its object is not only to agitate, but to organize and train/ 7 The Com*
    munist “should be the newspaper of the working class, and not a small
    magazine of miscellaneous articles with a Communist mas.” It must “re-
    port working-class life and struggle in such a way as to give every item an
    agitating and organizing value/*

    We now come to the vital part of the Communist organization. All
    the elaborate and expensive machinery of organization is for a definite
    purpose. This purpose has been shown in the extracts from the Moscow
    Theses and by the report of the British Communists to the Moscow Head-
    quarters of the Communist International. What follows is concerned wild
    this Bolshevist machine at work. Chapter 4 of the Report of the Communis!
    Commission is headed “Party Activities,” and section 1 of this chaplci
    describes the work “in the Trade Unions.” It states that (p. 36) :

    “The work of the party in the Trade Union movement and in the work
    shops (factories, mines, docks, railways, shipyards, or other places of
    work) is the principal activity before the party in the present period. 1 1
    is here that we must build up the leadership of the party in the actual day-
    to-day struggle of the workers in order to have the solid basis to proceed
    to further struggles. That leadership will not be achieved by the issui
    of manifestos, but only bv systematic and organized work over the whole
    field.

    “Tile Held is extremely complicated, and only the highest degree ol
    organization will secure results. . . . We must never let the “industrial
    aide,” i. e., our activity in economic movement, become separate from “parti
    work,” since the whole direct object of our activity in the economic move
    ment is not the separate economic struggle, but the common political
    struggle, i.e., the revolutionary struggle for power under the dictatorship
    of the party. Therefore all our work in these organizations must be prl
    marily directed towards strengthening the party’s hold; if we form any indfl
    pendent movement it must be only as a vehicle for the party’s, action, i ‘
    all our work must be under the daily direction of the party.”

    The Commission explains that the work of the party in the Triulp
    Unions, “despite its volume,” has failed through lack of common direction
    They had no “hold on the membership,” and no channel through which
    the necessary reports and information could be obtained. To over CO mi
    these difficulties there must be organized and directed day-to-day work In
    the Unions, and “its aim must be to bring increasing numbers of H”
    under the direct leadership of the party. For this reason ‘nucleus wor]
    not simply the creation of centres of agitation, but one of the m■•’
    merely a formal, hold upon it,” This is to be accomplished by firs! oi

    [zing “our members in their ‘nuclei’ or groups of party members in each
    Trade Union branch,” These nuclei must be “firmly welded together oyer
    Ihe whole country,” and must act under “central direction. This direction
    will come from the Headquarters of the party and the District Committees
    will “only act as transmitting centres for nationally decided policies in
    each Union to the nuclei affected in their district.”

    MANIPULATING THE UNIONS

    At the Central Industrial Department of the party in London there
    will sit a main Industrial Committee, assisted by “Special Advisory Com-
    mittees from each of the provincial Unions or groups uf Unions. J he ad-
    visory Committee of a given Trade Union will consist of our best members
    in that Union … it will receive the reports of our nuclei to the Union
    either directly or through local or district committees, as also reports of
    any officials, executive members, &c., we may have in the Union inis
    main Industrial Committee at the Centre will divide into sections for (1)
    Trade Unions: (2) Trade Councils; (3) Workshops; (4) Press. Similar
    Committees will meet at the District Centres “to receive instructions from
    the main Industrial Committees, work them out for the District and pass
    them on to the Union nuclei concerned in their District,’ A nucleus must
    be formed in any Trade Union branch where there are one or more members
    of the party.

    A Trade Union nucleus is a party organization working m a *™e
    Union branch, and consists of party members and candidates in that branch.
    A nucleus only exists when it has been organized by or reported itselt to
    its Leading Committee, and is meeting, working, and reporting regularly
    The nucleus will receive full instructions as to its work at the time when it
    i« formed by the representative of the Leading Committee accredited tor the
    purpose, and thereafter will receive particular instructions over any issue
    or campaign as occasion arises.

    ESPIONAGE

    It will be seen, and Trade Unionists should note, that these nuclei in
    Trade Union branches are an organized system of espionage directed trom
    the Headquarters of the Communist party. The average Trade Union mem-
    ber is to be surrounded by the organized spies of Moscow, and his Union
    is to be secretly “wangled” into the acceptance of policies devised by the
    chiefs of the Communist party and introduced into the Unions by the
    underground agents of the party.

    The nuclei in several branches of a Union in a locality are to form
    “a Local Committee for that Union” in order to co-ordinate the work of the
    nuclei in its local branches. In the same way the nuclei m all the local
    Trade Union branches, workshops, and the fractions in the Trades Councils,
    &c are to be enmbined in a Local General Committee. This Committee
    takes up any subject or agitation on which all the nuclei should concen-

    [264]

    [265]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    OUR BOLSHEVIST MOLES’

    Irate. Communists on District Committees or the Executive of a U

    will “be organized in definite party organizations (Fractions), whidi will
    meet and report regularly, and receive their instructions from the Leadim

    Committee.” Members of the Communist party who are officials in a Un

    will be separately organized for party purposes, and will have to furnlih
    their own reports regularly on the work, together with any information
    obtained, and will receive their distinct instructions.

    A Local Industrial Organizer will he appointed “to transmit instrtli
    tions to the various nuclei” and to supervise their activities. The work -.1
    a nucleus in a Trade Union branch covers a wide field. In addition to thi
    routine day-to-day work it will:

    Organize the Left Wing opposition in all branches around all current
    questions . . . it will be prepared for each branch meeting with resolii
    lions, movers of resolutions, discussions, &c. . . . it will endeavoui
    to weaken the position of reactionary officials and leaders by pressing iV ,,,
    which force them to take up an unpopular stand; … it will worl
    for the election of accredited Communist candidates as officials and delegaU
    to conferences, &c + ; during strikes its members will be active in the Urn
    iront and pressing for extension of the dispute, and greater solidarih
    and it will be watchful to keep the Leading Committee informed of all tfi
    velopments, and to follow carefully the lead given in order to achiev.
    uniformity m the party’s action.

    CONTROL OF INDUSTRY

    More important than the nuclei in the Trade Union branches arc lb I
    nuclei m the workshops. The Report declares that:

    “The factory or workshop is the real unit of the working class, and
    should be the mam field of our activity. Here, far more than in the loc il
    ities, is the basis of the Party’s organization of the workers, and conlnri
    with the working class as a whole, whether organized or unorganized I li
    trade Unions only bring us in contact with a portion of the working clfll
    . . – and only a minority of those who turn up at branch meetings, ftfl
    J he workshop brings us into contact with all the workers on the spot. .

    Ihe trade Unions can only initiate the struggle. Once the revolutio

    struggle begins the workshop becomes the centre. . . Upon our oru in
    ization in the workshops will depend the success of the workers m il»-
    hrst phase of the revolutionary struggle and their readiness for organization
    under the dictatorship of the proletariat”
    u Whenever members of the party are employed in a factory or worl

    they must be organized as a responsible party body or nucleus.” II..
    iorms and activities of a workshop nucleus are “manifold and varied,” mil]

    the duties include the distribution of “the party paper and litem

    dinner-hour discussions, formation of social and sports organization
    taking up of grievances, &c. These are, of course, the general propacnnd I
    duties. Iheir special task is “to agitate for the formation of factory
    aim of the Communists is the destruction; of the machinery of local govern
    ment. During strikes “the local government machinery” must be used
    to serve the purpose of the strike.” “In the actual revolutionary struggle
    any hold on local government should be used to stop its operation and re-
    place it by revolutionary workers’ councils,” A section on this subject is
    devoted to the dangers of reformism, “The active participation in the ad-
    ministrative detail of a Local Governing body has a tendency to cool the
    revolutionary ardour of the Communists, and many revolutionaries are afraid
    of taking part at all for fear of coming reformists.”

    PREJUDICES OF WOMEN.

    Chapter 6 of the Bolshevist Report is devoted to the work of the Com-
    munist among women. It begins by declaring that “The role of women in
    the class struggle cannot be ignored by Communists in any country. . . .
    The seizures of power by the proletariat and the subsequent achievement of
    Communism can only be accomplished with the active participation of
    the wide masses of the proletarian and semi-proletarian women,” It [j
    admitted that the task of winning the support of women for Bolshevism
    is very great. There are many strong prejudices to overcome. The starting
    point must be in the working-class organizations with women members.
    These include Trade Unions, the Co-operative Societies, and Guilds. One
    of the prejudices to combat is the prevailing prejudice against the par
    ticipation of women in the thick of the fight, “We shall have to fight re
    lentlessly against a great deal of prejudice of this kind in our own ranks
    Many comrades discourage their wives, sisters, and women friends from at

    Lending party meetings or from taking any part whatever in our work.
    This attitude must be overcome.”

    The women will be separately organized, and the Women’s Propa-
    ganda Committee will organize “propaganda and agitation among proleta-
    rian women, such organization to remain completely under party control
    A headquarters there will be the “Central Women’s Propaganda Committee
    wth a General Organizer- The Report goes on to tabulate the duties of
    ht Central Committee, one of which will be the ‘maintenance and con-
    linuous contact with the International Secretariat of Communist Women
    (Moscow),

    The work of the Central Committee and also of the District and Local
    Committees will be divided into sections in the manner described in con-
    nection with the Party Executive and the District Party Committees. The
    Report states that:

    “Thorough division of the work among members of the Committee is
    most essential. One member should have charge of the work among house-
    wives another of that in the co-operative movement, and so on.

    FUNCTIONS OF WOMEN’S GROUPS

    The local work will be distributed “among various small working
    groups with different functions or fields of activity (such as Co-operative
    Guild Groups, Literature Distributors’ Groups House to House Propa-
    ganda Groups, &c.}.” Communist women in Trade Unions will join the
    party nucleus (where such exists) and will act “on the instructions from
    ^Nucleus Management Committee or leader.” They will get into persona
    contact with the lemon members of the Trade Union branch and w 11
    endeavor to get them “to attend classes or mstruction groups. Communist
    women are t join the Local Labor Parties “if individual membership of
    the Labor party is allowed.” These women members must report to the Com-
    mittee under whose direction they are acting. The procedure is the same as
    that already given in other cases.

    Other activities of women Communists are the holding of street corner
    meetings in “proletarian shopping centres” to discuss the cost of living-
    bread meetings-or the care and education of children,” &c. Special atten-
    tion must be given to literature for women. “A series of vivid arrest ng
    short stories, with a strong agitational bias, won d also be useful Enter-
    tainments likely to attract women will be provided, but propaganda should
    be judiciously mixed with entertainments.”

    THE MONEY MYSTERY

    Many proposals and technical details of the Communist reorganization
    scheme, for lack of space, have been omitted, such as the relations with Com-
    munist Schools for the young and the special features of the Commmnst
    Saturdays and Sundays when members will be called upon to do some

    [26fi]

    [269]

    REDS IN AMERICA

    special work for the Party. But the general features of the organizatioi
    have been given, and it is scarcely necessary to remind the reader that tffl
    administrative expenses of the organisation will be heavy. Where tho,
    money will come from is not explained in the Report — the subscriptions o9
    members are quite inadequate to meet the cost of such an elaborate scheme.
    But as the plan of organization is based on the instructions of the Moscow
    International, it is not unreasonable to suggest that Moscow may be finance
    ing it.

    **The final and culminating campaign ” says the Report, “to which
    the whole of the Party organization leads up is the open fight for power,”
    (p. 74). Will this cleverly dRviPsrl plan of the revolutionaries succeed?
    Not if the intended victims are made aware of the intentions and methods
    of the conspirators. Now we know the plans and policy of the Communis!
    party and its precious International of Bandits at Moscow, it will not he
    difficult to frustrate their revolutionary designs upon society.

    INDEX

    BM

    INDEX

    Adaptation of C P- A. to American ^

    conditions • – ■ ■

    Addaras, Jap*
    A, A. L. !*..••;

    183

    American Relief for Russia* Women

    and Children JH ‘ £>i

    Civil Liberties Bureau- . •■•.■’■■■■'”””

    Stockholder, Rus»-Amer. Indus. Corpo-

    Adjwtment’ ‘Committee,’ ” Bridgman Con-
    vention ,…,…-■”‘■•’–•••■■-•’■

    Adrianopk, propaganda center at

    Advance, a publication… *■■

    Afghanistan, propaganda in ‘ *

    Africa ■ ■ ■ • ■ • * * ■

    African Blood Brotherhood
    Approved of, by C. P. A

    181

    24

    73
    80

    190

    SSSTaS ai-of; 35, 100,191

    Agrarian program _

    Cost of…. “°

    Legal Agrarian Bureau — J}J

    OfC. P. A 103 » 110

    Agricultural Schools

    Students planted in. ll, i%

    All-American National Council; , . – J>|

    All-Amtrican Technical Commtttee

    *88

    Friends of Soviet

    ‘ass

    Allen, Gov. (Kansas) 1JJ

    Allison, Elmer T
    Advisory Comm

    ^/j Fcwi^r, a’publication.

    All-Russian Cent. E^ Com- ‘*

    AlURussian Jewish Relief Corn. …

    Amalgamated Clothing Workcra Union ;
    Affiliated with Friends of Soviet Russia
    Children’s Hom« “> Soviet Russia
    Conference for Progressive Political Ac-

    98

    177

    tion

    U

    Predominantly Jewish organization. .4&, 186

    Quoting report to Moscow 1*2

    Raising’ money for |£

    Report on, in Baltimore . . . «J

    Amalgamated Metal Workers. > ■ – 13*

    Amalgamated Textile Workers

    Pretended hostility to Clothing Work-
    er;. , ‘ ■ ■ 13 a

    Represent by W. Z- Foster. . JJ

    Strike of, aided by A. C L, U I 22

    America _ -„

    Communism itu . v – . • ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ • ■ – *’

    In counter -revolutionary alliance. v l»&. »*’

    American Association for Labor Eegisla- ^^

    Approved ” i>y” Nat Inf. Bureau 187

    Personnel of organization ; . ■ r * *»*

    American Association of Social Workers ISC

    American Capitalism ” ■ 23a

    American Civil Liberties Union

    16, 45, 48, 47, US, 180

    Aids arrested Communists 182, 172

    Approved by Nat- Inf. Bureau……. 18s

    Contributions to Labor Defense Couu

    cil

    178

    Early history of ^0, 31

    Funds of ■ }**

    Labor Defense Council *<*

    Linked with Communism—.. 117

    Members file charges against Dept. of

    Justice , – *«

    Opinions of. …..<• < ■ ■ l* 3

    American Committee for the Relief of

    Russian Children 105

    Approved by Nat. Inf. Bureau 187

    Four National Committee Members in

    Moscow ■ 105

    Russian Fair and Costume Ball 152

    Represented by Capt. Paxton Hibbcn. . 104
    American Committee for Russian Famine
    Relief

    Activities and propaganda 100

    Organized by W. W. Liggett 39

    American Defense Society : 1*

    Opposition of Negro Communists to. , . 192
    Protests landing of Moscow Art Theatre 146
    American- Federated Russian Famine Re-
    lief Committee ■ ■ ■ ° 8

    American Federation of Labor 196, 248

    Aids Communists !)

    mnotsts .
    Labor_ Defense Council’,’,’/.’
    Organizer, Intercollegiate

    League *

    Refuses to fight in war.’.”.””
    ^Speaks „ New York .’j;— gj

    Ball, Alexander* 1U

    Ballam, John J ‘” *■•

    Baltic Fleet . . * ”

    Bate, Dennis. O o ‘ Wo

    Battersea (England). ..Y.’. ‘ VB ‘ l73 ‘

    Beardsley, S. E *

    Bechtold, Eugene. !] !! ‘.

    Bedacht, Max ” ‘ V. ,

    Brfflriura, propaganda in.’.’.”.’.””” S3 > “£

    ESE2?’ ■j 5 . r ?p a e a » d a center. . . . ; I*

    Bennett, Richard , . , J*

    Ee?^? HaTb0r < Mich1 "^")'.- '–"-"■
    Berlin, H.. '

    Berman Nerma. … " * "

    Bernardsville (N. J.)

    Berthenson, Sergei ■–•.-…….

    Biddle family of Philadelphia"/. '.'.'"'" tm

    Bisbee deportation . . ■;•■■■

    BdtJeman, Alexander. ."".". \ n

    gjzzell, Dr. William B.. 15f f£

    Bloc, congressional.. ' 25

    Block and Co…. 39

    Bloor, Ella Reeves..'.". si's,™ It

    Bocb and Bolshevik '. * ""■ 81. 82, M

    Eohn, Frank * * 2

    g°J^* P"^^ or^batoi-ii:;;; ™

    ' ' ' ■ .- 7

    190

    901

    propa-

    30
    157

    138

    94
    173
    174
    259
    173

    21

    SO

    01

    173

    75

    173
    7*
    145
    175
    44
    SO
    61

    Brtdgman cases,

    Present status of…
    Bnggg. Dean (Harvard):;"'
    BrigW William E-.

    British capital. .

    Brock, Eugene j\' m 21)0

    Broms, Allen S lf|

    Bronstrup, Walter ' " ltH

    Broofchart, Senator "(fowa) 5!

    Brooks, Ward. l ' ■ 41»

    Addressed Bri^o'conVto'tion 'in G»bor co’ndi

    Bolshevism among negroes

    Bonus, soldiers

    As a propaganda slogan.

    Capitalization by radicals….*””

    BooSe’r/SarlL^^^^”

    Borah Senator William” E

    And A. C. L. U

    Tb^Ji? c h f „ Amn «tJ Question ! ! ! ^ ! . ” ” ” JJI

    Eofetn^Z.^ ° f t,! l CommitteV™ l17
    foreign Relations of the U S

    Borgf 3 e o n n a , te si d „; y ^; 7 – ■- 9/io, h i;

    Bf>ring from within. . , .”.”.’.’. *£

    Boston Evening Transcript 31

    … 161

    54
    .189, H51
    . . – 309
    . .. 7. S

    Buford, H…

    Bukharin ….,.*

    Alternate, Pol’tbuYcaiiV. ” ”

    instructmns signed by, … * aVfl”^*’

    Bu ^’ d 7 oi Comintern. V: . . .’ ‘
    ^uger, Max. . ,

    Burnham, Mrs. George ‘

    BS/F’ H ° a – Edm « nd ””

    Bums, William” j;;

    Bush, Alfred…

    I ;i

    . i:in

    -5. hi I

    hi

    IS, [01

    II

    .», II

    in
    i

    .SI

    Boston

    Communist report on

    laboi

    Police strike

    School of Theology! . ‘

    Boy Scouts

    BrestLitovsk Treaty

    Bridffman (Mich.) Convention “of

    Closing scenes .!*.”.!*!!*’

    conditions

    133.

    10

    135

    15&
    119

    153
    82
    23

    Cablegrams from Moscow t„ b j

    Convention moscow to Bndgmat
    California

    C *SJ3«L YoA)/ a’ publication’

    a?^&a* B ■

    Acti(

    5, 7, S.13

    Onoted’T “‘ “^ ” a Hi]] Wt

    Chiles. E. Pl utarc Ji o ;

    Canada, radical papers in ” ‘

    Cannon, J. P, fftg™ ,n

    Advisory Com., Friends of Sovi „ Rua .

    Agent, majority’ “faction”‘ C ” P “a

    Approves Sovietiam .77. . A

    tent. ac. Com. and Politbureau.’ C p.’

    133

    4. 1
    40
    49

    toa

    71

    flfl

    Jrt
    14«

    INDEX

    A 16

    Cent. Ex. Com., Cincinnati Com. Party 88

    Correspondence with T. R. Sullivan., 1B!>

    Labor Film Service . , 147

    Mine, Mill and Smelters’ Organization. 147

    Metalliferous Miners 148

    Western Federation of Miners… 148

    Capital, American, invested in South

    America 280

    Capitalism, decay of ^ . , 169

    Capitalists, investments in Latin-America 87

    Carlisle, Thomaa r Prussianized History.. 6
    Carlson, Oliver (E. Connelly, Edwards)

    National secretary, Workers’ Party. … €5
    Organizer, Young Workers’ League.. 65, 99

    Carney, Jack 30, 98

    Carpathians 194

    Carrier, Jean Baptist .’.,,. 5

    Caruso 146

    Catchwords, revolutionary, see Slogans.
    Catholic workers

    To be organized against K. K. K….. 191

    Catholic youth .,…, 153

    Cafct, Mrs. Carrie Chapman 180

    Caucasus, propaganda in .,,….-. , 7A

    Central America 219

    Central Control Committee, see Commu-
    nist Party of Russia.
    Cent. Ex. Com., C. P, A,

    Must guide illegal branch 2fi

    Publishes an illegal organ 36

    Central Federated Union (Chicago) ,

    Endorses Labor Film Service. 14$

    Central Famine Relief Committee 142 T 143

    Central Women’s Propaganda Committee. 269
    Centrists in Workers’ Party.. ,,f!7, S01, #53

    Century Theatre (New York) 144

    Chadhurn, Thomas 182

    Chaffee, Zwharia &G, 181. BIT

    Chambers of Commerce. 193

    . Chaliapin, Feodor. … r ,..,……,., , …. 146

    Chaplin, Charlie

    Entertains William Z. Foster…. 150

    In Communist files. 150

    Introduced to Comrade Plotkin 151

    SpeaVs at a dinner. 152

    Statement to ., 90

    Russian Fair and Ball 152

    Written to, by R. M. Lovett S3

    Chappell, Winifred It9

    Charity Organization Society (New York) 184

    Chauve’Snuris , 144

    Che-Ka, Commission for Suppression of

    Count er-Revolution , 79, 138

    Chicago, Communist report on labor con*

    dttions in 138

    Chicago Federation of Labor 98, 174

    Chicago Tribune, a publication 46

    Chicherin 74, 104

    Chikoff, v. V…… 104

    Children, starving in Russia , . , . 7

    Children’s Homes in Soviet Russia

    Raising money for. 176, 177

    Children s stones of Soviet Russia 78

    Chile

    Copper of 330

    Radical papers in 71, 219

    China.

    No strikes in ,.,.,.♦.. 147

    Propaganda in 74

    Christian religion 194

    Civil Liberties Bureau ,..120, 186

    Civil Liberties Union (Chicago) 174

    Civil Service Regulations 16H

    Class hatred……………. ,, KW

    Class struggle. 221

    Clay, John C 1T3

    Cleveland, Communist report on tabor con-
    ditions in. , . . 183

    Clews, Mrs 150

    Code to be used by Communists… 38

    Cohen, Bela 44

    Collectivism 181

    Collins, James H , 57

    Colombia , S20

    Comintern of Third Internationale. .IB, 36, 337
    Commissariat of Public Health, Soviet
    Russia, represented in New York

    City …….. 101

    Commission for the suppression of Coun-
    ter-Re volution, see Che-ka

    Communism and Christianism 10, 27H

    Credit state, to fanners. .”. “” .”.’.'” ‘.;«, iff

    Cruder General ……108, 25J

    Cuba, radical papers in…. 71 Hfl sso

    Curacao, a battleship,.. * X ‘ f£?

    Am*SS k Wortmea ‘ 9 Coundl””of ‘

    Czecho-Slovakta, revolutionary” ‘condit

    .^ , . „, „ lulJUUdJ jr con-ai turns

    a.t

    187
    JS3
    144

    48

    ^ToT^ActTn 3 “^ ^*C nf.–pVo; ”

    Communists in Moscow. !.” ! ”

    Communists, raising money for «I

    Commumsts stress class struggle ti

    Compulsory health insurance.”.”

    Comstock, F. Ray …….

    Conference for Progressive ‘ Polit’tcaE ‘Ac’.
    Accomplishment a of

    Communists must guard a^iast! ! ! I ‘ ! ” »u

    ^nstituent organizations-? . . ‘ *jj

    Does work allocated by Moscow Jo

    Designation a misnomer. … ?|

    indorses Plumb plan %i

    l£SS?9 kJi’ W- aild Communist;”” J?

    Lauds Sovtet Russia. ” – ‘ ‘ **

    Method of organization. ; !! ‘. 4 J

    Aot a /’front” for C. P. A.. ft

    Organization of , , * 2

    Political program of.””.’. \ 9 H

    P S:j°^:^ ™° *'”^ ‘ ”

    Questionnaire of . . ■ • • -. jO

    Size of * M

    Stealing party names .” ! ,W J J

    Workers’ party delegates, to!!'” “” 12

    Congress, U. S. 43

    Consulted by Communists. .
    *■ ree speech and .

    212

    Dana, Prof. Harry W. L ‘ ” 7

    GS? Intercol]e Pa^ liberal

    ^eagu’e ^^ ^ ‘ V °”°«’ ‘ *wW **
    d’Anselme, GcnVrai .'”.’,’!! ,3

    Danton . ‘ ” IvB

    Davis, J. ” r 6 f 61, 82, 160

    Debs, Buginc’v.W.WWW isa’Vuj JJJ

    lD £r ! *° a£S, ‘ £t -^ted’Vm 64 * W

    M^e?^”^^- :: ‘–“‘::::: In

    S mfa? dCr ‘ Kuss – A ^ ‘ ^dus! ■ Co’rpo*-

    De Frank/ N ‘ 1S5 – ^

    de Mille, William *C .’.’.’ a-i’iV^i \ll

    Democracy, a Study in Applied.” .’ .’ J

    SS.^ 81 by ^”ch Re^lu” ^

    Democratic forms/.”//.; “/ ‘ {

    Denby, ^dwin, Sec’y. of Navy iVr t-

    Department of Justice. * 16 ?f 1 *

    ‘.’i

  16. Democracy, a Study in Applied.” .’ .’ J

    SS.^ 81 by ^”ch Re^lu” ^

    Democratic forms/.”//.; “/ ‘ {

    Denby, ^dwin, Sec’y. of Navy iVr t-

    Department of Justice. * 16 ?f 1 *

    ‘.’i

    Members o’f, work’ ‘for’ Communism.” “‘ ” si?
    Soldiers’ bonus and.

    – Justice ‘ iU f? j

    Department of State ._ * 7 ‘*

    … ‘ 138
    ■ ■ ■ 219)

    11s, iaa

    Congress of Social Workers’ VSan’b’ieso/
    Connecticut, Communist Agrarian Xd

    Connelly; ‘&’, ‘ s ‘« Oiiv’er’ Carlsom’ ‘

    eSSSg” presa ‘ «”«i*«”«fe ^

    In England

    To overthrow government! ! ! ”

    Loostantinople

    Constitution of tj” S *A *

    1C1

    83

    llo

    .- 257
    — 231

    75, 158

    6

    Deportation Act. . .
    Deportation of Allen*…*'”

    De Silver, Albert. . .
    Detroit, Mich. •■■♦.

    Communist report on labor in.

    Federation of J^abor ■•■-■■

    t”n* ^? emein ‘ ^^^-“a’pubiick:
    gfaL The, ‘a’pubiication.’.*.’ ” ‘ ,Zf

    Dill, Senator (Washington) .
    Dlre dSratS terIOCti ^ SCe -teriVcking
    D,,armament ; encouraged in Army and

    1 r.i.

    [276]

    Discipline, party, decline of 38

    Dt3tnct Industrial Organizer. ,.,…….- 138

    Dorman, D. C 47

    Dostoevskv – 151

    Downie, Thomas R 80

    Drake, Francis. ,,„,.,,,,……… 84

    Drexel 175

    Dubrowsky, Dr. David

    Capt. Paxton Hibbeu and _ 105

    Interviews Calles, Mex. premier 106

    Jewish Public Committee 101

    On Marten’s pay roll. _ 1W

    Organizes Russian relief 100

    Duluth report on labor in. …………. . 134

    Duncan, Isadora 141

    Dunne, William F.

    Address to Workers’ Party Convention 80

    Arrested at Bridgman, Mich ….21, 82

    C, P. A., connections 15,40

    Candidate,’ Governor of New York, 40, 89, 109

    Changed with criminal conspiracy 124

    Friends of Soviet Russia 9*

    In prison 1^6′

    Labor Defense Council 173, 174

    Duquesne (Pennsylvania) – – 122

    Duse, Eleonora , 14*

    Dutt, R. Palmer …… 2a9

    Dzerzhinsky 5, 75

    E

    Early, D. E «i.W

    Eastside (N. Y.) political methods in Mos-
    cow *1

    Eastman, Crystal 117

    Eastman, Max

    Amer. Civ. Lib. Union 121

    Civil Liber. Bureau , –.-■ 180

    Editor, The Liberator 79

    Friends Soviet Russia 83

    With Claude McKay. – 100

    Ebert-Scheidemann Government (Ger-
    many) … v . ■ J*J

    Edelstein, Morris ■ • • 17»

    Edgerly, Lady, see Countess Kotiybska..

    Egypt ■ 35

    Ekskosovich, Vassilivich 146

    Flections, program for, C. P. A 345

    Ellis Island 141

    Ellsworth, Mrs _ 83

    Emergency Peace Federation 120, 131

    Engancho 330

    Engdahl, J. LDUis

    At Convention of Workers’ Party…. 8S

    Ex. Com., C. P. A 15

    Speaks in New York 175

    Ensel 62

    England

    Address to workers of . . , – – – , S6

    At odds with France 2S

    Communists in. …. *’*’

    District of – W*

    In counter-revolutionary allinnce. . .1&5, 347

    Refuses to accept deportees 212

    Entente 1*

    Episcopal Church 110

    Krickson, Charles 21

    Espionage, labor, in England…….—- 365

    Executive Committees £88

    Expenditures, excessive, damaging to the

    State 1&8, 350

    F

    Famine in Russia

    No danger of ..,..143, 177

    Famine Scout Clubs 93

    Famine Relief 33

    See also Agrarian.

    Farmers, State Credit to 19&, 351

    Appeal to wives of 177, 178, 89

    Farms, foreclosures on. , – — 10^i 251

    Farm-Labor Party

    C, P. A.. 46

    Labor Defense Council ….173-174

    Farmers National Council 4»f 46

    Federal Council, Churches of

    Christ in America – – – • 119, 187

    Federal Reserve Banking System. , 40

    Federal Trade Commission 101, 185

    Federated Press-

    F- C Howe, a contributor to * 4″

    Offices in Berlin and Moscow 80

    Organ of the Communists ->.. 70

    Promised $lno,009 151

    Raising money for.. .$2-84

    Supported by Communists I 31

    Supported by Conf. Pro. Poiit. Action 47

    Used by Third Internationale 80

    Federated Press Bulletin 181

    Federated Press League

    Objects ,.,.. I

    Financed by Otto Kahn ]40

    Initiates “Russian” dramatic propa-

    T *=»«*» ut

    Leaves parents and seven brothers and

    sisters in Berlin 14fi

    Leaves Odessa \VJ,

    Ge*r& E F ian Art Theatre:::::;: – R “2

    Gitlow, Benjamin ‘ 8B

    At Bridgman, Mich, … fl1

    Cent Ex. Com., C. P. A :!!!”” JJ

    Chairman Presidium … i£

    Illinois Fed. of Laboi* ! ,S

    Glavlit ‘ 1H *

    Godless, The .””.”‘” ‘ WV IV- –

    Gold, Michael … Frontispieej

    Golosor, Leo …. ” “J

    Golubson Berlin propaganda “official !” ! 75

    Gomez, Juan Vincente ….. aan

    Gompers, Samuel ^J

    Hatred of W. Z Foster for .V.’.W H

    Hostility of, to Trade Union Edu-

    Cational League . qfi

    Policy of *»

    Resigns from A. A. L, L 1M

    Swung labor to war £,,

    Goodman, Lena ” –, 13G

    Hauffbrauer, Leo ….,.,,…. 173

    Hauptman – – – 151

    Havana 230

    Hayes, Max S – – 173

    Hayes, Will ill

    Not popular with Charlie Chaplin…. 150

    Negotiations with Charles Recht …… 152

    Haywood, William D., (Big Bill).. 8«, 46, CO

    Health Insurance 182

    Hearst, William R 61

    Hearst’s Magazine, a publication S3

    Hedhind, Guy 1^

    Heller, Abraham Aaron

    Receives $48,000 from Berlin 74

    Helsingfors 75, “2

    Henry Curtis Dow Company ……….. 36

    Henry Street Settlement 183

    Herald, New York 144

    Herbert, French revolutionary 6, 61

    Herrin Massacres 129, ISO

    Hibben, Captain Paston, 100, 107.187

    Acts for Russian Red Cross ,..,.,.. 103
    Board of U. S. Army appointed to

    determine fitness 103

    Endorsed by friends of Sov. Russia.. 107

    Goes to Moscow 103, 104

    Organizes relief drive 103

    Praised by Izvtstio 105*

    Personal history 103

    Places a wreath on John Reed’s grave, , 107

    Plans an appeal to farmers 110

    Sails for Berlin 10*

    Soc. of American Relief for the

    Children of Russia . . 104

    Visits of artists to U. S., planned by.. 143
    I HI I man, Sidney,

    Amer. Com. Relief Russ. Child… 104

    Close to J. P, Cannon 14S

    Labor Defense Council 173

    Pres., Amal. Cloth. Workers 45

    Russian ‘Amer. Indus, Corp. ……… 181

    Russian Red Cross ……… . 104

    Statement concerning- Soviet Russia . , 104
    Hilknut, Morris

    (Misca HilkowicE) ..4fi, 61, 117, 131, 148

    Hocbxieimer 151

    Hoffman, see Morris Kushinsky.

    Hollabar, Allen .88,150

    Holland 75

    Hollywood movie colony

    canvassed foT funds , 88

    Holmes, Rev, John Haynes

    Labor Defense Council 173

    Anti-American organizations 1B1

    A. A. L- L- – 183

    Intercollegiate Liberal League 59

    In Moscow 105

    Relief for Russian Children 105

    Civil Liberties Bureau 186

    Holt, Hamilton …. 131

    Home Colony of Anarchists 94

    Home, destruction of .- 20

    Hooker, George B. B0

    Hoover, Sec’y of Commerce 102

    Hoover, John E ■ 17

    Hopkins, Prince 63, 83, 151

    Houghton, Dr. Harris A 17

    House of Commons . . 357

    Housewives ,.,… – – • 177

    Howatt, Alexander .84, 130

    Howe, Fred’k C

    Amer. Civ Lib. Union , ..* 46

    Howell, Senator (Nebraska) 49

    Huebsch, B. W 117

    Hughes, Hon. Chas. E., Sec’y of State.. 120

    Hull House, Chicago Ifll

    Hungarian Federation in America 238

    Hungarian Communist Farty 44

    Hungarian Socialist Federation &8

    Hungary,

    Revolutionary conditions in 23

    Revolution in 233

    I

    Idgeakom, see All-Russian Jewish Relief
    Committee.

    Idiot, The, a play l&l

    Illegal (No. 1) Branch, C. P. A.

    Must continue, violations of law under

    cover of, etc ^ …… • 24

    Not to be exposed. 14

    Permanency of 35

    Relations to legal (No, 3) branch 25

    To control Communist forces 137

    Illinois coal fields ‘ 29

    Illinois State Federation of Labor 132

    Imperialism, American 210, 221

    Capitalism in Latin-America 27

    India .35, 74

    Industrial Activities

    Communists in …..38, 127, 22W

    Industrial Communism and the I- W. W. 181

    Industrial Court (Kansas) 189, 250

    Industrial Unionism 32

    Industrial Workers of the World

    A criminal organisation 61

    American Civil Liberties Union 123

    Characterization by Communists 113

    Defense Committee 45

    Excluded from Conf. Pro. Polit. Action 43

    Formation of **

    Liquidation of by Communists ……. 130

    Labor Defense Council 173

    Not concerned in justice 01

    Representation at Union Convention . . 128

    Red Trades Union Internationale 131

    Represented in Workers’ Party 88

    William Z. Foster resigns fl5

    -Insinuations, into political organizations

    by C. P. A 41

    Insurance, social, by the State – – – 182

    Insurance, compulsory health 182

    Inter-church World Movement …… -.96, 119

    Intei -collegiate Liberal League

    Branches addressed by Upton Sinclair 64

    Organization of 58, 59

    Personnel of 59

    Inter-collegiate Socialist League ..,,,..46, 58

    Interlocking directorates ……….. 10

    International Association of Machinists. .44, 45

    [279]

    INDEX

    INDEX

    International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths

    and Helpers .,.,…, , . . 44

    International Brotherhood of Boiler-

    makcts 44

    Interna tic-iial brotherhood of Stationary

    Firemen and Oilers 44

    Internationale of Former Combatants. .’, ‘, 163
    Internationa] Congress of Women . 180

    International Indies Garment Workers

    Union i7r 131f i3g

    As a Jewish organization 45, 130

    Conditions in Baltimore . , r 133

    International League of Working Women 181
    International Propaganda Bureau of the

    Third Internationale ,. g£ 70

    International Secretariat of Communist

    Women (Moscow) ggo.

    Internationale Third, see Third TnternaYionate.
    International Trades Union, see Trades
    Union Internationale.

    International Oxygen Co, , 74

    Internationa? Red Crr^c /w.

    International Red Cross
    International

    99

    nonai Workers’ Famine Relief

    Committee mi jq,j

    International Women’s Suffrage” A Ilia rice 180
    Internationalism and World devolution.. 1ft
    inwood Country Club 74

    1*?**$ •; ‘:”.’. V.es, 35

    Irish-Ameraeart Labor Alliance gg

    Italian Chamber of Commerce 14*>

    Italian Workers Federation ‘ gg

    Italy _ .7.7. .S3 So

    Ivanovltch, Ivan, see Ivan Narodny,”
    Izvestia t a publication

    Member, Polit. Bureau [I

    Wife of, sister of Trotsky . ‘. .’.” ‘ lit

    KaminskVj Max , .85 II

    Kane, Francis Fisher . . 173 175 SHI

    Karolyi t ^j

    Kahub, Mrs. Martha …….. ,81, II

    Katayama 1 o ‘ 1 ■■*

    Katterfield, I,. E 7.7.7.7.’ Ill

    Keating, Edward .’ ‘ ’45 41I

    Kelley, Robert F . 8 “fi” 11* II

    Kellogg, Faul U. ,,.’., ‘jH

    Kelly, Mrs. Florence (Wishnewetzkey) . . W

    Kendrick, Senator (Wyoming) f 11

    Khinchuck, President of Centroyuz ….. Inn

    Kirchwey, Freda . iv«

    KlJefoth, A. W. 7. ‘.b , (1

    Knudson ..,.»., , . . , :

    Kolorav . , ta

    Konikow, Mrs. Antoinette F. ,.!’.!!”. 7* Art

    Kopp, Wigdor (Kopelevich) . . . ,

    Korea , . , , , , ;■:

    Korzybska, Countess (Lady Edgeriy) 7 ! ! «8

    Kovi

    ■ ■■

    105, 143

    J

    Kowalsky, Joseph [Ji

    Krassin, B ., …74 141

    Krestimky, Nicholas .”.7.77 . ‘ I “i

    Kronstadtj Fleet 1 <

    Krumbein, Charles 77."',," 81

    Kuhn. Loeh & Co '. .7.7.185. 1J*T

    Ku Klllx Klan

    Infiltration of, by Communists tOI

    Liquidation of. demanded . ..19S, Vol

    Menace to working class |f)3

    Opposition to negroes iVs, 1(H|

    Strike breaking boriv ,. . 107' j)<n

    Run. Bela, see Bela Cohen

    Kursky . 7 „

    Kushinsky, Morris (Hoffman) .. ' -[7(,

    Kttsinen ……IS, u, igg ( 194, 34^ y.„, ..

    Japan . . 23 r 7i, 104, 195, S47

    J apanophobia ….,..,,,.. ^47

    Jesus Christ Vi'fl i»i

    Jeaus-Thinkers ' {^J

    Jewish Public Committee ….. " " ini

    Jewish Barbers , ] " ^ gg

    Jewish Socialist Federation . . .7.7.7. .7.44 88
    Jewish Workers, to be organized against '

    K. K, K 191

    Jewiab Workers' Federation 7. 88 bor Bank* "

    Jews, Active in Nuclei Work i*| \l*l y^S, 'tt * a' * " * ft

    Johnson, Senator (Minnesota) % j ±r fef™- r -i ' 1M * m

    Johnson, Templeton 5* J ' a ^? t ;.. De ^ n3e „C*mncil _•■■_-■•■ 171.

    Lalior, Department of » n

    Labor, a publication .,,.,..,,, Aft If

    Labor Age, a publication ..!.'.' 4fl! 4

    Johnston, William H.

    Called a Socialist jg

    Conf. Prog. Polit. Action ..7.7 45

    Inter, Machinists Union 43

    Lauded by Socialist papers 7.41 45

    Peoples LeRis. Service 43

    Jordan, David Starr .-…,! 131

    Journal of the American Bankers

    Association .-, ^g

    Jugo-Slavia ' ai –

    Jungle, The, a film, ., .*,.""' *o

    Jury in trial of William Z. Foster …" * 309

    Justice, jpept. of …'.'.'. gig

    Kahn, Otto H.

    Backs Russian Art Theatre …. 115, 146

    Backs Chauve-Souris. 14§

    Backs Morris Gest . , 145

    Employs Paul Cravath lgg

    Kaiser, The # jg 3

    Kalinin, Mem. Polit. Bureau …7" 10

    Kamenev, Rosenfeld

    In charge of propaganda 75

    — jncil

    Cooperating Com. Defendants

    Headquarters of | ,

    Purpose of ['.'"." \'r!\

    Provisional Nat. Coin. , 77

    Labor Film MagaMm …

    Labor Film Service .. ' " ViV 1

    Lahot Film Service Co ' }

    Labor.Herald, The, a publication

    Edited by William Z. Foster ill

    Foster secures support for ……

    Trade Union Educa. League 77 M «1

    Labor Monthly, a publicatfon ……. 'bjsii

    labor News, a publication … |fl

    Labor Party CEngtand) .867 M7

    labor Publication Society , , IG 47

    Labor Eeview, a publication . mi

    Labor Temple, (Los Angeles) …. 11

    Labor Union Press, control of 300 ft||

    Ladies Waist Makers Union . .

    La Follette, Senator (Wisconsin) „..7.» fll

    La (luardia, Congressman (N. V 1 i«r

    Larsve, a publication ," ' 70

    Landia award, (Chicago) !777 1M

    Langj Joseph, see Joseph Pogany

    Lapp. Dr. John A Ir .

    ^w n 77777 1M

    I ( asky r Jesse 150

    I,athrcin, Kev. Charles M 119

    Laciti-Ameriea …. 221-KSJ2

    Communist activity in 27, SB

    Investments and strike breaking in …. 220

    Masses of B19

    Latin-America workers cannot fight alone 280

    Laughlin, J. B 47

    Lawrence, Mrs. Patrick 121

    Laws, shortcomings of our 6, 247

    League to Enforce Peace 187

    I,ee, Lila 150, 151

    Legal! Branch, (No. 3) C. P. A 220

    See also illegal branch (No. 1).

    Bulletin concerning relations , 37

    Financing of 85

    Relations of branches .,.,…,34, lS5 t 225

    Lembkin, Cyril 21

    Lenin, Nicolai 5, 10, 11

    Directs C. P. A. policies 30

    Letter to Steinnietz 60

    Writings of 63

    Orders by 101

    Lenin boys 44

    Lemer, Max 32

    Levin, Emanuel 83

    Lewisohn, Adolph 182

    Lewisohn, Alice 185

    Liberator, a publication …..79, llf>, 1SS\ 190

    Liberty, Equality, Fraternity fi

    Liebkuecht day “56

    Liggett, Walter W 09, 100

    Lillic, Francis C. 17ft

    Lillie, Mrs. Francis C. 80

    TJndgrcn, E. …-., 125

    Linville, Henry R 173

    Liquidators, not to be tolerated 38

    Literary Digest, a publication S9

    Literature, Communist, 20

    Lithuanian Relief Committee OS

    l|.itvinov

    Conducts propaganda section in Reval 75
    Member, All-Russ. Cent. F,x. Com. . . 74
    “No danger of famine in Russia” 177

    Russian Red Cross official 102

    Lochner, Louis F …79, 80, 121, 123

    Lochray, J. A 80

    Lodge, Hon. Henry C. (Mass.)

    7, 3, 9,-13, 120

    Loeb, Dr, Jacques 131

    Loeb, Moritz J. , 149, 173, 174

    London, center of propaganda in 75

    Lotfe, Ludwig 15, 03

    Los Angeles (Cal.) radical teaching in

    school of 57

    Love joy, Owen

    A. A. L. L. 13S

    Child Labor Committee 186

    Director, Nat, Inf. Bureau 136

    Wrote “Shades of Night” Letter to

    Debs 186

    Lovestone, J. (L, C. Wheat) 7

    At Bridgman, Mich .21, 22

    Author of Thesis on Relations . . . . t . 33
    African Blood Brotherhood ………. 36

    Brought $82,000 from Germany 23, 74

    Confidential bulletin by ………….. 14

    Cent. Ex. Cora., C. P. A 15

    Exec, secty., C, P. A IS

    News letter release 36, 239

    Lovett, Robert Moras,

    Amer. Civil. Lib. Union 117

    Fed. Press League . , 80

    Letter to Bruce Rogers 83

    Lozovsky . . . T ,,,,..,….,………… . 02

    Lunacharsky , , 74

    Lusk Committee (N. V. Legislature)

    Report 46, 123, 124, 182, 1S5, 186

    Mc

    McBride, Isaac 100, 101?

    McCreedy, Maud 80

    McGili, James H 100

    McKay, Claude

    McManus ,.,…,

    McMillan, E

    McKeltar, Senator (Tenn.)
    McNamaras, The

    190
    IS
    22

    4:>
    89

    M

    MacLean

    Madden, Martin B.

    Maintenance of Way Union …………

    Majestic Theatre, Los Angeles

    Ma^nes, Rabbi Judah L.

    Endorses Labor Film Service

    Mandel, Benjamin

    Mandell, Max Solomon

    Mrtnion, E. J

    Manly, Basil M ,

    Manners, Lady Diana

    Marat, French revolutionary 6

    Marks, Louis

    Marriage, church, by Communists in
    Russia . , — ………………….

    Martens, Ludwig C. A. K.

    74, 95, 100, 152,

    Marx, Karl C2,

    Marxian theory

    Marsh, Benjamin C. 43

    Marvin, Fred R. ,. .17,48,

    Masses, The 225,

    Masses, The, a publication

    Matirer, James H. 47,

    Meat Cutters Union of New York City..
    Mediation Commission in Mooney case..

    Me!fciitine t Mrs

    Mendelsohn, Dr, William . . ,

    Messenger, The, a publication

    Metaittferotla workers

    Methodist Fed, far Social Service

    Metropolitan Life Insurance Co- ..,.1B4,

    Metropolitan Opera House (N. V.)

    Mexico 71, 105, BIB, 220,

    Michailovsky, Dr. Michael 100, 101,

    Michigan, Anti-Sytidicalist laws or ..308,
    Midwest Labor News, a publication ….

    Mihelic, J

    Military Intelligence Section, U. S.

    Army -.

    Miners, infiltration of Communism

    among

    Minneapolis

    Report on labor conditions in ……. ,

    Trades Unions of, raise money, ……

    Trades and Labor Council

    Minor, Robert

    Adv. Com, Friends Sov. Russia

    At Bridgman, Mich

    Convention committee

    75

    no

    138

    151

    140

    173
    56
    4S
    ■M

    146
    61
    65

    217

    178
    67
    46
    46

    233

    136

    95

    60

    81

    93

    100

    14S

    119

    185

    145

    B31

    105

    213

    SO

    217

    134
    S3

    174

    [2801

    [281]

    INDEX

    INDEX

    Chairman, Adjustment Com. …. 24

    Ex. Com,, C, P. A 13

    letter by Albert F. Coyle to 62

    Portrait of ……. gg

    War record , , , 99

    Minorities, secretly organized . . . . . ,’&,’ 10, 16

    Mission Pictures Corporation 150

    Mitcbel, John ..„..„.„„. 145

    Mobland, a novel \ * [ ” ” $3

    Mob rule , ,…..»*,.**] 6

    Moghilevsky .””!_’_’,’ ‘,’, [ 5

    Moles, Our Bolshevist , . , , ] m ,\ 357

    Molotor ….„.,,, _ ^ j Q

    Monopoly of legality …..! 9

    Monroe Doctrine . ,’,.,.’ 321

    Montreal Trades and Labor* Council …. 98

    Mooney case Igg

    Moran, Miss , ..//. 91

    Morrow, Frank, “K97″ ..!!”! 210

    Moscow

    C P. A., reports to 181 et acq,

    kettles factional fight 3fi

    Understands situation in U. S- A 30

    World revolution in . . 7
    Moscow Art Theatre

    Managed by Morris Gest 145

    Permission for American trip 143

    Relations with Soviet Government’!,’!, 1 144

    Mosetey, C, A. . , S n

    Mount Vernon, N. Y W.V.] 12S

    Movies, Communists active in . .! 141

    Moving picture trust 1SS

    Meyer, Charles .60, 148

    Mueller, see Ivan Narodny.

    Mulattocs in U. S, . . . ign

    Murphy, Dr. Helen ” * ‘ 176

    N
    Names,

    Change of, to hide purpose

    Secret Communist party

    Napoleon, Red or Bolshevik, see’poiranV

    Joseph 7. . . .

    Narodny, Ivan; alias, Mueller,” Ivan” ivaa-
    oviteh, Jaan Siboul, Jaan Narodny..

    Nasmyth, Dr. George W

    Nation, The, a publication ,,’.’*, “,78,” 185
    National Assoc, for Advancement of

    Colored People ….
    National Child tabor Conun’ittcV * ‘ ” ” ‘
    National City Bank (N. Y )

    National Civil Liberties Bureau ! !

    National Committee for Organizing Iron

    and Steel Workers

    National Consumers League ….„.”.”

    National Croatian Society …. ”

    National Defense Committee !!!!!!!!!![
    National Federation of Federal

    Employees SB

    National Industrial Conference Board V.
    National Information Bureau …183, 184
    National Labor Alliance for Trade Re- ‘

    lations with Russia 45

    National League of Women Voters

  17. National Industrial Conference Board V.
    National Information Bureau …183, 184
    National Labor Alliance for Trade Re- ‘

    lations with Russia 45

    National League of Women Voters

    National Student Forum

    National Women’s Committee, C. P. A.!!
    Nationalization of women and children .
    Navy, U. S.

    Communists and the * , . ,

    Nuclei in , . , . , ‘ ‘ ‘ “jg’g

    Near East, situation in . . .”

    g ea V”«- s =ptt “7, 131, 149,’ IBB,

    Needle Trades Workers’ Alliance

    Negro and Comrnunism,

    31
    44

    79
    131

    ISO

    187

    130
    819
    120

    122

    isr

    98
    110

    , S3

    43

    185

    49

    180
    58
    90

    155

    158
    15ti

    ISA
    131

    Instructions concerning, from Moscow 1M

    Opposes K. K. K joj

    Organization of darker races 1 in

    Organization of , Id]

    Race struggle . , …,..!! j uj

    Race equality and pride 130 IfJl

    Nelles, Walter , pjl

    Nestor, Miss Agnes 4.6, isi, ma

    Neurath 4 w 4 v l ‘ j y

    Ncwberryism , f,g

    New Economic Policy (Nep) ,’.’.’.,’,’,.’.. 10

    New England Workers Association .’ «k

    New Majority, The, a pub. .. .80, 95, 107, 174

    New Republic, The, a publication 7b,’ inn

    New York Academy of Medicine ‘ irm

    New York City, elections in 131 vill

    New York Call, a publication n

    New York Commercial, a publication 17. lit

    New Yprk Charity Trust IHI

    Nicaragua » . .,

    Niles, Alfred 5. … u{

    Nineveh *,”!”!”””! 3]

    No More War Day ..,”,.!!’!!

    Non-Partisan League ,,, ‘ “jo j?

    And <\ R a ,.::::«, ij|

    In Dakota , . . . !r .

    Non-Partisan Relief Committee '.' .'.'.'.' i, j

    Nordling, 2eth " * Jn

    Norris, Senator (Nebraska) ,.!!!!'

    Nuclei

    Communist report to Moscow 183 •■■ ,,

    In conservative labor unions …..,., w

    In Government bureaus iflfl

    In ^English organizations .,,,, B4I

    In industry

    In Army and Navy .igg , ,.

    In Negro organizations ' Lfifl

    In England

    Nv. ltd, a publication ….. , , y,^.

    Nytio, a publication ni

    Ghernr e-i er, M

    Obregon (Mexico)

    OJisol, John G, ..*."■.""""."*

    Contract for organized Russian relief

    Russian Red Cross , ..;

    Society of Aroer. Relief for Child! "ol

    Russia

    Oklahoma Farm Labor Union . ….['.,"

    Older, Fremont

    One Big Union , .. \\\ 94

    Order of R. R. Telegraphers

    Ovellana (Guatemala)

    Organization, methods of ……

    Organization of disorder …

    Orphans of the Storm, a film

    Owens, Edgar * " 3

    La.pt. Paxton Hibhen lOS

    Contract with Dr. Dubrowsky 100

    Moneys from Art Theatre, to 143

    Relations with Soviet Government … 101

    Supported by Famine Scout Clubs … 99

    Russian Relief Association 145

    Russian Revolution, influence in

    America t t 5 jgg

    Russian Soviet Embassy .”…”.’_’ 74

    Russian Soviet Republic £) 177

    Russian Telegraph Agency ‘ 12

    Russia n-LTkrainian Workers’ Educational

    Society 93

    Ruthenberg, C. E 213

    At Bridgman Convention . . 21

    Labor Def. Coun .173, 174

    Nat Def. Com 119

    Party history 15, 107, 109, 110

    Speaks in N. Y. City 176

    Trial of, at St. Josephs, Mich. ..207, 20!)

    Ryan, Father John A. 173

    Ryckman, Judge J. H 63

    Rykov . „ . 10

    S

    Sacco and Vanzetti 80, 122, 131

    Sackin, I. M 149

    Sage Foundation subsidizes The Survey.. 185

    Sailors’ Unions , 199, 251

    St. Joseph’s (Michigan) …………… 20

    St. Louis (Missouri) 133

    St. Paul (Minn.) 52, 134

    Samuels, H. F. 4?

    San Diego (California) 82

    Sbti Domingo , , 319

    Saturday Evening Post 57

    Sayre, John Nevin ……… 17£

    Schettck, Joseph .IB

    Schlessinger, Benjamin ..,…, 47, III

    Schlossberg, Joseph . Nil

    Schneidertnan, Rose 111

    School of Thought 4rt

    Schools

    Communist, for young $(!$

    Schools and Colleges

    General conditions , 1

    Nuclei of Communists in , fit

    Support of Scholars in …..,..,,,,.. M

    Schwimmer, Rosika. , Ill

    Science of God, a film ., ,. |H

    Seamen’s Union Ml

    Search, Mabel fl

    Seattle Central Labor Council ….98, 111

    Secrecy,

    Enjoined on Communists 11,

    Of headquarters, C. P. A

    Secretary of War , , , , !

    Senate of the United States , 7, H

    September massacres H

    Severance Club, Los Angeles 81, HI

    Shatskin , it

    Sheet metal workers , it

    Shelley Club (Los Angeles)

    Slogans , 5, 16, 199, %t,\

    Stelton, (New Jersey) | n,i

    Sheridan, Claire ! M

    Shillady, John R. ……… 1 1 ;

    Shipstead, Senator (Minnesota) ff

    Siboul, Jean, see Ivan Narodny.

    Sick and Benefit organizations 9R|

    Sinclair, Upton 62, 63, 82, 148, iftl

    Slaton, John W. . . Mf

    Smith College flit

    Smith, O. L., Dist. Atty 207, Km

    Smith, Mrs. G. M. . 57, ||

    Sobelsohn, Tobiach, see Karl Radek.

    Social-Democratic parties , 19S, 1MU

    Social Service Bulletin, a publication …. Ill
    Socialism,

    First step towards Communism it

    Socialist party ……… ,29, 42, 47, 173, 17*

    Socialist-Labor party 171

    Socialist Review, a publication *(l

    Socialistic projects, government support

    Of 7

    Socialists, left wing and Boston police

    Strike 1 ■

    Socialists Consumers League N

    Society for Medical Aid to Soviet Ruubj |
    Society for Technical Aid to Soviet

    Russia 9H, 1 “‘

    Sofia.

    Soldier-Worker, a publication Lflj

    Soldiers’ Unions 199, 8M

    Solidarity, a publication 80, M

    Songs, Communist .,,,,,..■ ..,..,. n

    South America 219, SHI

    Souvarine ..,.-,,…. , , . l|

    Soviet Government of Russia

    Abandonment of Nep 1 »

    Lauded by Conf. Pro. Polit, Action… , 1 1

    Relieving presure on ……..195, 19ft, 14ft

    Relations to Third Internationale in

    Refuses to accept deportees Hit

    Soviet Government

    Establishment of in the U. S 4ft

    Soviet Russia, a publication M

    Spain

    Spartacists 1 li

    Special CuiimiiUce uf Soviet. Government

    To control immigrant actors 14*

    Spectorsky, Edith 74

    Spencer, Miss Fannie Bixby . . . — 63

    Spreckels, Rudolph … 61

    Sproul, Mrs. Marion E. …….. 55

    Stage, Communist activities concerning

    the 1*1

    Stalin 10

    Standard Oil Co 219

    Standard Steel Ca- Co 94

    Stanislavsky, Constantine ………….. 145

    State Department, see Department of State.

    State Universities, radicalism in 62

    Steel Strike Organizing Committee 94

    Steinmetz, Charles P.

    Letter to Lenin …………… — . . 80

    Stockholder, Russ.-Amer. Indus. Corp. 181

    Steklov 120

    Sterling’ bill (Congressional) 214

    Stockholm (Sweden) 75

    Stokes, Rose Pastor

    At Bridgman, Mich 21

    Araei. Civ. Lib. Union IBS

    Friends Sov. Russia 08

    Stomuniak 75

    Stone, Dr 83

    Stone, Warren S. 45

    Strikes 133

    And Communists 327

    Boston Police 155

    Chicago packing 177

    Coal and railroad (1922) 20

    General strikes ……….. .77, 129

    Mining, in England 25″8

    Strike breaking in Latin-America …… 220

    Strong, Anna Louise

    Moscow Corres., Federated Press …. 181

    Students, Russian

    Financed at Univ. of Calif, bv Moscow 65

    Sucker lists -.20, 82, 124, 175, 176, 187, 217

    Sullivan, T. R. .,.,,,, ,22, 129

    Suoma Raatagen Club 57

    Supreme Court, U. S.

    Appeals to, by Amer, Civil Lib. Union 119
    Supreme Soviet of Peoples’ Economy in

    the U. S 74

    Supreme Literature »nd Publishing Ad-
    ministration of the Russian Soviet

    Government 32

    Survey, Tke, a publication. 185

    Swabeck, Arue . . 80

    Swanson, Senator (Virginia) 40

    Swaet, Governor (Colorado) 49

    Switzerland 75

    Sydenham Hospital (New York) 100

    Syndicalism”

    By William Z. Foster 96

    Emphasizing trade unionism 30

    Opposed to patriotism 96

    Szamuelly 44

    Tacoma Central Labor Council 98

    Tactics, thesis on of 3rd Internat. . . . . . 169

    Taft, Ex-Pre& William – 46

    “Take, eat; this is my body.'” . . ..Frontispiece

    Tallentire, Norman H 22

    Talmadge, Constance 153

    Talmadge, Norma

    Appointment with Charles Recht 152

    Going to Moscow 163

    Name in Communist files 150

    Russian Fair and Ball 153

    Talue, Jaan> see Ivan Narodny.

    Taylor, John T 173

    Teachers Council of Los Angeles …… 160

    Teohtinen, Mat tie 8fl

    Terraccini . . ^ 12

    Texas Agricultural and Mechanical

    College 56

    Theatre, Communist activities in 141

    Theosophical Society – 63

    Third (Communist) Internationale 237

    Activates politics in U. S. A. 126

    Appropriates $30,000 for propaganda in

    TJ. S. 126

    Control of Paa-Amer, Com. Parties. . . 238

    Controls British Labor Party 268

    Dominates C. P. A 39

    Election of Ex. Com. 12

    .Fourth Congeeee of and Mast ^artman

    at . 190. 222

    Leadership of Negro movement 191

    Organized by Lenin

    Organizes conspiracy in England
    Proclamation of Ex. Com. of …..
    Relations to Soviet government . . .

    268
    79
    10
    IS

    15*
    26

    Relations to C. P. A.
    Seet’y of War Weeks and
    Second world congress of
    Thomas, Rev. Norman

    Amer. Civil Lib. Union 117

    Civil Lib. Bureau . 18fi

    Labor Defense Council 173

    Labor Film Service 149

    Times, New York 144. 145

    Tinglev, ^Catherine 83

    Tippeti, Tom 4*

    Tisza, Count Stephen … 183

    Toledo (Ohio) , 30

    Tom sky

    Toronto (Canada) Trades and Labor

    Council 08

    Toulouse (France) 75

    Townley

    Driven from power 42

    Non-Partisan League 43

    Trade Union Educa(i«nal_ Wuc. . .12, 10, 46

    As a Communist organization 33

    Avoiding illegal acts 28

    Bureau of R. K. workers 131, 132

    Establishment of branches 30

    Endorsed by Bed Trades Union Inter-
    national 31

    General description of 91

    Labor Defense Council 173, 174

    Organized by William Z. Foster 95

    Relations with illegal branch 14

    Represented at Bridgman Convention. ,21, 22

    Recognized in trade union work …… 28

    Trade Unionism by William Z. Foster.. 97
    Trade Unions

    As vote-getting machines 29

    Capture of by Communists 6

    Communist policy concerning . 30

    Communists active in 24, 25

    Unification of 24

    Trials, Communist, see Communist Trials.

    Trotzky h Leon (Bronstein) 5, 10, 60, 62, 332

    Agents in U. S. – – 14ft

    Truth, a publication .161, 169

    Tuel 12

    Tulsa, masacre at 101

    Turkey 74

    Tvomtes, a publication 30

    Twilight Club 74

    Tyre 194

    [284]

    [265]

    INDEX

    I N D !•: \

    U

    Underground branch, C ; P. A. ■•■•■■ fl JJ- *”

    t/nwn Record, (Seattle) a publication 80, 133

    Union Theological Seminary – “*

    United Brotherhood of Maintenance of
    Way Employees and Railway Shop

    Laborers . ■-■ 4 *

    United Fruit Co -* 1V

    United Mine Workers

    44, 127 f ISO, 131, 136, 193

    United political front *J

    United Farmers Bloc ……

    United Front .„

    Against Wall St S |J

    Fundamentals of ‘.

    Of Labor ., ■ – ■ If*

    Tactics of the – “‘

    Workers’ Party on the . * – ^

    United Hat and Cap Makers Union …. 131

    United Hebrew Trades • ■ ■ «»

    United Labor Council of America 131

    United Labor Council of hew \ork 131

    United Press – «

    United States Army, see Army.
    United States .

    Center of western capitalism -«-

    Divided into propaganda sections 13«

    Demands upon • **™

    In western propaganda section _ ‘J

    Moral annexation to Soviet Russia *J»

    United Toilers ■ ■ • ■ – ■ ■ ■ 173

    Unions, Labor

    Control of, in England ” ■ a J*

    Federation of Independent

    University of California

    University of Chicago

    University of Illinois

    University of Michigan . . °*

    University of Pennsylvania – **

    University of Wisconsin -‘ »j W

    Uruguay – – ‘ ‘ ■ ■**”

    U] Blare, a publication 76

    64

    63, 61
    61

    Van Toll, Mrs ;■■

    Van Winkle, Hotel, Los Angeles

    Vassar College

    Venezuela – ■

    Verblcn

    Vienna ■ -Jf >

    Villard, Oswald Garrison 1*1,

    Violence

    Voice of Labor, a publication ..80,

    Voluntary Parenthood League

    Von Stroheim, E«c, 83,

    Vorse, Mary Heaton 98^

    83
    81
    S2
    220
    132
    ISO
    186
    Sll
    131
    187
    ISO
    17S

    W

    Walnut, T. Henry 175

    Wagenknccht, A. S7

    Wagner, Rob ■• J58

    Wald, Lillian D m, 183. 187

    Waldman, Louis 149

    Wall Street 26, 28, 43, 164, 221

    Wallerstcin, David 175,217

    Walsh, Frank P 105, 107, 172, 173, 216

    Walton, Governor (Oklahoma) 49

    War

    Horrors of – 166

    No-More- War days 155

    War Labor Board «

    Warbasse, Dr. James P, 186

    Warburg, Felis ! ‘ ‘

    Ward, Rev. Harry F.

    Amer. Civil Lib. Union

    Letter by ■■ ■

    Washington conference • i-vv

    Washington, George, and the influence of
    the French Revolution in America . ,

    Washington University Law School ‘

    Watson, Senator (Indiana)

    Die Weber, a play ‘ ” ‘

    Webster, Mrs. Nesta

    Weeks, Hon. John W

    Weiner, M ■■ ”

    Weinstone, W. W 8H . »«

    Wellesley College ■■ H

    Wells, Hulet M –

    Wentworth, E. C “J

    West, George P. ….

    Western Federation of Miners

    West Indies

    Western Hemisphere • ‘ 1

    Wheat, L- C, see J. Lovestone.

    Wheeler, Senator (Montana) _

    White, William Allen

    White Guard Army ■- »JJ

    Whitman, Lee Fort …

    Whitney, R. M. . Copyrxght p»a$

    Whyo Gang . – •

    Wilenkin, Dr. J ■

    Williams, Albert Rhya – “‘”

    Williams, Frederick Wells

    Williams, Dean Tyrrell

    WiUhire, Mrs. Gaylord – “B, Jl

    Wilshire, Gaylord

    Wilson, Mary Lena ■

    Wilson. Woodrow .•■- «« 1

    Wing, Asa F nri

    Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.

    A. A. L. L *– 121 » l88 ‘ ‘

    Civil Liberties Union ………. l* n

    Wishnewetzky, see Mrs. Florence Kelly.
    Woman Patriot, a publication ..,.-.1 “, jl

    Women, work among 177, i

    Women’s block committee ..,..,…

    Woman’s Clubs

    171

    Women’s International League for Peace

    and Freedom ISO, 131,

    Women’s National Committee. ITU,

    Women’s Propaganda Committee. …… •

    Women’s Third Internationale –

    Women’s Trade Union League . … 4J

  18. Women’s Third Internationale
    Organized by Mrs. Raymond Robbing. .

    Objective – • ■

    Work among working women.

    Work of penetration

    Approved by National Information. Bureau 1

    Wood, L. Ho Uings worth

    Woolwine, Bist. Attorney

    Worker, The, a publication »»■

    Workers’ Control . . . .

    Workers’ Defense Union

    Workers’ Educational Association …

    Workers’ Education Bureau ‘ill

    Workers* League l ”

    Workers Party of America

    Announces a red month

    A distinct organization I

    Affiliated with Friends of So*. Russ…

    Branch of C. P. A..

    Branch of Third Internationale.

    Centrists in ♦

    Controlled by C. P. A

    Initial convention ……………… 88

    Labor Defense Council 173

    Moscow orders establishment of. 195

    On the united front 341

    Object of organization 27

    Purpose of (Uj Wore) 89

    Relations to C. P. A 13, 13

    Russian Federation of 137

    Sucker lists of ” 124

    Winning political workers ……….. 242

    Women’s branches 89

    Work of wont-ens’ branches 90

    Workers Soviet Republic in U. S. A… 35, SS7

    Workers’ World, a publication…. 185

    Working Class Women’s Block Commit-
    tees ….. 179

    Workmen’s Compensation Laws……… 1S2

    World, New York . 145

    4Vorld Congress of Juvenile Labor 66

    World Revolution

    Sympathy with Germany IS

    World Revolution, by Mrs. Nesta Webster 5 1

    World Tomorrow, a publication.. 181, 135

    World War, The 120, 213

    World War, preparing for 1&9, 251

    A communist organization 168

    World War Veterans,

    Approved by Young Workers League.. 63

    Affiliated with Amer. Civ. Lib. Union. 123

    Affiliated with Friends of Sov. Russia.. 98

    Commended by J. Lovestone 35

    Writers’ Club, Hollywood … . SB

    World Wide Soviet Republic. 157

    Wulfskeel. Kar! ,; , 20

    X, see Trade Union Educational League.

    Y
    Yale University,

    Cosmopolitan Club of . 114

    Use of radical literature \i\ il-s

    Yanishevskaya. I , 1 S7

    Yaraell, Miss Esther (1:1

    Young, Art 7^

    Young Communist Internationale 87, 08

    Young Communist League to fight the

    Church ….. .OT, 68

    Young Comrade, a publication , 94

    Y. M. C. A. 153

    Young People’s Communist League 85, 99

    Young People’s Forum, Los Angeles 88

    Young People’s Socialist League 93

    Young Women’s League 63

    Young Workers* League,

    Branch of C P. A., and aims 05, 66, 99

    Organized by Robert Minor 98

    Young Worker, The, a publication 66

    Youngstown (Ohio) 95

    Youth, a publication ,66, 68

    Yugoslavia 75

    Z
    Zagreb , 75

    Zehenergruppen (nuclei of ten) 263

    Zetkitt, Clara ,,, 12

    ZinoWev (Apfelbaum),

    All-Russ. Cent. Ex, Com 74

    Appeals to English Workers…. ST

    Chief, Central Office, Propaganda Sec-
    tion 79-

    Ex. Com,, Third Internationale .11, 13

    Instructions to C. P. A 37

    “Monopoly of legality” speech 9

    PoUtbureau i»

    Secret orders for propaganda in. Army

    and Wavy 158

    Zurich,

    A propaganda center 75

    Women’s meeting at ISO

    Dangerous elements in.
    Direct political action of-

    t2861

    [287]


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